Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank and National Bank of Abu Dhabi

Executive Summary

This research paper reviews the impact of different motivational strategies on organisational performance. The paper examines the different motivational strategies within the United Arabs Emirate’s banking sector with reference to the National Bank of Abu Dhabi and the Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank. Through primary search, the research paper established that the Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank has better motivational strategies as compared to the National Bank of Abu Dhabi. From the results of the interviews collected, the Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank had better remuneration, health work environment, employee rewards, and personal growth ladder than the National Bank of Abu Dhabi. Interestingly, the organizational performance of the Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank was also higher. Generally, the research paper established that the building blocks of learning consist of a supportive learning environment, concrete learning processes, and practices leadership that reinforce innovation as part of the motivational strategies. However, the research was entirely based on determinant of motivational strategies based on level of organizational performance.

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Introduction

Research background

Over the years companies in the UAE have implemented different motivational strategies on their employees to improve on the level of corporate performance. Among the common motivational strategies used by these companies include better remuneration, promotion, rewards, better working, environment, strong welfare pillar, and structured employee development among others. These strategies are aimed at improving the conditions of the employee in order to attract optimal output. Despite the fact that employee motivation and satisfaction are significant elements in the optimal performance matrix for an organisation, the aspect of balance has always been very challenging in most organisations in the UAE (Biswas, 2011).

Through a relevant motivation model, the concentration level should remain active in developing dependence of interest attached to an activity, creating proactive relationships, and monitoring interaction with physical aspects of team motivation (Bohlander & Snell, 2007). It is important to review the impact of these motivational strategies on performance of employee in two companies within the same industry so as to quantify the relationship between motivation and performance. Thus, this paper will review the impact of employee motivational strategies on organizational performance with reference to the Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank (ADCB) and the National Bank of Abu Dhabi (NBAD). It will utilise best motivational strategies from the two banks against their level of organizational performance.

Overview of the research companies

The National Bank of Abu Dhabi was introduced in 1968 and has grown to be the largest in the Abu Dhabi banking industry. It is a government owned banking firm. The bank has 125 branches scattered across the United Arab Emirates with more than 585 ATMs. The headquarters of the bank is at Abu Dhabi. The expansive network makes the NBAD a regional leader in comparison to other banking institutions in the UAE. Specifically, the NBAD specialises in banking services such as retail, Islamic banking, and financing investment projects within the Islamic Sheria. The bank has three building blocks of learning consisting of a supportive learning environment, concrete learning processes, and practices leadership that reinforce innovation as part of its motivational strategies (Ford, 2009). This paper will review employee motivational strategies at the headquarters branch.

Founded in 1985, the Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank (ADCB) was created following the merger of the Khaleel Commercial bank and Emirates Commercial Bank. The government has a sixty five percent control stake with the private individuals holding the remaining part. The bank has strong interest in funds management, commercial and retail investment financing, and brokerage activities. The bank has 48 branches within the UAE and three branches abroad. The headquarters of the bank is at Abu Dhabi. The company has one of the most competitive employee remuneration packages besides series of motivational strategies that are meant to facilitate employee personal growth and organizational development (Ford, 2009). This paper will review employee motivational strategies at the headquarters branch.

Research problem

Reflectively, the motivational and energy aspects of appreciation functions simultaneously at micro and macro levels to facilitate optimal functionality or productivity. When properly incorporated within and without different departmental segmentations as an active component of the company goals and vision, the complete interaction between the management and other staff will contribute to value addition, good performance, and healthy working environment. The main problem is that some motivational strategies are not effective for the employees. As a result, most organisations’ employee motivation programs may not equate to improved organizational performance.

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Motivation policies and standards come from top management. It is important to establish the strategies that may be applied by organisations to reverse the above trend. It is for these reasons that the research will attempt to provide a framework for organizational performance as directly influenced by the type of motivational strategies functioning at the Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank and the National Bank of Abu Dhabi. At the end of the research, the case study organizations, that want to improve organizational performance and increase their commitment to employee motivation, will have mechanisms that they can use to decide on the most appropriate motivational strategies.

Research hypothesis

Null hypothesis

Different motivational strategies have an influence on the quality of organisational performance in the UAE banking sector with reference to the Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank and the National Bank of Abu Dhabi.

Alternative hypothesis

Different motivational strategies do not have an influence on the quality of organisational performance in the UAE banking sector with reference to the Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank and the National Bank of Abu Dhabi.

Research aims and objectives

This study attempts to explicitly review the human resource management strategies in promoting employee motivation and satisfaction. The primary aims and objectives of this research paper will be;

  1. To provide sufficient information on human resource management strategies that ensures employee satisfaction in the two case study organisations.
  2. To establish the views of the employees of the two organisations on what is to be done to ensure that they are motivated.
  3. To establish the differences in organizational performance as influenced by motivational strategies applied by the two banks.
  4. To review the role of employee satisfaction on effectiveness of different motivational strategies that human resource departments of the two banks practice.
  5. To establish the similarities in the motivational strategies that the two banks practice and their effectiveness on organizational performance.

Research questions

  • What is the effect of employee motivation on organisational progress with reference to the Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank and the National Bank of Abu Dhabi?
  • How are the two case study organisations similar in their employee motivation programs?
  • How are the two case study organisations different in their employee motivation programs?
  • What factors of human resource management strategies are ideal in employee motivation?
  • What is the relationship between employee motivational strategies and organizational performance with reference to the two case study banks?

Significance of the research

This research will enable different organisations to create systems that ensure employee satisfaction as a prerequisite for optimal performance. The research will offer a combination of the best motivational practices that ensure optimal employee performance within the case study organisations. The research will also offer comprehensive recommendations to ensure that the employee satisfaction programs are sustainable in improving organizational performance.

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Limitations of the research

Insufficient information exists concerning different motivational strategies and their influence on effective organizational performance within the UAE banking sector. The study will not be a magic bullet in the motivational strategies and organizational performance proposal. It will only provide structures that must be combined with the values and goals of particular banks to ensure effective motivational strategies as a performance management strategy. Therefore, other banks within the UAE banking sector cannot implement the recommendations without reflecting on external and internal weaknesses in different motivational systems. If too much emphasis goes to emerging motivational trends, then the case study banks will not learn about the fundamentals of the practice that got those firms to their market positions.

Research timeline

Week 1: Research Commencement

This stage will involve reviewing the research topic and rationale for the proposed hypothesis. This stage may take one week, since choosing the topic will be dependent on available literature.

Week 2 & 3: Choosing the case study

Choosing the case study will be very challenging as research papers adopt different approaches. Specifically, I will have to choose the most convincing research variables from different research articles with a diverse approach to the research questions.

Week 4 & 5: Background research

Since materials are available for the research topic, I will have an easy time in merging the relevant material to the research question. This stage may take two weeks to accomplish.

Week 6, 7, & 8: Conducting the literature review

This stage will be very demanding, since different sources of information will be searched. The sources of information that will be probed include the internet, the university library, course notes and public libraries with relevant information on the topic of research. I will concentrate on scholarly papers, conference proceedings, and relevant books.

Week 9, 10, & 11: Conducting interviews, collecting data and analysing data

This stage will be the most difficult in the research study. I will have to balance direct interviews, questionnaires, and other methods of research to present information about the topic. Data collected through one-on-one interviews will have to be scrutinised in detail. Open-ended and closed-ended questions will be used. Each question asked will have to be comprehensive to ensure that respondents have an opportunity to give deep answers, which provide an insight into the research problem to solve through the use of Google docs software. Transcription will be done to each of the recorded interview process. For each response, from each participant, the recorded transcripts will be perused to coin relevant and most appropriate response. This part will be more time consuming than any other part of the research paper.

Week 12 & 13: Research conclusion

Emerging themes will be identified and the findings will be interpreted and related to the research question. I will have to manage the data findings and interpretation within the scope of the research topic despite any research dynamics that may arise in the process. The final study will be reviewed to confirm its comprehensiveness in answering the research question before submission.

Literature review

Management motivational theories

The main management motivational theories include the incentive theory and the arousal theory. Incentive theory apprehends the perception that an individual hold in regards to performance reward. Thus, high the motivational expectation attracts better performance of such an individual in an organization. For instance, a quantifiable paradigm shift in perception can be linked to correlation between reward and performance in an organization. The incentive theory explores the weight an individual allocates to a reward in motivating performance (Bloom and Reenen, 2010). Arousal theory functions on communication culture to create structural goals which develop norms, expectations of specific behaviour display, and appropriate guideline controlling interaction with one another. For instance, when the underlying command plans originate from the opinionated inclination of such an individual, the results would basically be aligned towards self contempt (Andreadis, 2009).

In leadership management, motivation is important and functions between individual interaction and internal attributes of the involved parties. As a component of motivational functionality, expectancy theory discusses the aspect of perception that an individual holds towards the environment of leadership and influence (Flamholtz & Randle, 2011). As a matter of fact, this theory expounds on implementation mechanism of leadership in broad environmental spectra. Proposed by Andreadis (2009), expectancy theory in leadership functionality in an organization influences the behaviour of person(s) making decision away from personal prejudice, stereotype, or emotions.

According to Bloom and Reenen (2010), expectancy theory review and offer the most ethically viable option for proactive leadership management of behaviour. This theory identifies the aspects of effort-performance expectancy, valence expectancy, and performance-outcome expectancy. The authors argue that effort-performance expectancy (E-P) apprehends the perception of an individual that can be directly correlated to performance level. This argument is supported by experience of the individual in question since performance and ethical decision making process is skewed towards experience with a situation(s). At ceteris paribus, the theory predicts better performance for the more experienced person since he or she will display higher E-P expectancy magnitude, irrespective of the field of leadership (Bloom and Reenen, 2010).

On the other hand, the aspect of performance-outcome expectancy (P-O) as part of expectancy theory apprehends the perception that an individual hold in regards to performance reward. Thus, high the motivational expectation attracts better performance of such an individual in an organization. For instance, a quantifiable paradigm shift in perception can be linked to correlation between reward and performance of an operations manager in an organization (Bohlander & Snell, 2007). The valence expectancy explores the weight an individual allocates to a reward in motivating performance. The higher the weight allocated to the expected reward, the higher the motivation of better performance when all other factors are held constant. Andreadis (2009) identifies rewards such as bonuses, salaries, recognition and promotion as determinants of ethical behaviour of individual offering services to an organization (Andreadis, 2009).

In a quick rejoinder, Huczynski (2012) argues that, “what valence a certain object or activity and partly upon the state of the needs of the person at that time” (Huczynski, 2012, p. 273). From this argument, it is apparent that low income earning staff may show higher valence than those in the apex of the organizational hierarchy who may be characterized as those experiencing actualisation on the pyramid of functionality. Besides, the target of this theory implementation is the entire hierarchy of staff members from the top management to the casual labourers at bottom of the ladder. As a result of properly structured communication ethics, the work environment becomes holistic, soft and socially friendly to the staff when valence is applied. Besides, healthy ethical communication culture creates structural goals which develop norms, expectations of specific behaviour display, and appropriate guideline controlling interaction with one another. Thus, “as saliency, time, and willingness to communicate increase, coping and constructing, further along the continuum, may be chosen” (Vaccaro et al 2012).

Montana and Bruce (2008), support Vroom’s theory of expectancy by presenting the instrumentality of the components of motivation to behave in a particular manner because of expected reward. The authors further build a behaviour leadership model involving actual and observed experiences of individuals within a similar environment and under same situation. The visual representational meaning of the memory stages conveys the relationship between the participants and the depicted structuring. The creation of a visual representational meaning proposes the space-based model for analysis cantered in the placement of objects within the semiotic space of memory. The conceptual processes define, analyse and classify places, people or things including abstract ones in the encoding process. These processes can be classified into classificational, symbolic, and analytical. The classificational categorizes people, things or places in a tree structure in which things are represented as belonging to a particular class or order in the memory (Davidson, Wood & Griffin 2009).

Motivational problems in the workplace

Workplace stress is a depression resulting from an interaction of a person to his/her work environment leading to an inability to balance work with other aspects of life and attracting systematic building up of a negative response emotionally. Causes of stress, thus referred to as stressors are elements or circumstances leading a person to anticipate a feeling of exceeding psychological and physical demands on ability to comfortably cope up with the situation (Bohlander & Snell, 2007). Though difficult to explain a definite cause, stressors mostly are associated with certain occupations like policing where fear of recurring violence, emotional repugnant scene or unstable work shifts constantly create an imbalance in the emotions and thoughts. Besides, it is also associated with physical factors at work place like heat, cold, excessive noisy environment and physiological aspects destabilizing body balance such as limited recuperating interval between work shifts. In addition, unrealistic deadlines among other excessive demanding works and personal cognitive factors inclusive of health issues, relationship, and inability to adjust to prevailing climatic order are also associated with stress (Biswas, 2011).

Stress in practicality is such a complex phenomena and it is very rare for two or more individuals to undergo through it the same way in the work environment. According to arousal motivation theory, each victim seems to display a unique sign for onset of stress and should such an individual remain silent on his/her stress, then the employer may not be in a position to know in order to assist with an alternative solution (Ford, 2009). Employer may eventually learn of the same only if in the structure of such an organization has confidence oriented systems for reassuring the victims of a comprehensive solution. As the bucket model theory asserts, stress matures up upon complete drainage of a person’s bank of personal resilience as a result of work conflicts, unfavourable working conditions, and emotionally straining assignments outweighing supportive relationships, interesting works, rest and good health. In order to control disastrous levels of stress, regulators are constantly needed (Bohlander & Snell, 2007).

Motivational strategies in the UAE banking sector

Organizations within the UAE banking sector function best when the intra and intercommunication systems are perfect. Therefore, successful organizations manage motivation continuously. The practice of motivation management involves the science of processing the needs of the employees to facilitate informed decision making among managers. To increase productive behaviour, banks in the UAE have created a healthy work environment and personal growth perspectives that apply to all situations, since the problems that each individual faces at an interpersonal level ultimately affect the group. In carrying out an in-depth enquiry to each employee’s personal life, these financial institutions endeavour to determine which behavioural therapy best suits their employees (Bolton, 2004). Thus, through properly designed training procedures, talent promotion, and motivation, productive behaviour internalisation has made these banks some of the best performers in the Middle East region.

As a result of properly structured motivational strategies, the work environment of these banks is holistic, that is, soft and socially friendly to the staff. Besides, healthy ethical communication culture has created structural goals which develop norms, expectations of specific behaviour display and appropriate guideline controlling interaction with one another (Gooderham & Nordhaug, 2003). Thus, “as salience, time, and willingness to communicate increase, coping and constructing, further along the continuum, may be chosen” (Modaff, DeWine & Butler, 2008, p. 23). Aspired ideals of a stable organizational communication model include the need for an organization to strive to develop a good culture by fostering a strong alignment with the monitored path of achieving its goals, missions and vision. The model has written rules of engagement, expected behaviour, and repercussions for deviation. Thus, the concept of motivation within the UAE banking sector may be described as satisfactory (Dasgupta, Suar, & Singh, 2013).

The part of principles in an effective organizational motivation model encompasses laid down rules to enable the organization to be more efficient. This is in the form of a well organised hierarchy of workforce from management with administrative roles to service providing workers (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2007). Managers are empowered by the organization’s constitution to perform the role of prefects and offer leadership solutions upon consultation with one another. To control group behaviour, desirable leadership attributes are necessary, which are possessed by the managers gained over time in experience (Janus, 2008). Therefore, “strategic motivational planning consists of one overarching principle and three separate strategies, or practices: contain, cope, and construct” (Modaff, DeWine & Butler 2008, p. 21). Whenever there is a strong professional relationship nurtured on the values of appreciation and respect within an organizational motivation model, hidden talents are easily displayable for business sustainability and improved performance (Janus, 2008). In fact, banks in the UAE such as the Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank and the National Bank of Abu Dhabi have recorded impressive organizational performance. This paper will attempt to relate this performance on their motivational strategies.

Research Methodology

Research Approach

This research will be conducted using research survey study approach. The researcher chose the qualitative approach rather than a quantitative because the scope of the research is focused, subjective, dynamic, and discovery oriented. The qualitative approach is best suited to gain proper insight into the situation of the case study. Besides, qualitative data analysis is more detailed than quantitative one. Moreover, this approach will create room for further analysis using different and divergent tools for checking the degree of error and assumptions limits (De-Rada, 2005). The researcher will use direct interviews with open-ended and close-ended questionnaires to target respondents.

Data that will be collected through one-on-one interviews will be scrutinized in detail. Through open-ended and closed-ended, each question asked was comprehensive to ensure that respondents had an opportunity to give deep and answers that provide an insight into research problem solution through the use of Google docs software. Transcription will then be done to each of the recorded interview process. For each response, from each participant, the recorded transcripts will be perused to coin relevant and most appropriate response. Factually, instances of divergent or convergent opinions by one or more respondents will be marked appropriately (De-Rada, 2005).

Use of the qualitative research approach will facilitate understanding of the individual attributes that contribute to performance as influenced by the motivational strategies. Attributes of the subjects under study will be qualitatively studied through observation where the researcher will collect data using an observation schedule during the interview process. This will allow the researcher to enter observed qualitative behaviour indicative of lack of motivation in an organization. Quantitative methods used in this study will generally apply in the analysis of the collected data where analytical tools such as ANOVA and correlation methodologies will be used. These methodologies will help in identification of statistical patterns in the data on motivation collected from organizations using questionnaires and interviews (Janus, 2008).

In order to collect the data necessary for this study, several steps will be taken to ensure that appropriate care is taken to protect the participants. The participants will be given consent forms which outlined the topic of discussion and any relevant information that the participant might need before agreeing to be interviewed. Once consent is obtained, interviews will set up with the selected participants, in which the author of this study will act as the interlocutor with the participant, giving semi-structured individual interviews that will be conducted in the English language so that communication is given depth (Denscombe, 2002).

Questionnaires will be designed to collect fundamental factors about business motivation dynamics. Questionnaires undertaken will be 10 in number. Some of the questions in the questionnaire will require the employees and employers in the organizational fraternity to state what affects their mode of performance in relations to motivation. The questionnaires will have an open section where the employees and employers will discussed their experiences when performing duties.

Research Samples

Sampling

This research will target managers and employees randomly chosen from Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank and the National Bank of Abu Dhabi, since they have the knowledge of the strategic planning and systems management strategies that regulate the effectiveness of motivation on performance. A sample space of 10 participants will be interviewed. The sampling criterion that will be used in the initial sampling plan represents the true picture of the activities on the ground. To begin with, the sampling plan considers several employees and concentrates on different shifts. Besides, it is not bias, since the results generated are from different sampling units with a sample space of one. Moreover, adaptation of this sample plan as authentic would not compromise the aspect of comparative study in decision making, that is, it gives room for comparison to another set of data (Denscombe, 2002).

Sampling Formula

n=N/ (1+N (e2))

Where:

  • n = sample size
  • N= Target population
  • e= Degree of freedom

n=10/ (1+10*0.052)

n=10/1.075

n= 7.907

Data analysis

The data analysis is made from the primary data which is collected through the questionnaires by the researcher. The collected data is quantitative data which support the aim of this research. The collected quantitative data will be coded and passed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version seventeen. In the process, cross tabulation will be used to compare and contrast perception on the motivation and the actual position of the same in the Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank and the National Bank of Abu Dhabi. In order to quantify the relationship between the independent and dependent variable, analysis will be essential besides figures, charts, and tabular representation of correlation analysis (Denscombe, 2002). The collected data are presented through the charts and pie charts in chapter four data analysis.

Generalisability and vigour

This sample chosen for survey presents clear, scientific and verifiable criteria for making decisions in the dynamic banking sector of the UAE Putting into consideration the above strengths, it is more representative of the sample space chosen randomly within a specified interval. Reflectively, this will permit comparative research, especially when the qualitative design is adopted to give room for testing accuracy and degree of biasness (Kothari, 2004).

Validity and reliability

Validity and reliability determine the accuracy of collecting data in research. In order to achieve validity in the questions presented in the questionnaire, it is essential to carry out question pre-testing (Groves et al. 2009). The mixture of questionnaire and direct interview will present a number of pre-specified competencies and best practices based on findings from a review of literature, and participants will be asked to indicate which of the practices they use or rely on most. Some items may be listed for comparison and respondents asked to rate them in terms of frequency of use in order to gather their relative importance. Some basic information will be requested to identify demographic characteristics of the sample and to confirm eligibility of respondents with respect to meeting criteria for participation (Kothari, 2004).

The researcher will send the questionnaires the targeted companies and schedule direct interview with participants who are flexible and can afford a fifteen minutes break to answer the interview questions. In the collection of data procedure, the research will adopt a drop and pick module for the sample population. Each respondent will be given a time frame of a week to respond to questions in the questionnaire. Where necessary, further clarification will be accorded to participants (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2009).

Ethical considerations

During the data collection phase of this study, the researcher will strive to uphold ethics appertaining to scientific research. This will be pursued through inclusion of an informed consent form in the interview and questionnaire which the units being studied will be required to read understand and consent to before the study commences. Additionally, authorization for conduction of this study will be sought from relevant authorities to ensure transparency. Similarly, the researcher will ensure confidentiality of the subjects included in this study by insisting on their anonymity where each subject will be identified using a unique as opposed to use of names. The data collected will not be used for any other purpose rather than for which it was primarily intended for (Kothari, 2004).

Addressing the ethical concerns

The researcher has prior training and experience in data collection and analysis at the college level. Credibility is enhanced by adopting distinct quantitative and qualitative approaches to gathering data and reporting findings. Transferability of the results is theoretically possible by gaining a sufficiently large sample that will be representative of the population of employees and employers in organizational settings, but given that the data will be gathered from tow organizations transferability may not be likely (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2003; Kothari, 2004).

The researcher will be fully involved in preparing both quantitative and qualitative research phases, implementing the survey and interviews, and analysing the data gathered. A sense of neutrality will be maintained and the researcher will conduct research as an explorer whose goal is to establish the link between employee performance and motivational strategies that organizations implement. It will specifically seek to gain insight from employees and employers who are the subjects of motivation, as this will enable the researcher to gather views about differences that may exist between how these two groups interact as well as gain knowledge about two quantitative questions that the research will use (Kothari, 2004). The question is;

What is the motivational strategy that your bank practices to ensure that you perform optimally?

The null hypothesis to be tested will be the following:

Null hypothesis: Different motivational strategies have an influence on the quality of organisational performance in the UAE banking sector.

The questionnaire survey for the quantitative phase will help identify which competencies and best motivational practices are most common while the interviews during the qualitative phase will help focus on actual motivational methods used based on a few real cases. Two qualitative questions that the researcher will use are:

  1. What is the relevance of the motivational strategies in different organizational performance systems within the UAE banking sector?
  2. How effective is the role of motivational strategies in performance sustainability as a human resource management strategy within the UAE banking sector?

The first qualitative question addresses the qualitative phase of the research and is intended to understand how motivational strategies are applied in general within the Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank and the National Bank of Abu Dhabi. The second qualitative question should identify the perceptions of the employees and the managers on the organizational motivation in performance sustainability in their organizations. The quantitative phase of the study will involve administration of questionnaire survey to identify existing motivational strategies and their effectiveness in the UAE banking industry (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2003).

The qualitative phase of the study will use open-ended interview questions. One-on-one semi structured interviews allow for presentation of open ended questions which attract diverse open ended answers. This is a plus on side of the interviewer who will have an opportunity to gather expansive answers as the respondent has freedom of speaking widely on problem statement. In the process, the respondent may in fact, provide an insight into a forgotten aspect of the study aim. Thus, a pilot study will be carried out which represents 10 percent of the population of the study. This is necessary as a precaution against using a data collection tool in full research before determining its relevance and efficiency. Demographic information will include areas of content expertise, length of experience in related field of work and current performance grading (Kothari, 2004).

ANOVA analysis

Analysis of variance focuses on establishing the differences between the means of data collected from the targeted organizations. The analysis focuses on the disintegrating the variation among and between groups. Therefore, ANOVA analysis will attempt to establish if there exists a statistical equality between the mean of the two groups of data. The first element of ANOVA is that it measures the variations between groups. This part will entail computing the difference between the mean for each of the financial institutions and the mean for the population. It is often denoted as

. The second element is the variation within the institutions. This looks at the differences between the value of the institutions and their average. The second part is denoted as

. The subsequent sections will carry out the ANOVA analysis of the two organizations (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2003).

Hypothesis statements for ANOVA analysis

Null hypothesis

Ho: µ1 = µ2

The null hypothesis implies that the mean of the sample selected on the impacts of motivational strategies for one organization is equal to the

mean of the other organization within the UAE banking sector.

Alternative hypothesis

Ho: µ1 ≠ µ2

The null hypothesis implies that the mean of the sample selected on the impacts of motivational strategies for one organization is not equal to the mean of the other organization within the UAE banking sector.

Scope of the study

There is need to concentrate a research on a specific target of audience. This is what is referred to as the scope of the study in an academic research work. Generalization of research findings only apply within the scope of the study. The main target sector in this survey comprises of players within the UAE banking sector. The main aim is to analyse the degree to which different motivational strategies influence the quality of organisational performance in the UAE banking sector with reference to Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank and the National Bank of Abu Dhabi. This means that all findings and recommendations will be limited to the different motivational strategies within the UAE banking sector.

Research Findings and analysis

This chapter reviews the findings of the research and offers a comprehensive analysis within the scope of the study. The response rate was 100%. All the respondents filled their questionnaire survey forms on time. This is summarized in the tables below.

Respondent groups Number Percentage (%)
NBAD respondents 5 50
ADCB respondents 5 50
TOTAL 10 100

(Summary of variable dynamics of respondents: Source; Self generated).

Summary of response to close-ended questions

Question No Strongly disagree %) Slightly
Disagree (%)
Neutral (%) Slightly agree (%) Strongly agree (%)
Q1 0 0 16 16 68
Q2 0 8 16 42 32
Q3 10 20 0 30 50
Q4 10 20 0 30 50
Q5 5 5 10 30 50
Q6 0 15 5 20 60
Q7 0 10 10 60 20
Q8 0 10 10 50 30
Q9 0 0 10 70 20
Q10 0 0 10 10 80

The data

This section provides a summary of data that is used in the analysis. A sample of 10 people was interviewed to give their opinion on the impact of the motivational strategies on the effectiveness of organizational performance. The table presented below gives a summary of the of the number of respondents, mean, standard deviation and the ranking of the four management styles used in the analysis.

Motivational strategy Sample size Mean Standard deviation Rank
Remuneration 10 5.2939 0.9095 1
Good work environment 10 4.8559 1.1121 2
Structure for growth 10 4.4896 0.8644 3
Attractive rewards and bonuses 10 4.1757 1.1321 4

The table below shows that the remuneration strategy has the highest mean of 5.2939 while attractive rewards have the least mean of 4.1757. This implies remuneration strategy is the most predominant motivational strategy in the two banks. Further, attractive rewards and bonuses is the least popular strategy. Further, the standard deviation shows that there is less variation of the values observed from the mean. This implies that the respondents were consistent in their responses.

Which motivational strategies are prevalent in the UAE banking sector?

There are various indicators that give information on the quality of organizational motivation on performance. Some of these indicators are indicated in the table below.

Effectiveness of motivational strategies Sample size Mean Standard deviation Rank
Employee satisfaction 10 4.8094 1.2331 1
Financial strength 10 4.6698 0.9622 2
Corporate image 10 4.5584 1.5671 3
Growth of revenue 10 4.5383 1.2139 4

(Source: Self generated).

Based on the data collected from a sample of 10 employees, it can be noted that employee satisfaction as a result of motivation had a high mean of 4.8094. This shows that it is a good indicator of effective organizational performance. This is followed by financial strength and corporate image. Growth of revenue had the lowest mean. This implies that it is the weakest indicator of effective organizational motivation. The standard deviations are also quite low. This implies that the results provided by the respondents are consistent.

Correlation analysis

Correlation analysis measures the degree of association between two variables. The null and alternative hypotheses are presented below.

Ho: There is significant relationship between organizational motivation strategies and organizational performance

H1: There is no significant relationship between organizational motivation strategies and organizational performance

The table presented below gives the results of correlation matrix between management style and communication effectiveness.

Organizational performance Remuneration Good work environment Structure for growth Attractive rewards and bonuses
Organizational performance 1
Remuneration 0.678
Good work environment 0.652 1
Structure for growth 0.439 (0.467) (0.385) 1
Attractive rewards and bonuses 0.498 (0.457 (0.397) 0.309 1

In the table above, it can be observed that there exist a positive relationship between the four types of motivational strategies and organizational performance. Remuneration had the highest coefficient (0.678) followed by good work environment (0.652), structure of growth (0.498), and rewards or bonuses (0.439). The positive relationship shows that motivational strategies have a positive impact on organizational performance.

What is the relationship between motivational strategies and organizational performance?

A multivariate analysis was used to test the differences and relationships in motivational strategies between Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank and the National Bank of Abu Dhabi in the UAE banking sector. The two banks are private companies that are partially owned by the government. The table presented below gives information on the motivational strategies that are prevalent in the two banks.

Motivational strategy Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank National Bank of Abu Dhabi
Mean S.D rank Mean S.D rank
Remuneration 5.21 0.74 2 3.42 1.53 4
Good work environment 5.62 0.31 1 4.21 1.04 3
Structure for growth 4.73 1.24 4 6.45 0.75 1
Attractive rewards and bonuses 4.92 1.05 3 5.72 1.15 2

Based on the mean standard deviation presented in the table above, it can be observed that remuneration is the most predominant motivational strategy among the privately owned banks in the UAE banking sector.

Variable F-ratio Degrees of freedom P-value
Motivational strategies in the UAE banking sector 4.21 7.102 0.001
Analysis of the indicators
Employee satisfaction 9.42 194 0.000
Financial strength 6.92 194 0.004
Corporate image 4.49 194 0.038
Profitability 3.56 194 0.091

In the table above, the F-value is 4.21 while the P-value is 0.001. The null hypothesis will be rejected at the 99 % confidence level and this confirms that the indicators for determining effectiveness of motivational strategies differed across the two companies.

How are the two case study organisations different in their employee motivation programs?

The subsequent sections will carry out the ANOVA analysis of the two companies.

Hypothesis statements for ANOVA analysis

Null hypothesis

Ho: µ1 = µ2

The null hypothesis implies that the mean of the sample selected on employee motivation for the Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank is equal to the mean of the National Bank of Abu Dhabi

Alternative hypothesis

Ho: µ1 ≠ µ2

The alternative hypothesis implies that the mean of the sample selected on employee motivation for the Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank is not equal to the mean of the National Bank of Abu Dhabi

To reject the null hypothesis, the value of F- calculated should be greater than the value of F – critical.

Data collected

The data collected for employee satisfaction for the two companies is presented in the table below.

Employee satisfaction
Sample Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank National Bank of Abu Dhabi
1 33.6 66.4
2 39 71.8
3 27 59.8
4 42.3 75.1
5 51.3 84.1
6 49.4 82.2
7 64 96.8
8 58.1 90.9
9 26.6 59.4
10 28 60.8

The data of employee satisfaction can be presented in the line graph as illustrated on the chart below.

  • National Bank of Abu Dhabi
  • Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank

The line graph for the two companies tends to follow the same trend. It is an indication that the factors that affect employee motivation in the industry tend to be similar. This is consistent with the literature review discussed in the earlier sections. Thus, based on the factors, it can be observed that the employees at National Bank of Abu Dhabi are less motivated than the employees at Abu Dhabi Commercial bank.

Descriptive analysis

Based on the data provided in the table above, it can be observed that the employee motivation for employees at Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank is higher than that at the National Bank of Abu Dhabi. The table presented below shows the descriptive statistics that reveal more information on the data of employee motivation for the two banks.

National Bank of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank
Mean 4.80375 Mean 7.29125
Standard Error 1.620773416 Standard Error 1.703237046
Median 6.4 Median 9.2
Mode 6.6 Mode 9.4
Standard Deviation 4.49663814 Standard Deviation 5.23421527
Count 10 Count 10

On the table presented, it can be observed that the average employee motivation in Abu Dhabi Commercial bank (7.29) is higher than the average motivation in National Bank of Abu Dhabi (4.80). Despite the high difference in the mean of the two companies, it can be observed that the standard deviation and the variance of the two companies are almost equal. The standard deviation and sample variance for the National Bank of Abu Dhabi and Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank are 4.50 and 5.23 respectively. This indicates that the two companies have relatively the same degree of variation from the mean.

Discussion and recommendations

From the above analysis, it is apparent that motivational strategies such as remuneration, good work environment, structure for growth, and different rewards are critical towards improving organizational performance. It is apparent that the Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank has better motivational strategies that the National Bank of Abu Dhabi. This is attributed to better organizational performance at the Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank. It is clear that the success of a firm’s productivity depends on organization of the human resource management, in terms of motivation (Paul, 2010). The Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank has a flexible motivational regime as compared to the National Bank of Abu Dhabi. Reflecting on Lewin’s three-step theory, the unfreezing, transformation, and refreezing determine the level of performance in an organization (Lipshitz, Friedman, & Popper, 2007). According to this theory, the first step involves realization that a challenge exists in the organization. The second step involves transformation of this challenge into a development goal after which implementation step concludes by developing a solution for the challenge through motivation.

Therefore, the best way to motivate the employees in the UAE banking sector is by giving them responsibilities for achieving something and the authority to do it in their own way. Through this approach, employees will be empowered and they will feel trusted and valued by the management personnel and the company. Naturally, human beings would wish for motivation through mutual consent and internalised empowerment and appreciation (Miller, Mauthner, Birch, and Jessop, 2012). Empowerment unleashes plenty of energy and motivation. Reflectively, the motivation and energy aspects of appreciation function simultaneously at micro and macro levels to facilitate optimal functionality or productivity (Modaff, DeWine, & Butler, 2008). Empowering the employees will ensure a stable and sustainable win-win situation as employees will be motivated to work without much supervision from the management or their supervisors.

Job testing is an important concept in the discipline of Human Resource Management in job selection process, especially in hiring candidates for specific job descriptions. Getting the right individuals for employment is critical to achievement of an organization’s goals (Olmstead, 2002). In fact, comprehensive and unprejudiced details of applicants’ competence and behaviour would be an important value in the testing for selection procedure, especially to employers who provide job description to applicants. As opined by Maslow, in the hierarchy of needs theory, “primary needs are basic before tertiary needs and must be addressed in that order” (Biswas, 2011, p. 36). The needs include safety, physical needs, love, self esteem, and room for actualisation.

Job satisfaction is as a result of a systematic and continuous environmental and personality interaction that fosters the right attitude as indicated in the objectives of this company. In the case of the UAE banking sector, social and highly skilled employees should be allocated the right duties than keeping them in a secluded environment. When assigning duties, personality checks will be necessary to promote self satisfaction while the same time, improve performance (Saari & Judge, 2004). In addition, periodic self evaluation and interdepartmental rotation will ensure change of environment. This is summarized in the table below.

Strategy Goal setting Feedback Channel Exception Criteria Evaluation Criteria
Empowering employees to participate more in the production process Setting attainable assignments and allowing employees to consult on the same Creating interactive sessions for the workforce Establishing the organization culture and ethics Review of performance periodically after every stage of training
Creating more motivational programs involving team work activities Fixing motivational programs in annual calendar Performance comparison between teams Defining limits for responsive training Testing team spirit and insight

The strategies in this plan require the organisation to take a collaborative perspective in dealing with the subject matter. In essence, this aspect means that the plan requires the management of the organisation and the staff to work together at various levels. The main requirement for the creation of such a set-up is an exchange of information and knowledge relevant to the project. Actualisation of the tactics that this plan proposes requires the management of the organisation to work closely with the staff and allow the staff freedom to associate with clients and form networks with other organisations as they accomplish their duties (Modaff, DeWine, & Butler, 2008). It also enables the staff at the organisation to seek advice and any other forms of aid. Lastly, the organisation will apply the use of service-for-service method. The method is an innovative way through which the organisation can greatly reduce redundancy among the employees since the motivational strategies will boost employee performance.

Area of future research

The focus of this research was based on the impact of different motivational strategies on the effectiveness of organizational performance within the UAE banking sector. The research was entirely based on determinant of motivational strategies based on level of organizational performance. Thus, little is mentioned on policy constraints and planning rationale on the type of motivational strategy. Hence, further study should be carried out on to incorporate policy constraint and planning rationale before making an inclusive conclusion on the level organizational performance as determined by different motivational strategies (Sarwar & Abugre, 2013; Society for Human Resources Management, 2011).

Conclusion

Conclusively, this research paper was largely depending on quantitative data collected via use of close ended questionnaires. The target population was contacted through physical interaction. The study attempted to identify the motivational strategies at the National Bank of Abu Dhabi and Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank within the financial service industry in UAE. The ANOVA analysis revealed the ratio of the standard deviation of the two companies as 0.9516:1. Reflecting on the previous scenario, it is apparent that lower level of organizational performance at the National Bank of Abu Dhabi is as a result of improper staffing conditions and partial inconsistency in training. However, it is clear that the same can be reversed by designing a proper staffing strategy that is inclusive of employee motivation, training, and qualification before assigning relevant duties.

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