Challenges for International Police Officers in Reforming the National Police Force

Introduction

Since the mid 1990s, there have been a number of agencies including the United Nations, NATO and the European Union involved in reforming the police forces across several post-conflict regimes. Many techniques have been extensively used by international special interest groups in the fight for police reforms and this has included such approaches as creating new police forces straight from scratch or reforming the already existing ones by policy creation and reformation. This research will study the role of International Police Advisors (IPA) in promoting reforms of the domestic police forces in post-conflict settings by discussing the challenges of IPA in imposing police reforms, changes to policing through training by drawing from the case studies of policing reforms in various jurisdictions.

Get your customized and 100% plagiarism-free paper on any subject done
with 15% off on your first order

Topic Selection

The topic selected for this research paper is The Challenges and Suggestions for International Police Officers in Reforming the National Police Force in a Third World Country – Analysis of the Impact of Training. It is chosen because of its appropriateness and richness in corroborating sources and theories in its discussion. In post-conflict environment – which is an environment that is recovering from conflicts of some sort like ethnic wars, political in-fighting or socio-economical inequalities, where there is no proper police service in existence or where such service is impacted negatively by the “historical and political” influences of the erstwhile regime, there is bound to be enormous challenges (Call & William, 2009).

There will be many immediate challenges in the form of recruitment, training, promoting leadership, logistics issues, general administrative matters, improving facilities, investigations, normal police operations, and in some cases community Policing (Lei, 2009). There will be the need for training and advising the national or domestic police officers as in other areas such as counter-terrorism, human rights lobbyism, transit and many other important disciplines to ensure law and order is maintained in the country. It is also essential that the reforms are carried out and a functional management structure is established within a short period. This justifies the presence of international police advisors, from different parts of the world and to regulate the “norms, practices and rules of conduct (Call & William, 2009). In many of post-conflict environment lack of international police standards, continuity of the service of international police advisors and lack of adequate resources, add further complexity to an already complex situation.

Eventually, the international police officers with their training contribute largely to the reforming the national police force. There are a number of challenges faced by the international police advisors in this respect. Studying these challenges based on case studies of national police reforms in different jurisdictions and presenting some suggestions for improving the contribution of international police advisors in this respect, which is the central focus of this research. The research analyzes the impact of training to the national police force to improve their performance, by referring to the challenges and suggestions made by the current research. The findings of this research will add to the exiting knowledge on training and contribution of IPA in the reform of national police forces.

Role of International Police Advisors

The issue of reforms in international police and security has gained attention from the policymakers only recently over the last two decades. Since the 1990s, efforts on reforming the national policing systems have been undertaken in many countries like East Timor, El Salvador, Namibia and Northern Ireland (Bayley, 2006). The increased scope of police reform missions was been matched by an expansion in the types of police reform missions. Traditionally the exercise of police reform was considered as a mere capacity-building exercise during the Cold War period. In the place of light advisory services, large and comprehensive executive operations in different geographical locations like Kosovo.

Police reform has been re-conceptualized, perceived as an important element within international efforts to assist failed or failing states, secure the consolidation of emerging democracies, and promote the secure environment considered necessary for socio-economic development. Most importantly, it is now considered an essential ingredient for post-conflict recovery. (Royal United Services Institute, 2010, p. 156)

Our academic experts can deliver a custom essay specifically for you
with 15% off for your first order

There are different actors engaged in the International Police Advisory service, with the United Nations as the largest single provider of assistance in the area. The field of IPA is growing more diverse with number of non-governmental organizations and private sector companies entering the service. Bayley (2006) estimates that United States spends an estimated amount of US $ 750 million a year on different programs that contributes to the development of police forces in several countries.

There are different areas where the IPA might face challenges in reforming the police forces in the post-conflict scenario. These include (Bieber, 2010):

  1. Penalizing including removal of police officers who were involved in human rights violations during the conflict,
  2. Transforming the former combatants and transition them to civilian jobs including police jobs,
  3. Increasing the minority members in the police force,
  4. Providing a secure environment where elections can take place,
  5. Reforming the structure of the police force to reinforce the political structure and
  6. Professionalizing and reforming the policing practices which the IPAs have to consider taking efforts to meet these challenges.

Abridged Literature Review

There is no extensive past literature on the police and justice reform, from which much information can be drawn on best practices. This is because most of the police prior to the 1990s focus more on comparative criminology (IPA Policy Report, 2006). There has been a continuing growth in expertise and authorities pertaining to police reforms and this is attributable to human rights activists’ and civil military scholars’ hitherto interest and revived involvement in issues of police reforms (IPA Policy Report, 2006). Consequently, there is only scarce literature available on police reform, from a developmental perspective. It is important to perceive that police assistance in a society extends to several areas other than the traditional economic development programs (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2008).

Organizational theory stresses the significance and contribution of leadership from the top in change management (IPA Policy Report, 2006). Under such circumstances, the existing organizational culture and hierarchy is likely to deter the impact of new teachings. Such a situation has been observed in many of the military reform measures in the United States during the Cold-War period. In addition, starting the reforms from the lower positions will possibly create a vacuum of leadership, which will affect the efficiency in the performance of the entire force. Holdovers from the previous force are most likely to exploit such a situation. Haiti is a typical example of where this problem was witnessed. There was an observable rise in crime occasioned by delays in recruiting mid-level officers a move whose corollary was leaving the new office inexperienced leadership and less capacity to deal with emerging challenges (IPA Policy Report, 2006, p 8). This will undermine the long-term institutional development of the police force.

The above notwithstanding, there are recent literature that focuses more on the nature of many tasks that need to be performed in peace operations in the post-conflict scenarios. For example, Stedman, Donald & Elizabeth (2009) emphasize on the different aspects such as “disarmament and demobilization, economic reconstruction, elections, human rights, policing and local capacity building” (p.345). Reform of the police force within a country (especially a third world country) cannot be developed purely indigenously. The country has to import ideas in current international policing fraternity and scholarly circles from the developed nations. It is further imperative for experts in international policing sector to actively participate in these reform initiatives to a large extent. Karstedt (2009) observes exchange of ideas of the modeling of rules and norms from one jurisdiction to another are not new.

We’ll deliver a high-quality academic paper tailored to your requirements

In the field of policing studies, the issue of rendering international police advisory service has been based on the discussion on the ways in which the police reform in the transitional societies and post-conflict settings can be undertaken. These discussions are based on policy convergence in the field of policing which is termed as “transitional policing.” Though scarce, past literature has focused on the challenges confronted in the democratization of police institutions in emerging nations in the post Cold War environment (Neild, 2010; Call & William, 2009). Bayley (2009) greatly contributes to this topic and especially the area of ‘politics and technical practicalities’ that is involved in attempting to reform police agencies in post-conflict settings. In his recent paper on transnational police regimes, Marenin (2006) provides most explicit engagements with the diffusion of policing policies in different social settings across national borders (Marenin, 2006, p. 23).

Nevertheless, the increasing recognition of the importance of reforms in the national policing force has not been matched by academic interest. Especially the role of International Police Advisors in the national policing reforms has not been studied extensively. Peake and Marenin (2008) state that police studies have remained as “a relatively lonely furrow ploughed by only a few academics” (p.61). Before the early 1990s, studies have mostly been confined to the field of comparative criminology. Since then there has been a shift in the focus from the mere capacity building exercise to more fundamental reforms. In this context, the current research attempts to study the role of international police advisors in assisting the national policing reforms and the impact of training the advisors in improving their performance in this respect (Zikmund, Babin, Carr & Griffin, 2010).

Brief Description of Research Method Adopted

Since the research aims at determining the role that International Police Advisory plays in governmental management and improvement of democracy in developing countries, the data collected in this study consisted of primary data and secondary data. Each research objective therefore utilized varying proportions of each form of data.

The specific research method chosen for this study was survey research. Bless and Higson-Smith (2008) state that a descriptive survey approach is used to study, to describe, to explore and to analyze relationships among geographically gathered subjects. Thus a survey was the most appropriate method to capture and compare the probable effects that IPA may have in government reforms and democracy in the said areas. The study in doing so, adopted a quantitative approach, as socio-economic, political and cultural parameters can be assessed using empirical data (Yin, 2006). Therefore a quantitative approach was found to be the best suited approach in meeting the research objectives, as it aims at gathering, analyzing and measuring data from a large sample to test the relation between different variables. Stratified and simple random sampling procedures were used in selecting the study sample. Stratified random sampling was used to ensure subgroups in the population were proportionally represented (Denzin & Lincoln, 2007) while simple random sampling was used to select respondents within the subgroups entirely on the basis of chance.

Primary and secondary data was also collected in this study. Primary data was collected by questionnaires, which included structured and unstructured questions, and interviews, which were used to collect data immediately. Secondary data was collected through a review of published and unpublished materials, such as articles, seminar papers, government policy papers, conference proceedings, business journals, textbooks, statistical abstracts, newspapers and periodicals. Secondary sources were useful as the suggestions of different authors on the research topic could be adopted and/or modified to recommend the way forward for IPA influence in the said field (Creswell, 2009).

The main research approaches within social science, according to Yin (2006), are qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative research aims at gathering, analyzing and measuring data from a large sample to see if there is any relation between different variables. Qualitative research focuses on gaining a deeper understanding of a problem, by collecting and analyzing data on ideas, feelings and attitudes. According to Sarantakos (2010), qualitative research methods are mainly phenomenological, and that the purpose of qualitative research is to understand the current situation from the participants’ perspective. Conversely, quantitative research is more concerned with quantifying data collected through research methodology. According to Creswell (2009) it examines and interprets data that is quantifiable, measurable and finite. Data in quantitative research is acquired by testing, experimentation and calculation and the results are often displayed statistically (Bouma, 2010).

Two common research approaches are the inductive approach and the deductive approach. In the inductive approach, the researcher makes specific observations from the collected data and arrives at a new theory by observation and hypothesis. Conversely, the deductive approach begins the research process by reviewing and gathering theory, and then collecting data and drawing conclusions. However, these two research approaches are not mutually exclusive; hence a research study may have elements of both (Creswell, 2009).

Taking the above into consideration, the current study adopted a quantitative approach, as socio-economic and political parameters can be assessed using empirical data. In addition, a deductive research approach was preferred, as there is plenty of literature on the study topic, which was examined before data collection and analysis (Zikmund, Babin, Carr & Griffin, 2010).

Critique of Chosen Research Method

This study was a descriptive survey, which is appropriate in collecting information about people, attitudes, opinions, habits or social and political issues regarding governance, social justice and adherence to human rights. According to Bless and Higson-Smith (2008) a descriptive survey seeks insight into phenomena as a means of providing basic information in an area of study.

One disadvantage of using a descriptive survey research method is that a very large descriptive survey may give superficial results. Alternatively, small scale descriptive surveys with an emphasis on “qualitative” or “rich” detail have the disadvantage of poor generalisability (Bless & Higson-Smith, 2008). In such small surveys is that it is difficult to know how far the results can be applied elsewhere.

Descriptive case study was preferred over experiment as the current study was not designed to compare the characteristics of two groups (Yin, 2006). In addition, it was not feasible to select two groups of say governments and subject them to exactly the same set of conditions (Zikmund, Babin, Carr & Griffin, 2010).

Research Problem Statement Development

This research paper identifies the various efforts that have been put in place by different organizations in attempting to make greater impact to global citizenry through police reforms. Over time, many organizations as indicated in the introductory remarks like the United Nations, NATO and the European Union have been continually involved in reforming the police forces across several post-conflict regimes (Creswell, 2009). This research will study the role of International Police Advisors (IPA) in promoting reforms of the domestic police forces in post-conflict settings by discussing the challenges of IPA in imposing police reforms, changes to policing through training by drawing from the case studies of policing reforms in various jurisdictions. The research problem for this paper therefore is pegged on this surmise (Marenin, 2006).

In post-conflict environment – which is an environment that is recovering from conflicts of some sort like ethnic wars, political in-fighting or socio-economical inequalities, where there is no proper police service in existence or where such service is impacted negatively by the “historical and political” influences of the erstwhile regime, there is bound to be enormous challenges (Zikmund, Babin, Carr & Griffin, 2010). There will be many immediate challenges in the form of recruitment, training, promoting leadership, logistics issues, general administrative matters, improving facilities, investigations, normal police operations, and in some cases community Policing.

There will be the need for training and advising the national or domestic police officers as in other areas such as counter-terrorism, human rights lobbyism, transit and many other important disciplines to ensure law and order is maintained in the country (Zikmund, Babin, Carr & Griffin, 2010). It is also essential that the reforms are carried out and a functional management structure is established within a short period. This justifies the presence of international police advisors, from different parts of the world and to regulate the “norms, practices and rules of conduct (Call & William, 2009). In many of post-conflict environment lack of international police standards, continuity of the service of international police advisors and lack of adequate resources, add further complexity to an already complex situation. The foregoing is the research problem that this paper seeks to address (Marenin, 2006).

Research Purpose Statement Development

The purpose of this research is to study the role of international police advisors in reforming the national policing in the context of a third world country. The research will extend to assessing the challenges faced by the international police advisors and the ways in which they can meet these challenges. The study will examine the impact of training in improving the performance of the national police force to meet the challenges. Given the expanse of this research and the fact that the role the international police advisors play in reforming national policies and ensuring smooth running of government programs, it is only fair to admit that the brevity of this research paper by strain of imagination can purport to intend to cover all the areas that are affected by IPA in policy formulation and institutional governance. It is in this regard therefore that specific areas that will be delved in detail throughout this research are briefly stated as below (Marenin, 2006):

Role of National Police

In the present day context, the role of civilian police in the area of large-scale reconstruction has become more relevant and significant. As of date, more than 12,500 UN police are deployed in 17 field missions (UNPOL, 2010). These missions have the responsibilities to advise and to provide training in institutional reforms. However, even in the post conflict-conflict environments, where robust UN missions were deployed, security sector reform has produced only mixed results (Peake, Scheye & Hills, 2006). While in the short run, the reform to national police force aims at enabling the provision of basic security, in the long run, the reforms pursue the ambitious goal of reconstructing the governance of a state, which in turn will ensure the police serve the interest of the society. Since the police forces are viewed as the face of the executive towards the citizens of a county, their role in successfully transforming the nation cannot be undermined (Creswell, 2009).

Police Reform and National Security

In any country during the transition period, there is always the challenge of bridging a security gap (Marenin, 2006). Since, there are no enough studies, which have focused on a systematic analysis of challenges posed by police reform in post-conflict situations this work will undertake to study the conditions affecting the outcome of the efforts on instituting police reform. The current study examines the factors for success or failure of police reform during an intervention. The overall objective of “security sector reforms” is to “create a secure environment that is conducive to development, poverty reduction and democracy” (Organization for Economic Co-operation, 2009, p. 12).

In any post-conflict environment, effective and durable reconciliation and reconstruction can be achieved only by establishing a minimum level of stability. Similarly, a certain degree of economic, political and social development is an essential prerequisite for constituting the process of state building. “Well-managed, competent and impartial police services operating within an institutional framework defined by law are the fundamental foundation upon which the architecture of development, peace and civil security is built” (Royal United Service Institute, 2010, p.1).

Importance of Police Reform

In the event that the event of national institutions being weaker in terms of policy and support, the function of police reforms cannot be undermined.. “Weak local governance, a lack of security and stability as well as a history of unaccountable and repressive police behavior lead to abysmal confidence in executive state organs,” (Lei, 2009). Creswell (2009) observes that due to the enforcement gap, after the ending of the armed conflict, there is tend to be a surge in the crime rates. When the prevailing circumstances are like the above, police reforms become central and crucial in ensuring that the citizenry have confidence in the system of the government and democratic movement in operation. Harris (2006) argues that success in fighting crime alone can help to gain the confidence of the public. This calls for the reform in the national police force by adopting suitable measures.

Domestic police force, which is professional, disciplined and democratic, will be able to provide security and justice to the population. It is argued that in order to be effective, the police force must be de-militarized. It should be an organization of public security officers rather than acting like a military contingent (Pino & Wiatrowski, 2006). The police force facilitates the transition from military to civil regime and it represents the potential symbol of national unity. In short, successful peace building can be achieved only through reforming the national police force. It is essential that a distinction needs to be made between reforms to increase the police effectiveness and the reforms needed to make a police organization more democratic (Harris, 2006). This calls for a close study of the challenges faced by International Police Advisors in the police reforms (Creswell, 2009).

The international police advisors not only help facing the challenges of preserving law and order, but also they serve as role models for local police to transform themselves as democratic and constitutional security protectors. The national police have the obligation to improve conditions for reconciliation and reconstruction of the society, apart from acting as an institution to guarantee security and prevent relapse into internal conflict. Contributing to reconstruction is termed as building positive peace, while guaranteeing security is considered as negative peace (Marenin, 2006, p. 21). Therefore, the national police needs to be trained in fulfilling this dual role for them to regain the trust within the society.

In other words, after having stated the above purpose for the paper, the research paper will seek to explore available approaches that can realize police reforms. In doing so and as a way of seeking to demystify how this reforms are carried out in these different developing countries, the paper will also seek to address the challenges that confront these reform initiatives and specifically those confronting national police officials and IPAs in their fight for reforms (Creswell, 2009). The research will address the specific challenges of advancing accountability and improving effectiveness of policing in the jurisdiction of a third world country.

Development of Research Questions

The research will study the role of international police advisors in reforming the national policing in the context of a third world country (Yin, 2006). In achieving this central aim, the study will extend to achieving the following objectives:

  • To study the challenges faced by international police advisors in reforming the domestic police forces in developing countries.
  • To study and report on the ways in which the International Police Advisors can meet the challenges in reforming the national police forces.
  • To study the impact of training in improving the performance of the national police force to meet the challenges.

The influence of different aspects like the leadership capabilities of IPA, motivation and mentorship in improving the performance of local police forces will be studied as a part of the research.

By undertaking an extensive review of the available literature and based on case studies of previous efforts of national policing reforms in countries like Kosovo, East Timor and Sierra Leone the research will try to find answers for the following research questions (Creswell, 2009):

  • What are the challenges faced by the International Police Advisors in the process of reforming the local police forces in third world countries?
  • What are the ways in which the IPA can meet these challenges and improve the performance within a short period?
  • What is the impact of on the job training on performance improvement?

The first question was chosen because of the way it initiates a study the challenges that face IPA in its reform initiatives. This is important because it is expected that these reforms will face difficulties during their implementation; difficulties that have to be contained if there is any meaningful success to be anticipated. The answer to this question will contribute to the literature of the paper in explaining and properly availing the information regarding possible huddles that the process is likely to face (Creswell, 2009).

The second question, just like the first one, was chosen because of its importance to the research topic. If there is to be any meaningful returns for interventions of IPA in police reforms in developing countries, there has to be a way that the IPA deals with anticipated challenges that clout its implementation and intervention. In discussing and studying this question, it is anticipated that it will contribute insights of how IPA can handle challenges of police reforms which is hoped to properly equip the process adequately for good returns (Creswell, 2009). The expected outcome of this question is supposed to indicate that inasmuch as there are difficulties in the process of police reforms, all hope is not lost since there are equally considerable options in dealing with these challenges. If this is so then, it will indicate that there is no excuse for any government to lag behind with reforms under the pretext that there are many challenges in implementing them (Creswell, 2009).

The third question was chosen basically to try and indicate the importance of professionalism. In the current time and age, if anything is ever to prosper, it must be done with the proper directions, expertise and equipment. In the field of police reforms, these three elements are very important (Creswell, 2009). It is in this regard that the questions seeks to determine the impact that job training on performance of personnel. The expected outcome is anticipated to indicate that there is tremendous impact that is caused by job training which should further encourage the need for involvement of experts and professionals in personnel training in general and the process of implementation of reforms in particular (Bieber, 2009).

Summary

Re-statement of Research Objectives

It summarizing the concepts studied and discussed in this paper, it is appropriate to restate the research purpose and objectives from which an analytical discussion is made to determine whether they have been well answered and whether the research findings were authentically appropriate to answer the research objectives.

This research was aimed at studying the role of international police advisors in reforming the national policing in the context of a third world country (Creswell, 2009). In achieving this central aim, the study was set to achieve the following objectives:

  • To study the challenges faced by international police advisors in reforming the domestic police forces in developing countries.
  • To study and report on the ways in which the International Police Advisors can meet the challenges in reforming the national police forces.
  • To study the impact of training in improving the performance of the national police force to meet the challenges.

The central aim of this research paper was to identify the various different efforts that have been made by different organizations and groups in their individual and corporate attempt to make an impact to global citizenry through police reforms. The specific setting where this research paper was based was in a developing world where it is appreciated by many authorities like Bless & Higson-Smith (2008) that police and judicial reforms in general are the single strategies and efforts that are recommended to heal the plague of poor governance and inequality among the citizenry. Yin (2006) postulates that police reforms are among the best strategies that ensure that there is transparency in governance and an imploration to leaders to ensure there is close adherence to the laid down rule of law (Yin, 2006).

It is notable that the idea of police reforms as a response to proper governance and democratization has been one that has been held by many organizations over time. Such organizations as the United Nations, the NATO and the European Union are on record to have continually been involved in reforming the police forces across several post-conflict regimes from as early as the 1920’s (Bouma, 2010). The role of International Police Advisors (IPA) in promoting reforms of the domestic police forces in post-conflict settings by discussing the challenges of IPA in imposing police reforms, changes to policing through training by drawing from the case studies of policing reforms in various jurisdictions was a study that was corroborated by the findings of this research (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2008).

In post-conflict environment, the study determined that there were many challenges that were associated with police reforms. Governments that are recovering from conflicts of some sort like ethnic wars, political in-fighting or socio-economical inequalities like is the case with most of the developing countries, the challenges that befall the reforms agenda were observed to be to a large extent overwhelming. These struggling governments in post conflict environments usually do not have proper police service in existence or where the services exist, such services are impacted negatively mostly by the “historical and political” (Call & William, 2009).

The areas that were found to bear most responsibility as regards challenges were such areas as immediate challenges in the form of recruitment, training, promoting leadership, logistics issues, general administrative matters, improving facilities, investigations, normal police operations, and in some cases community Policing. This therefore calls for the need for training and advising the national or domestic police officers as in other areas such as counter-terrorism, human rights lobbyism, transit and many other important disciplines to ensure law and order is maintained in the country (Bouma, 2010). In addition to this, it was found that it was also essential that the reforms be carried out and a functional management structure be established within a short period to oversee the reforms agenda. This justifies the presence of international police advisors, from different parts of the world and to regulate the “norms, practices and rules of conduct (Call & William, 2009). In many of post-conflict environment lack of international police standards, continuity of the service of international police advisors and lack of adequate resources, add further complexity to an already complex situation.

Statistical Inference

A lot of inferences can further be made from the information that was collected both from primary and secondary sources during the conducting of this study. From the information obtained from respondents and bearing in mind that the sampling method used ensured there was minimal biasness, the sample used could be used as a representation of the whole population and hence inferences made from the information from the sample onto the information regarding the whole population (Bouma, 2010). Some of the inferences that may be done by generalizing the information gained from the analysis onto the whole population (the developing countries) include:

  • The main obstacles to the police reforms initiatives in developing counties is access to financial facilities, access to information, high levels of personal insecurity and government policies including high levels of legal services.
  • The study showed that there were low levels of availability of IPAs in the developing countries. This condition for access to IPAs facilities were worsened by poor government policies such as those regarding poor governance, corruption, inequality and redundancy in development within the judicial system.
  • The level of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) available in the judicial systems of these governments is not quite expansive and appropriate for the kind of integration and connectivity that is required. This therefore was an indication that there was need to emphasize more on investment into the latest technology so as to acquire more information in a better way so as to revamp police reforms with appropriate and effective mechanisms that are both relevant and modern for the job.
  • To improve the delivery of IPA services to these governments, there was a need to make reviews on some of the policies operating in the region including making of financial facilities more accessible through International Monitory Fund among other global funding institutions.

It is important to note, however that compared to other countries and economies, the economy of Dubai is doing very well and is an icon that is outdoing many as far as business is concerned, and more specifically as far as SME’s are concerned. There is therefore a great need for more investors to find their way into the economy and work on their opportunities there (Bieber, 2009).

Data Validity and Reliability

It is appropriate finally to discuss how valid the data and information obtained for the research was so that the inferences and conclusions made from them can be considered authentic. Due to this therefore, there is need to briefly discuss the topic of data reliability and validity. Validity determines whether the research study actually measures what it is supposed to measure or not. That is, whether the interpretation of the data is valid or not (Yin, 2006). This can be done by comparing the data collection methods with those of previous studies, and by carrying out a preliminary investigation to find out which methods of data collection are likely to be most effective within the context of the study.

The purpose of reliability analysis is to determine whether data are trustworthy or not. Testing reliability is to measure consistency in the data that is an assessment of the degree of consistency between multiple measurements of a variable. Reliability refers to whether a research study will produce the same results if conducted by another researcher at another point of time. Reliability aims at minimizing the errors and biases in a study (Yin, 2006). This can be done by having the research instruments assessed by someone who has experience in research methodology, by conducting pilot studies and by preparing respondents by issuing preliminary questions to prepare them for the questionnaire and interviews.

Using statistical analysis methods, a reliability test was carried out on all the variables in the research, both the demographic and the response variables. A validity and reliability test was undertaken using a Chronbach’s Alpha statistic. The Chronbach’s Alpha statistic was then compared with the minimum allowed Chronbach’s Alpha value of 0.6. The Chronbach’s Alpha was computed and used to determine the reliability of the variables in the study.

Table 1: Reliability Test results.

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s Alpha No. of Items
0.776 100

From this analysis, the statistic is 0.776 which is greater than 0.6 hence the variables were all reliable and valid in the study and hence could be used adequately. Therefore, from the reliability and validity analysis, the data collected from the study was reliable and could be used accurately for interpretation, making of conclusions and recommendations (Bouma, 2010).

Annotated Bibliography

Introduction

Bayley, D. (2006). A foreign Policy for Democratic Policing. Policing and Society, 5, 79-93.

The impact of foreign policy as regards IPA intervention is the research objective covered by this source. Bayley discusses the concern that foreign policy has on democratic policing in very insightful way bringing out the many challenges that the concepts faces as well as the potentialities that lie underneath it. A particular example of this concept is where the author addresses the issue of community policing which he maintains that is an avenue through which democratic space and peaceful co-existence can be achieved among the populace (Bayley, 2006, p. 35). This reference is therefore important for this research topic as it addresses the central concern of the paper as indicated in the above citation.

Call, T., & William, S. (2009). Protecting the People: Public Security Choices after Civil Wars. Global Governance, 7(2), 129-140.

The issue of challenges facing IPA and police reforms in third world countries finds great discussion insights from this article. The report ‘Their reports are not read and their recommendations are resisted: the challenge for the global police policy community’, Police Practice and Research Vol. 9, No. 1, p.61, discusses the various reforms required in the police forces in the war-torn countries and politically unstable states. It goes ahead to explain why most reforms are not implemented making them remain mere paper work.

Lei, S. (2009). Critically Analyzing Information Sources. London: Cornell University.

This source of reference provides great insights in analyzing information sources from other references. Lei critically gives insights that indicate the areas of a source that have to be considered in determining its appropriateness to be used. Credibility that should be considered for a source has to be beyond refute and should have authentic authorities making the surmises.

Research Problem Statement Development

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

This is a crucial source that specifically discusses in great detail the details of qualitative research as well as quantitative research which are approaches that were well used in this paper. Creswell surmises that qualitative research methods are mainly phenomenological, and that the purpose of qualitative research is to understand the current situation from the participants’ perspective. Conversely, quantitative research is more concerned with quantifying data collected through research methodology (Creswell, 2009, p. 12).

Marenin, O. (2006). Building a global police studies community. Police Quarterly, 8(10), 99-136.

The research objective captured in this source is the issue of police reform and National Security. The paper is based on the research findings by the Canadian international development agency concerning the demand for small arms. It gives possible policies and reforms to be engaged in order to curb such vices especially in the developing countries.

Royal United Service Institute. (2010). Reforming the Afghan National Police. Web.

This is another very important reference that was found to be very important for this research paper as regards the importance of police reforms in developing countries. Royal United Service Institute surmise quite with justifiable evidence that police reform has been re-conceptualized, perceived as an important element within international efforts to assist failed or failing states, secure the consolidation of emerging democracies, and promote the secure environment considered necessary for socioeconomic development. Most importantly, it is now considered an essential ingredient for post-conflict recovery (Royal United Services Institute, 2010, p. 156). This is the reason that makes this source of reference quite important for the paper and especially as regards the case study of a third world country.

Zikmund, W., Babin, B. J., Carr, J.C., & Griffin, M. (2010). Business Research Methods (8th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson/South-Western.

This source is incredible and appropriate for this paper as it surmises that quantitative research examines and interprets data that is quantifiable, measurable and finite. Data in quantitative research is acquired by testing, experimentation and calculation and the results are often displayed statistically all of which were instrumental for the paper in the research conducted (Zikmund, Babin, Carr & Griffin, 2010, p. 112).

Research Purpose Statement Development

Harris, F. (2006). The Role of Capacity Building in Police Reform. Web.

The area of interest from this paper is the challenges that face police reforms and IPA initiation in developing countries’ governments. The article gives a view on the emerging issues in the police regime where the forces are being detached from the direct influence by the respective governments. It gives practical suggestions on how the police force can be rebranded into a democratic regime. It forms a good foundation for this research relative to the research topic.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2008). Security System Reform and Governance. DAC Guidelines and References Series, Paris: OECD, p 16.

It looks at the role of the state in providing national security to its nationals which was a core research objective for the paper. This, as suggested in the paper, can be achieved in partnership with the police forces that are charged with the responsibility of ensuring community security. It gives the various ways of how the developing countries can be empowered through reforms in their police forces so as to foster safety and deterrence of criminal offences.

Peake, G., Scheye, E., & Hills, A. (2006). Conclusions. Civil Wars, 8(2), 251-252.

It looks into the progress of police in the communities of Cape Town from a perspective of liberation which is important for this paper regarding the impact of IPA involvement in developing countries in times of post-war environments. It gives a better case study on how economic growth of the town is affected by the law enforcement by the belligerent police system leading to social unpredictability. Having suffered under the Apartheid regime, Cape Town stands out to be one of the suitable case studies on how they are merging law enforcement and economic growth to achieve their development goals.

Pino, N., & Wiatrowski, M. (2006). Introduction’ in Eds N. Pino and M. Wiatrowski. Democratic Policing in Transitional and Developing Countries, 2.

The issues discussed here is the importance of police reforms in democratization. The paper is a comprehensive case study discussing how the international bodies together with the UN and other regional forces have worked closely to ensure peace in the Yugoslavia. It shows the various reforms employed in the police force by these organizations as a way of fostering peace in the ethnically divided country. This paper is highly suitable for this research in the sense that the police forces in Yugoslavia were initially divided according to their ethnicity and played a major role in the ethnic cleansing that took place in the region.

UNPOL. (2010). United Nations Policing. Web.

The role of police reforms in national development and democratization is central in this source. The article gives a wide discussion on the global initiative of helping in the reformation of police institutions so as to incline them towards democracy. It gives a discussion on the existing opportunities for police reforms, the lessons learnt from the previous initiatives. It also gives a summary of the probable solutions to ensure egalitarianism is engendered in the police task forces.

Development of Research Questions

Bieber, F. (2009). Policing the Peace after Yugoslavia: Police Reform between External Imposition and Domestic Reform. GRIPS Policy Research Center, Discussion Paper 12-17.

Impact of Police reforms in post-conflict environment is well discussed by this source. Bieber discusses the impact of training to the national police force to improve their performance, by referring to the challenges and suggestions made by the current research. The findings of this research will add to the exiting knowledge on training and contribution of IPA in the reform of national police forces (Bieber, 2009, p. 112). Given that this paper discusses the role that IPA plays in such police reforms, this source of reference was found to be quite important in the overall authenticity of the paper and for the informational insights that it brought to the table for the paper.

Abridged Literature Review

Bayley, D. (2009). Police Reform as Foreign Policy. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 38, 23 – 52.

Impact of IPA implementation in the police reforms is the area covered by this source. A police reform is concept that can become very vital in the management of government issues with specific respect to attaining better democratic space. Bayley in his characteristic way addresses these issues with great articulation where he surmises that third world countries are centrally pegged on the success and effectiveness of the police operations in their countries. This therefore means that when proper police reforms that are aimed at enhancing human rights activities and creating better democratic space are instituted, that can be considered a recipe for greater national adherence to democratization that is respectful to all and mindful of the distribution of resources to all (Bayley, 2009, p. 23).

Bless, C., & Higson-Smith, C. (2008). Fundamentals of Social Research Method: An African Perspective (2nd ed.). New York: Jutai Kenwyn.

Appropriate research methodologies befitting this paper are discussed in this article. According to Bless and Higson-Smith, a descriptive survey seeks to gain insight into a phenomenon to provide basic information in an area of study. The strength of the survey method is evident in its ability to study, describe, explore and analyze relationships among geographically gathered subjects (Bless & Higson-Smith, 2008, p. 43). This was important for the research especially as regards the research methods.

Bouma, G. (2010). The Research Process (4th ed.). Melbourne Vic: Oxford University Press.

Research processes that are appropriate for the paper are discussed in this article. According to Bouma quantitative research examines and interprets data that is quantifiable, measurable and finite. Data in quantitative research is acquired by testing, experimentation and calculation and the results are often displayed statistically all of which were instrumental for the paper in the research conducted (Bouma, 2010, p. 83).

Denzin, N. & Lincoln, Y. (2007). Introduction, Entering The Field Of Qualitative Research: Handbook For Qualitative Methodology. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

This source discusses the research designs that could be used for this paper in great detail. According to Denzin & Lincoln the five different research designs for investigating different research problems are survey, case study, experiment, action research and internet research. These were important concepts that were important for the paper. They postulate that a survey is carried out to compare the characteristics of different organizations where the researcher gathers data from each organization within the study, and then analyzes them statistically which was an approach that was used extensively in this paper (Denzin & Lincoln, 2007, p. 245).

IPA Policy Report. (2006). Challenges in Police Reforms: Promoting Effectiveness and Accountability. Web.

The research objective of determining the challenges in police reforms is well discussed in this paper. This paper mainly engages in exploring the relationship between indigenous and international ideologies geared towards bringing forth authentic and practical reforms in policing institutions. It looks at the various collaborations made both locally and internationally in a bid to ensure these reforms are enforced.

Karstedt, S. (2009). Durkheim, Trade and beyond: The global travel of crime policies. Criminal Justice, 2(2), 111-124.

This is another very important reference that was found practical and relevant for this task regarding the importance police reforms. The article gives a comprehensive study on the transition that has so far taken place in most nations and the results of the same. It gives the relationship between the incorporation of democracy in the political system and the resultant reforms in the police force.

Neild, R. (2010). Democratic Police Reforms in War-torn Societies. Conflict, Security and Development, 1(1), 21-44.

These authorities add incredible detail to the issue of democratic police reforms that makes their source centrally important and relevant for this study. They focus on the challenges confronted in the democratization of police institutions in emerging nations in the post Cold War environment. They contribute to additional knowledge to the new wave of global assistance efforts in the areas of “politics and technical practicalities” involved in reforming the police agencies in post-conflict settings. His recent paper on the topic of ‘transnational police regimes,’ provides most explicit engagements with the diffusion of policing policies in different social settings across national borders (Neild, 2010, p. 32-35).

Peake, G., & Marenin, O. (2008). Their reports are not read and their Recommendations are resisted: the challenge for the global police policy community. Police Practice and Research, 9(1), 61.

Peake and Marenin are centrally incredible to this research paper given their insights on the issue of the role of National Police. They state that police studies have remained as “a relatively lonely furrow ploughed by only a few academics.” Before the early 1990s, studies have mostly been confined to the field of comparative criminology. Since then there has been a shift in the focus from the mere capacity building exercise to more fundamental reforms. In this context, the current research attempts to study the role of international police advisors in assisting the national policing reforms and the impact of training the advisors in improving their performance in this respect (Peake & Marenin, 2008, p. 61).

Sarantakos, S. (2010). Social Research (2nd ed.). New York: Palgrave & Basingstoke.

This source discusses in great detail the details of qualitative research as well as quantitative research which are approaches that were well used in this paper. Sarantakos surmises that qualitative research methods are mainly phenomenological, and that the purpose of qualitative research is to understand the current situation from the participants’ perspective. Conversely, quantitative research is more concerned with quantifying data collected through research methodology (Sarantakos, 2010, p. 111). All of these concepts were central for the paper as regards the methodology opted for in the research.

Stedman, J., Donald, R., & Elizabeth, M.C. (2009). Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.

This is a reference that addresses the issue of how IPA can be instrumental in brokering peace and meeting the challenges of bad police operations in developing countries. Stedman et al. (2009) emphasize on the different aspects such as “disarmament and demobilization, economic reconstruction, elections, human rights, policing and local capacity building.” A specific concept that they surmise and attempt to develop is the allusion that reform of the police force within a third world country cannot by any means be developed purely indigenously. They postulate that there must be foreign and additional assistance from other experienced police departments of the rest of the world so that professionalism, effectiveness and expertise can be embedded in the reforms for better performance and returns (Stedman, Donald & Elizabeth, 2009, p. 345).

Yin, R. (2006). Case study Research: Design and Methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc.

This source gives a guideline of appropriate research approaches to use in the paper. The main research approaches within social science, according to Yin (2006), are qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative research aims at gathering, analyzing and measuring data from a large sample to see if there is any relation between different variables. Qualitative research focuses on gaining a deeper understanding and description of a problem, by collecting and analyzing data on ideas, feelings and attitudes (Yin, 2006, p. 18). Taking the above into consideration, this paper adopted a quantitative approach, as social and political parameters can be assessed using empirical data and therefore a quantitative approach is best suited to meeting the research objectives.

Re-statement of Research Objectives

Bieber, F. (2010). Policing the Peace after Yugoslavia: Police Reform between External Imposition and Domestic Reform. GRIPS Policy Research Center, Discussion. Paper 10-07.

The impact of police reforms in third world countries is discussed perfectly in this article. The article gives suggestions on reforms that need to be emulated by the politically unstable countries in order to bring forth instability. It gives practical examples of such countries and the possible reforms that are to be employed in the police task force.

Challenges for International Police Officers in Reforming the National Police Force
The following paper on Challenges for International Police Officers in Reforming the National Police Force was written by a student and can be used for your research or references. Make sure to cite it accordingly if you wish to use it.
Removal Request
The copyright owner of this paper can request its removal from this website if they don’t want it published anymore.
Request Removal

Cite this paper

Select a referencing style

Reference

YourDissertation. (2021, December 9). Challenges for International Police Officers in Reforming the National Police Force. Retrieved from https://yourdissertation.com/dissertation-examples/challenges-for-international-police-officers-in-reforming-the-national-police-force/

Work Cited

"Challenges for International Police Officers in Reforming the National Police Force." YourDissertation, 9 Dec. 2021, yourdissertation.com/dissertation-examples/challenges-for-international-police-officers-in-reforming-the-national-police-force/.

1. YourDissertation. "Challenges for International Police Officers in Reforming the National Police Force." December 9, 2021. https://yourdissertation.com/dissertation-examples/challenges-for-international-police-officers-in-reforming-the-national-police-force/.


Bibliography


YourDissertation. "Challenges for International Police Officers in Reforming the National Police Force." December 9, 2021. https://yourdissertation.com/dissertation-examples/challenges-for-international-police-officers-in-reforming-the-national-police-force/.

References

YourDissertation. 2021. "Challenges for International Police Officers in Reforming the National Police Force." December 9, 2021. https://yourdissertation.com/dissertation-examples/challenges-for-international-police-officers-in-reforming-the-national-police-force/.

References

YourDissertation. (2021) 'Challenges for International Police Officers in Reforming the National Police Force'. 9 December.

Click to copy
Copied