This thesis aims to investigate the benefits of data strategic applications in the aviation industry. The study seeks to examine the impact of data strategic application and digitalization on the curated travel experience, security identification, customer experience, and airport services. Digital transformation and other important financial evolutions are motivating airlines to boost their performance. Since data strategic applications in the airline industry can improve effectiveness, value, and digitalization, this research will examine the variables that show positive integration.
This descriptive study design strategy allowed the researcher to guarantee the confidentiality and variability of the procedure by enabling participants to respond to the survey queries under normal conditions. The analysis employed probability sampling to assess data on the targeted classes of passengers that use the Dubai International Airport. The study agreed that technology enhances business operations, performance, productivity, and satisfaction. Data strategic application is a critical component in aviation. By implication, effective implementation of data strategic applications enhances the customer travel experience.
The impact of digitized data has sparked interactions between humans and machines. These interactions create enormous volumes of information called Big Data (BD). The size of digitized data is described by accelerating the development of large quantities of complex datasets, which transcend the capacities of data management methods. Because of the requirement to provide more significance to companies, businesses embrace Big Data, migrating from classical databases and data stores that lack versatility and cannot be optimized.
Big data is a collection of large and complicated datasets, which is hard to process using database management applications or conventional data processing software. The Internet of Things (IoT) suggests that information is gathered from several resources in restricted environments (Wong & Wong 2017).
Large-scale report created in the IoT provides direct feedback to challenges, forecasts, and customized options. The aviation industry is one sector that has evolved. The competitive nature of the airline industry has evoked data advancement to improve customer travel experience. As a result, airline operators are updating their business strategy to meet the trends and needs of their target population. The quality triangle covers the merchandise or product, service, and convenience.
The product includes legroom, aircraft type, luggage space, beverages, and loyalty programs. Airline services include the choice of self-check-in, pre-clearance interactions, digital boarding pass, quick passport verification, robust security presence, seat reservation process, speedy boarding, exceptional staff interaction, and advance service innovation. Airline convenience includes airport proximity, accessibility, flight time, customer-friendly stopovers, and simplicity of seat reservation.
The aviation industry is undergoing digital expansion in data applications. Data strategic applications, digitalization, and other improvements are beneficial for any market, particularly the aviation industry (Hannigan, Hamilton & Mudambi 2015). Data strategic applications can be deployed using technologies like artificial intelligence (AI), big data (BD), Internet of Things (IoT), Blockchain innovation, automation, augmented reality, and 3-D printing.
This significance arises primarily in the fast-evolving character of the market and components like the cost differentiation, customer safety, travel experience, and business competition. Hannigan, Hamilton, and Mudambi (2015) argued that many facets of airport operations, for example, security facilities, services provided, and employees affect passenger perceptions of service quality. The capacity to manage security identification, control customer expectations, and improve the travel experience enhances the competitive position of an airline operator.
However, data strategic applications have significant challenges because of the ineffectiveness of approaches implemented and communication techniques used by airline management (Jeeradist, Thawesaengskulthai & Sangsuwan 2016). Customer experience and interaction with security and travel experience, services, and technology are challenges facing the airline industry (Jeeradist, Thawesaengskulthai & Sangsuwan 2016). This thesis aims to investigate the benefits of data strategic applications in the aviation industry. The study seeks to examine the impact of data strategic applications and digitization on the curated travel experience, security identification, customer experience, and airport services.
The Rationale for the Research
The provisions of quality solution that addresses the client’s requirements enhance the customer’s experience. Improving customer satisfaction, particularly in aviation, can also be crucial in maximizing returns and enhancing the competitive position of the industry. Zangiacomi et al. (2017) revealed that airline rivalry raises the demand for operators to innovate and boost their appeal to various clients’ groups.
The authors argued that digital architecture improves passenger engagement, which enhances curated travel experience. They emphasized that the digitalization of data applications facilitated the supply of customized and personalized service to distinct customer segments according to their unique requirements (Zangiacomi et al. 2017). Garrett (2016) revealed that the utilization of data applications to serve customers improves the structure of a strong value proposition for each client group. Digital applications foster the assortment of real-time information on product attributes that appeal to different travel groups. The access to such information boosts the classification or division of clients according to their requirements, profiles and age, fashion, and needs.
This study will assess the impact of data strategic applications on customer’s curated travel experience. The rationale for the study also examines airline performance in fixing passenger problems within the airport facility. The study also assesses how digitalized data applications help clients enhance their experience with airline service providers within the scope of the research. Such analysis is vital as it builds a model by which different airlines or airports may boost their customer curated travel experience by implementing better digital strategic applications that guarantee timely information delivery.
The aviation industry concentrated on how to increase customer satisfaction, maximize yields, and ensure the accomplishment of organizational goals. However, there are gaps in the literature because of insufficient focus on the usage of technologies in addressing customer’s problems. The thesis, therefore, attempts to tackle issues through data strategic applications with the capacity to enhance the passenger’s curate travel experience by adopting a mixed research approach that can be qualitative and quantitative, according to case analysis of Dubai International Airport.
Data strategic applications have been characterized in similar manners because of their developing design. Data strategic application is a framework that integrates data devices and web-based technologies like big data and artificial intelligence to enhance information excellence, solution leadership, collective intimacy, and innovation (Martin-Domingo & Martín 2016). Digital transformation and other crucial financial development are motivating airlines to boost their performance. Since data strategic applications in aviation can improve efficiency in operations, value, and digitalization, this research will examine the variables that show positive integration.
These variables include pricing structure, security identification, travel experience, and the competitive intensity of the industry. These variables differentiate the aviation sector business from other developing markets and determine its sustainability development. Data strategic implementation is shaping investments based on similar trends that have altered economic growth (Skorupski & Uchroński 2016). The exponentially growing phase attracts not only new challenges but poses various prospective benefits for business and investors acknowledging its scope. The benefits include functional agility, service differentiation, brand integrity, increased earnings, and cost reductions. Although business competition is growing, there is a requirement to understand clients and react to their unique needs and desires (Skorupski & Uchroński 2016).
Thus, investors try to maximize profits by increasing their wallet share of passengers and reduce the cost of operations by focusing on data application technology and its implementation across various departments. With these constraints, challenges, benefits, and limitations, this study will investigate the benefits of data strategic applications as it affects curated travel experience, security identification, and other service implications. The study will conduct a structured literature review using available databases. The research will use a descriptive research technique to broaden data collection. Under the descriptive approach, the researcher will adopt qualitative and quantitative designs to extract information concerning the customer experience, technology patterns, and travel experience.
Objectives of the Study
The goal of this research is to assess the significance of data strategic applications and digitalization on the curated travel experience, predictive maintenance, customer service models, security identification, and revenue management. The research will investigate the impact of digitalization strategy and its challenges in the aviation industry.
The objectives of the study are as follows:
- Identify the benefit of data strategic application and digitalization in the airline industry.
- Determine the impact of data strategic applications on the curated travel experience and customer satisfaction.
Recognizing the research scope, this thesis plans to concentrate the analysis on the impact of data strategic applications in aviation. Based on the research objectives, the study will answer the undersigned questions.
- What is the impact of data strategic application and digitalization in aviation?
- What is the impact of data strategic applications on a curated travel experience?
Contributions to Knowledge
The research findings will be beneficial to airline operators, investors, policymakers, stakeholders, researchers, and customers. For airline operators and investors, the analysis will provide valuable information about data strategic implementation. Most airline operators can use this analysis to guide the decision-making process. The recommendations of the investigation will guide policymakers in drafting new regulations and standards for data deployment in the aviation industry.
Airline customers will understand the importance of data strategic applications as it concerns their safety, travel experience, and service satisfaction. The findings of this study will be used as a springboard for future investigations in the challenges of data strategic applications. This understanding will guide researchers towards new assumptions and the hypothesis for cross-examination.
The Motivation for the Project
Airline operators gather a large amount of information daily. It accounts for the industry’s success in creating customer loyalty flyers and several database programs, which enable flight business to maximize ticket sales. With the digital expansion, airline operators gather much more information that is leveraged via extensive information analytics to achieve competitive benefits. Even smaller investments enjoy data strategic applications and data analytics by prioritizing data asset requirements for content analysis.
Airline experts categorize data strategic applications in specific areas, which include revenue management, effective personalization, consumer-centric business model, predictive maintenance, and operational efficiency. Given these indicators, the motivation to examine the impact of data strategic applications of these elements is consequential. A source of inspiration that leads to a more profound issue towards this subject has been the alarming number of airlines that do not have an active data strategy. Most works of literature have suggested that digitalization is a gradual process. However, the lack of concern about data strategic applications and digitalization stimulates the motivation for this investigation.
Data strategic application and digitalization support revenue management. Revenue management is the act of implementing dynamic pricing to maximize sales (Skorupski & Uchroński 2016). It is difficult to measure service quality because clients have different perceptions of value and have optimum cost factors for flight tickets. These challenges influence business sustainability and competitive advantage. Therefore, many operators have installed detectors to gather information about the technical requirements of each aircraft. The advancement in predictive maintenance enables operators to forecast when a specialized error will appear and intervene to repair it (Tokgöz et al. 2018).
Predictive maintenance decreases operating costs and enhance business development (Tokgöz et al. 2018). Information analytics increases productivity by creating key performance indicators that assist employees in remaining dynamic and fulfilling operational objectives. Digitalization is a significant source of competitive edge. Information analytics could be implemented for different reasons. Information analytics can be used to forecast client behavior, procedures, or handling risk.
It provides comprehensive and predictive insights to enhance organizational operations. Since the airline market is extremely cost-sensitive, rivalry in the business is fierce. Data strategic applications enhance critical competitive benefits for investors (Zaharia & Pietreanu 2018). Milkau and Bott (2015) defined data strategic applications as integrating complex systems, internet-based technology, and information analytics in the communication process between customers and market representatives. These market agents include passengers, investors, equipment suppliers, stakeholders, and manufacturers. The definition is suitable for considering the aim of this research.
Data strategic implementation supports digital approaches that provide direction, create initiatives, assess performance, quantify their growth, and redirect observational goals. The authors suggested that airline operators could implement data strategic applications to improve the client-based design or digitized architecture. The client-based model allows operators to change their services to suit new customer requirements and to create curated experiences that enhance consumer loyalty. Digitized architecture creates new price regimes for clients using different innovative designs (Ross, Beath & Sebastian 2017).
Upadhya (2016) emphasized that electronic communication programs have been harmonized with functional ‘beacons’ accessible from the airport, which enable location identification by customers. Therefore, ‘beacons’ enhances customer experience during preflight and post-flight services. The technology provides airport directions to avoid flight delays (Upadhya 2016). The beacon-based location program reduces the time-wasting procedures at security checkpoints (Straker & Wrigley 2016).
Some airports, such as Dubai International, have embraced facial recognition technology that minimizes the need for clients to present boarding passes after the check-in session. Data strategic applications can be used to control runway lighting equipment, which is a crucial element in maintaining aircraft balance and identifying security threats. Maintaining a safe and secure aircraft movement is the basis of efficient and stable operations to guarantee client safety, security identification, curated travel experience, and sustainable business operations. Although some airports use legacy programs, digital data strategy enhances service availability, employee performance, and improves safety.
Pigni and Piccoli (2016) opposed the use of fiber optics to control the runways and border lighting. The authors suggested that overreliance on fiber optic cables is insecure because they are vulnerable to attacks during airport functions and could be sabotaged by terrorists (Straker & Wrigley 2016). Any interference or sabotage with the functioning of this fiber optics will affect communication between flight controllers and pilots, and this act has a devastating outcome. It emphasizes the requirement for airport operators to embrace data strategic applications that use cloud solutions as a backup technique. Using these apparatus lowers the expenses of predictive maintenance and mitigates the vulnerability to internal and external threats.
The rising competition, evolution, and alliance of enabling technology promoted the process of change from the global perspective. The airline 4.0 paradigm execution is an essential step in the development of companies, which depends on the digitization of data and practices (Zangiacomi et al. 2017). The strategy is to adopt innovative technologies, to establish a continuous flow of information through different levels of the distribution chain, enabling the communication between the stakeholders and passengers. Digital architecture now represents the most innovative paradigm change in the airline industry, covering the complicated, cohesive design of products, manufacturing systems, and processes.
Digitalization enables precise evaluation and utilization of information gathered from different stages of the service lifecycle, aggregated to offer sensitive data to command, improve services, reliability of the machines, demands from customers, and components flow (Zangiacomi et al. 2017). It is essential to gather data with strategic data management to support its utilization by complex systems. By implication, data integration is a chief requirement for digital knowledge. The use of knowledge management must concentrate on integration rather than focusing on transfer to combine different knowledge components and create new abilities.
The increasing accessibility of data is a challenge in process management because the time to evaluate the datasets and make decreasing. Based on this assumption, investors are building on real-time analysis and the continuous upgrade of business systems. Most investors and executives have adopted the work-in-progress model (WIP) since it has a crucial significance in process management (Tokgöz 2018). Under the WIP model, designers can evaluate and allocate goods and resources in real-time, thereby empowering managers and operational supervisors to make strategic choices that enhance productivity and decrease costs (Tokgöz 2018).
Investors and operations managers also need traceability, which is a spot assessment of daily activities and processes. Traceability helps businesses to guarantee compliance with regulations, execute quick services, cost-effective maintenance, and monitoring via a WIP structure. In a distinct business process, traceability implies that the service and product components must be tracked throughout the operating lifecycle, from design to delivery (Khuong & Uyen 2014).
By implication, manufacturing companies understand traceability as a real-time indicator in procedures and operations. To make product management more effective data collection about the flows of merchandise, materials, subassemblies, and the harmful product is of critical significance. Based on the context of data assembly, engineers can create a system to share valuable data with each stakeholder. Therefore, investors could forecast when data is created, used, and adjusted. The adoption of business process management (BPM) to design activities improves service standards and data management. Based on this explanation, operators can optimize business processes using the BPM model.
Within this model, the maintenance, repair, and operations (MRO) process is a challenging area under the BPM. The MRO activities vary and depend on the requirements of components, and the job schedule is not predictable (Vieira & Loures 2016). The significance of MRO procedures in the sustainability of the aviation business enhances productivity and reliability to provide quality service delivery.
Therefore, companies providing MRO services attempt to minimize maintenance expenses and turnaround period to maximize earnings. Adopting the product lifecycle management (PLM) could reduce maintenance cost and time of delivery, but the integration of PLM using MRO procedures does not always occur. Among the probable reasons, is the shortage of PLM architecture designed and employed to support product maintenance or service operations (Vieira & Loures 2016).
MRO in aviation needs processing and product knowledge to maximize time and improve service quality. Such information is limited and may be problematic for consumers to gather relevant details for decision-making. Based on effective service delivery, it is critical to get real-time assessment and information concerning the machine parts and engines, evaluating its localization and their processing status. WIP monitoring guarantees systematic access to process data and allow stakeholders to control the job sequence and procedure tasks. It is likewise vital to have accurate data of merchandise within each unit, by directly reporting information with precision and promptness to permit quick procedure implementation. Thus, real-time access to WIP knowledge is a growing demand with strategic applications.
The knowledge in the MRO process is linked with product and service information comprehension since it clarifies the purposes and the procedures of MRO stages. According to Vieira and Loures (2016), the benchmark data is critical in assessing MRO functionality because it recognizes historical statistics and WIP information. Many research studies have shown the capability of RFID innovation in components and resources monitoring, logistics management, WIP monitoring, and tool management in airline operations (Deng, Santos & Curran 2019; Vieira & Loures 2016; Tokgöz 2018).
Deng, Santos, and Curran (2019) suggested an internet-based product support system to handle MRO based on support, use, and performance. The author argued that the strategy would combine the product development process with maintenance and support procedures. Consequently, the authors categorized the understanding involved in MRO solutions into different phases based on a hierarchical design for its utilization. The influence of product life management on MRO procedures is effective. However, knowledge management has been challenging in academic research and methodological perspective.
The utilization of strategic data applications in airports eases the identification of these services because most clients are not familiar with the location. Chen, Batchuluun, and Batnasan (2015) argued that the identification of passenger’s needs via data applications supports the multi-functional atmosphere of the airports. Most airports provide a growing variety of services to clients such as restaurants, malls, and retail outlets as clients’ travel to their destinations.
The utilization of strategic data applications in airports eases the identification of these services because most clients are not familiar with the location. Access to diverse data applications boosts the identification of service locations that influence passenger satisfaction. Thus, airline investors are embracing strategic data applications to facilitate more uncomplicated check-in to their clients.
As emphasized by Jeeradist, Thawesaengskulthai, and Sangsuwan (2016), data technology has significantly decreased the idle time spent with clients awaiting and manual check-ins. Digital applications have been utilized to incorporate the commercial and client support services at airports, which makes it suitable for passengers to access functions available in the airport from smart devices, tablets, notebooks, and other electronic systems. Such programs act as an interactive communication platform for clients, in which they could participate directly with aviation workers to send inquiries, remarks, complaints, or ideas.
Khuong and Uyen (2014) said that the accessibility of services offered by airline operators via electronic communication technologies implies a passenger could prepare for a trip from any geographical location. By implication, a passenger may have access to different services at the airport when trapped in traffic (Skorupski & Uchroński, 2016). Such procurements could be sent to the traveler during aircraft boarding, thereby decreasing idle times and boosting the amount of gratification to distinct client segments.
Literature Review Concept
Curated Passenger Travel Experience
Digital communications in airports have been instrumental in boosting passenger’s curated travel experience because it promotes more straightforward and economic interaction involving the airport employees and clients. Many airports have an Internet presence and social networking, which means that travelers may get updates on flight schedules and other services. The accessibility of travel advice to clients has considerably contributed to lower expenditures, because in most situations, the longer time a client spends at the airport, the higher the prices are raised concerning money and time (Al-Medabesh & Ali 2014).
The access to real-time information to clients promotes travel experience, monitoring of transit bookings, and reduces waiting periods (Khuong & Uyen 2014). The installation of digital infrastructure, which improves the amount of visibility of airline services offered, is a significant source of competitive edge. Pigni & Piccoli (2016) argued that a high degree of prominence eases passenger’s travel experience. The installation of electronic and cloud-based technology at airports increases the production of virtual capacity in airports, thereby enhancing asset optimization. Service flexibility and visibility allow airport operators to reevaluate flaws and organize alternative travel choices for clients.
Additionally, it becomes easier for airlines to recuperate from unexpected events, including unfavorable weather conditions and mechanical failures, amongst others, because they may easily communicate with their clients and keep them updated. Lee & Park (2016) additional assert that the much more comfortable control of lead times furnished by strategic data applications at airports improves takeoff events, which empowers support delivery to a more significant number of travelers. Thus, it becomes easier for an airport to create expansions to passenger terminals based on the strength of its target group.
Communication Strategies in Aviation
An effective communication strategy enhances passenger integration in airline operations. Garrett (2016) believed that the successful implementation of the digital communication approach depends on the strategic intention of such deployment. By implication, the airline management must adopt a change strategy to get the backing of stakeholders. The manager must create benchmarks to measure its effectiveness against the targeted aims.
Martin-Domingo & Martín (2016) emphasized that an effective data deployment necessitates determining critical aspects that influence consumer curated travel experience. As a result, it becomes easier to execute the envisaged data communication system to guarantee such regions of concern are addressed. The authors cited the airport gate unit as a major department of operations. Most clients complain about poor service delivery that results in longer waiting periods, which is caused by delays or failure of flights to meet schedules. Additionally, there are complaints of Internet links and connections in the holding sections that disrupt the communication options of passengers, leading to disenfranchisement and frustration (Garret 2016).
Passengers complain of shortages of flight program data, which makes their journeys excruciating and inconvenient. The adoption of data strategic application to mitigate these inconveniences enhances the passenger’s curated travel experience traveler and support the preference for a specific airport (Garret 2016). Padrón et al. (2016) said that among the tested options to the problems clients experience in the gate holding section is the deployment of electronic content kiosks that guarantee continuous communicating with the airline service providers. The strategy enhances the clarity of advice and stimulates confidence with the services available.
Consequently, operators can offer extra services such as meal canteens when they are in the waiting section to suppress boredom and doubt. The use of automated boarding scanners could significantly lower physical security checks and enhance the passenger’s travel experience.
Clients prefer regular updates about flight delays because of the frustrations they experience with queues with unfamiliar waiting intervals. The overbearing nature of security officers, their safety demands, and practices stimulates passengers’ frustration (Padrón et al. 2016). Data strategic applications such as queue metering devices provide notifications to passengers on shorter lines and estimated waiting period.
Digital technology supports the deployment of safety stations in airports, where clients walk through using their bags without invasive searches (Schwartz 2014). Most holiday travelers spend more time shopping and other industrial activities at airports, and a number of these customers complain of data connectivity. Consequently, the protracted waiting time in creating orders is a challenge in many airports. However, the adoption of innovated technologies allows clients to pre-order products from the terminal to improve the travel experience (Kalakou, Psaraki-Kalouptsidi & Moura 2015).
Company lounges in certain airports have benefited from these inventions, where a company traveler’s tea service is delivered on arrival from the landing lounge. Schwartz (2014) asserts that airport navigation is another challenge experienced by customers. In most cases, after long travel flights, passengers who could be exhausted and find it challenging to locate their destinations. Because of this challenge, they are sometimes overdue to boarding, causing flight cancellation or rescheduled departures. The issue is challenging because fight cancellation involves offloading their luggage, which creates delays at hub airports that rely on connectivity. To prevent such embarrassments, airline operators could implement mobile programs with GPS enhancements to help passengers and suppress such flaws.
The luggage holding section is another area that creates challenges for customers. Delays in luggage identification and collection affect the passenger’s travel experience. For example, a passenger may board a 55-minute flight and then wait over 2 hours to collect his or her luggage due to poor sorting services. Strategic data applications could lessen these flaws by creating bag-tracking tags that estimate short waiting times and boost timeliness (Phillips 2016).
While passengers wait for their luggage, the use of data applications in identification reduces distress. The integration of biometric scanning programs that provide facial features with fingerprints designs can be deployed for passenger identification. The technology encourages passenger satisfaction and retention (Al-Jader & Sentosa 2015). Thus, data strategic applications could transform airports with agile technologies.
Airports with centralized data-sharing terminals proactively address client interests and issues. These technologies support the deployment of web 3.0 equipment to ease operational logistics and real-time investigation of passenger concerns. By implication, the majority of the customer contact points will be characterized via pervasive linkages involving airline operators and their customers (Schwartz 2014). These capacities will boost cooperation among stakeholders like employees, concessions, support providers, safety entities, and regulatory authorities, for increased customer experience.
Digital applications allow stakeholders to provide continuous feedback with passengers within and outside the airport proximity. As a result, airline operators and managers could provide important data such as traffic congestions, faster local routes to the airport, and access to parking spaces to facilitate timely departure and arrival times for passengers. Such a strategy creates certainty and enhances the traveling experience for different types of passengers (Al-Jader & Sentosa 2015).
According to Yee Liau and Pei Tan (2014), communication technologies enhance the consumer travel experience, leading to many different solutions such as smartphone programs offering flight upgrades, parking access, and listings of pubs and stores. Consequently, interactive service maps help the movement of passengers within the airport, weather forecast, and booking points. The technology allows the deployment of Bluetooth technology to monitor the passenger’s location within the service facility. Thus, digital applications permit airline staff to schedule passenger’s travel arrangements based on location and proximity.
Data Strategic Applications in Aviation
The benefit of digital applications in aviation has been reported in different works of literature. The deployment of data strategic applications in airports plays a critical role in easing the individuality of restricted access to services. Digital apps allow the timely interventions of queries and complaints and the adoption of proactive approaches to address passenger inconvenience (Wong & Wong 2017). Among the main areas appreciated by passengers in airports would be service quality. By implication, the capability of the passenger to socialize with employees is valuable since it enriches the timeliness of operations and reduces uncertainty.
Such interaction permits passengers to receive advice or aid in a timely fashion. Additionally, it shapes positive customer perceptions of the airport, thereby recommending acquaintances and relatives, which is critical in fostering a favorable brand image and better business prospects (Jasimuddin, Mishra & Saif Almuraqab 2017). Digital strategy and technology in airports have improved the marketing of airport infrastructure. Based on its effectiveness, airline operators and managers can categorize passengers according to their features, needs, and travel routine. This feat can only be possible using the information generated from its operations.
Digital technologies and data applications support such classification. The appropriate categorization and communication of passenger prerequisites facilitate the expeditious service of travel processes for more straightforward transit (Jasimuddin, Mishra & Saif Almuraqab 2017). Despite diverse challenges, air transportation has soared in global markets. The implementation of data partnerships involving airlines signifies a more significant amount of passengers use airports. Many investors have acquired and built larger carriers to increase efficiency. The amount of passengers and strict safety checks increases the challenge of queues in airports (Bonnín Roca et al. 2017).
Travelers are compelled to arrive before their scheduled departures and even restricted to specific locations within the airport terminal. This process requires managers to employ more personnel to control large numbers of passengers. However, the adoption of data strategic applications can address these inconveniences. Utilizing digital technologies to manage queues can reduce exhaustive waiting process and increase time spent within the airport hubs.
Such smart applications help airport employees in handling lines, thereby enhancing the passenger movement. Airline operators can monitor, interact, and control passenger volume by creating options for effective queue administration. Data strategic applications have been deployed in areas such as asset distribution, check-in, pass validation, employee scheduling, and service architecture.
Awareness Gap Identified by the Literature
Research in aviation has been limited to performance, service quality, and profit maximization. This study attests to the gap in the literature on the benefits of data strategic applications in aviation. Comitz and Kersch (2016) asserted the adoption of data strategic applications and digitalization technology had exposed the classification of service gaps in aviation. Digitalization technology guarantees that the integration of disparate services. The authors emphasized that the incorporation of distinct providers and connecting them with clients has been critical in implementing and enhancing airline performance.
For example, digital communications have significantly improved advertising campaigns and generated invaluable client information that contributed to improved service delivery. Such information influences the effective deployment of products and services to meet specific demands. Digitalization has been instrumental in preventing duplication of solutions, particularly gate holing departments, luggage selection, and retail places (Comitz & Kersch 2016). It ensures that airline operators and airports are managed under global standards in service delivery to boost curated travel experience.
Knowledge gaps influence the implementation of data strategic applications in the aviation industry. Jeeradist, Thawesaengskulthai, and Sangsuwan (2016) argued that differences in financial strength and profit maximization affect the adoption of strategic applications among airline investors. Airlines in certain areas, like Africa, experience shortfalls in earnings that curtail the deployment of resources in data strategic applications. However, Arab North American airline investors have made substantial investments in data strategic platforms to boost the amount of the service delivery and profitability.
Consequently, managers that cannot adopt digital applications rely on foreign expatriates at high prices, thereby creating knowledge gaps in operations. There are drawbacks to data applications, most notably the reduction of private passengers. The reduction of such social relations can result in the entrenchment of adverse perceptions about airport operations, particularly customers with special needs. As a result, airline operators must install different strategic applications to meet customers’ demands. Tourists with special requirements, like the visually impaired, cannot operate most electronic kiosks because they utilize touchscreen technologies (Straker & Wrigley 2016).
Passenger perception and attitude is another challenge to a knowledge gap. Some passengers may not accept customized programs in an airport due to the misuse of customer information, which makes digital implementation undesirable to a segment of their customer base. Some airports sped funds to create awareness on the need to adopt data strategic innovations for the increased value and effectiveness of their services.
Investors need to survey different technologies based on their preferences, safety, and flaws to address the concerns of their customers. For example, managers may research to ascertain the trend in technology demands based on geographical differentiation and create specific applications based on the study outcome. Digital programs should be user-friendly and interactive to optimize customer perceptions and value (Straker & Wrigley 2016).
Phillips (2016) concluded that most airports lack sufficient staff for specific needs. For example, the aged passengers may not understand digital applications and would require staff support to locate boarding sections, carry their luggage, and shop items. Based on this challenge, airline operators and managers should employ more support personnel to create awareness on the need for digital applications and assist those who cannot use smart devices. This strategy would reduce inconvenience and improve passenger curated travel experience. Consequently, support staff should engage in self-assurance attempts for travelers that resist digital communication technology. Digitized kiosks should be armed with example sound straps to boost the wide variety of alternatives for the handicapped and impaired, in obtaining the essential services.
Straker and Wrigley (2016) cited building design as another impediment to the adoption of data strategic applications in airports. Many airports have thick glass multipurpose layouts, creating difficulties for network connectivity, and locating customers. Such airport architecture makes it challenging the managers and staff to secure safe transit of passengers from the terminal building into their destination. As a result, investors must consider the architectural layout of terminals to match the deployment of electronic communication devices and digital applications (Straker & Wrigley 2016).
Most travelers in developing nations have a higher affinity for manual security checks rather than utilizing digital technologies. Chen, Batchuluun, and Batnasan (2015) listed demographic issues as an impediment and a significant gap in the literature. These passengers understand the process of manual check-in, based on its use in their localities.
Cultural Drifts and Expectations
Cultural drift and expectations impede the adoption of digital applications in aviation. There are legal limitations on the installation of innovative technologies in airports. Government approval can be protracted and cumbersome. Such obstacles introduce debatable disparities in adopting digital technologies and applications. The manifestation of these issues signifies supervisory, technical, and logistical challenges when creating strategic applications to address varied demographic and cultural requirements.
The Implication of Outsourcing
Some airports install digital applications, while others outsource the connection due to the cost implication. As a result, it is difficult for passengers to access real-time information and services. Chen, Batchuluun, and Batnasan (2015) noted that outsourcing digital implementations sometimes impede its performance to improve the passenger experience. Such limitations create distorted operations and imbalanced passenger experience as they travel through different airports and countries (Chen, Batchuluun & Batnasan 2015). Though digitalization provides a variety of possibilities and efficiencies, the capital expenditure incurred and operational cost is expensive. The aviation sector is competitive, with operators competing for space, customers, routes, and revenue. Thus, the cost implication of digitalization may deter investors who understand its benefits.
The Significance of Digitalization to the Airline Business
The airline industry is experiencing its most significant change since its deregulation. Digital transformation and financial evolutions are forcing significant changes in employee performance and service quality (Crespo-Almendros & Del Barrio-García 2016). Considering that the adaptation of data strategic applications could increase the value and revenue, digitalization is applicable in the aviation sector. Therefore, the aviation industry sustains its growth in cost configuration, security architecture, and brand differentiation.
Despite the intensity of competition emanating from lower travel prices, and the limitations in maintenance, the cost configuration of these business airlines is a significant reason in adopting data strategic applications and digitalization. A critical characteristic of oligopolies in aviation is the need for substantial capital investments to boost performance. The assumption creates high fixed costs, stimulating considerations for cost reductions in operations using digital solutions (Crespo-Almendros & Del Barrio-García 2016).
Additionally, working with large quantities to achieve scalable benefits and cost reductions could facilitate huge improvements in sustainability (Crespo-Almendros & Del Barrio-García 2016). Based on this assumption, strategic data applications can be deployed to lower the cost of operations. Other technologies include 3D-printing, big data, and the Internet of Things (IoT).
The safety nature of airline maintenance makes the sector vulnerable to data strategic applications. Digitalization and globalization have reduced the space between airlines and external parties. The shrink in area and environment raises a new dilemma for identified risks. Regarding interdependent security hazards, the cost of safety is expensive. Interdependent security hazards are a risk induced by individual actions and operations (Comitz & Kersch 2016).
An interdependent security threat could be a terrorist interference or a harmful object placed within an aircraft. Chen et al. (2016) studied factors that influenced the interconnected solution. The authors adopted a strategy of investing considerable funds into problems affected by individual actions. The authors used the Nash equilibrium model to evaluate interdependent solutions. Under this model, aviation operators must invest in security to maximize profits. These strategies assist investors in implementing digital technology and reduce operational costs. Strategic data applications in security include automated control cabin, Blockchain innovation, and augmented reality.
Bran differentiation supports digitalization in aviation. Since digitalization lowers the cost of investment, most investors understand the need for implementation. Thus, airline investors are implementing data strategic applications that are difficult to imitate. The capacity to integrate big data, Blockchain technology, IoT, AR, and 3D printing differentiates airlines with performance.
Components of Data Strategic Applications in Aviation
Internet of Things
The IoT can be used to improve the passenger’s travel experience. Comitz and Kersch (2016) define IoT as a link of the system and actuate apparatus supplying the capacity to share data across platforms via a unified architecture, creating concepts that powers data applications. The IoT connection can be categorized into object and internet perspectives. The internet perspective deals with online services, while the object component focuses on smart devices that enhance passenger’s travel experience. Aviation studies have recommended the use of IoT to track and manage lugged safety and identification (Alt & Zimmermann 2017).
There is a growing concern about luggage identification and management as passengers narrate incidents of loss and trauma. Studies have shown that 85 % of luggage mismanagement and delays were recorded in 2017 (Comitz & Kersch 2016). This percentage accounts for more than 3 million luggage losses in 2017. The figure is alarming and draws concern for customers and airline operators. The deployment of IoT architecture can mitigate these losses and improve the travel experience.
Therefore, commercial airlines are motivated to develop useful applications that could track and tag luggage and products. Wong and Wong (2017) recommended the deployment of RFID form of communication that depends on IoT connection to facilitate the handling of travel bags, the monitoring procedure, and to preserve the environment as disposable bag tags would not be needed. In practice, the machine would involve RFID readers that collect information from passive sources in retail shops, airports, airlines, and resorts. The private RFID label, using specific number and radio frequency transmits data to the RFID readers, which forward the information to a terminal database.
This information is then uploaded on the user interface, where passengers can track and collect their luggage. By employing these digital technologies, could stimulate passenger satisfaction and enhance its competitive edge. Consequently, the airline management could save cost of operations since the reimbursement of lost luggage may diminish notably.
An effective digital implementation enhances productivity. Crespo-Almendros and Del Barrio-García (2016) argued that data strategic applications must accommodate different customer requirements and conserve operating costs. The authors emphasized that most airline operators have introduced web channels for ticketing to avoid the challenges of travel agencies. The authors believed that online ticket solutions cheaper and much more efficient than office management processes (Crespo-Almendros and Del Barrio-García 2016).
Although online ticketing is user- friendly, the researchers investigated the extent to which operators could integrate its marketing processes with online platforms. Their study was based on information derived from financial and nonmonetary online data. The study findings suggest that distinct online services must be used for different users according to their knowledge of internet usage. Based on this assumption, the IoT architecture contributes to the overall performance of consumer relations in the aviation sector.
Big data (BD) describe complex datasets that cannot be processed by conventional methods. The definition ascribes two components of big data as complexity and magnitude (Yee Liau & Pei Tan 2014). Chen, Mao, and Liu (2014) emphasized that BD functions as a catalyst for innovation, competition, and productivity, meaning that its potential remains indistinct. Yee Liau & Pei Tan (2014) investigated the benefits of BD on gaining client knowledge in the aviation sector with a variety of data exploration tools.
The researchers analyzed complex data collection based on customer service delivery, flight delays, rescheduling, ticket sales, and on-hold booking process. The authors recommended K-clustering in acquiring passenger’s information in service delivery. The knowledge about client motivation aids in bringing new target groups and mitigating identified issues. Thus, implementing these approaches to assess, manage, and process the client’s needs can improve airline preference and enhance the passenger’s travel experience (Yee Liau & Pei Tan 2014).
Chen, Mao, and Liu (2014) acknowledge the potentials big data in aviation. For example, the computerized reservation systems record, store, and process extensive passenger name record that permits managers to compute specific estimations with their customer base. Marketing strategies have been competitive, and airline operators create loyalty programs based on available data on customers’ demands and need.
Big data facilitate precise analysis to avoid overcrowding. While this technology is managed across different platforms to improve customer experience, airlines may obtain deeper knowledge about the consumer requirements and trade information of competitors. This improvement of the technical and analytical methods allowed airlines to address clients’ concerns and gain invaluable insight into their competitive surroundings (Alt & Zimmermann 2017).
By recognizing clients and the competitive environment, airlines may boost their customer satisfaction and gain a better grasp of rival activities while implementing brand differentiation strategies. By assessing the position of competing events in digital transformation, commercial airlines may also evaluate their flaws from the digitalization process and make adjustments. The aviation business is undergoing extreme expansion, which will force airline operators to search for the best resources to function as an ever-expanding sector (Vranken 2017). Most investors are altering their business models to gain a competitive edge.
The aviation sector creates and manages customer information using digitized architecture. Many airlines cannot control and process the number of information they collect from passengers and stakeholders. Based on this assumption, Big Data has become an expansion tool that connects and analyzes data inputs to improve service delivery. This technology has created the notion of a service-oriented model that supports business development (Vranken 2017).
Data obtained from the engine display unit enables effective predictive maintenance. The fuel tracking system could be analyzed to create efficient and effective fueling choices. Weather information may be utilized to ascertain how different flying conditions affect engine operation and pick the most effective mission route. Unit monitoring data may be used to determine upgrade priorities. These operations support revenue management, curated travel experience, and service efficiency.
Data information is created based on historical events and activities. The technological revolution has made it feasible to gather, store, and analyze considerable quantities of information. With many provisions to create data, datasets grow at an exponential rate, with the traditional techniques accessible to store and analyze information become ineffective and demanding.
Big data identifies a massive volume of information generated in a high pace by many resources. While processing this information, routines, insights, and relationships are accessed, which is not possible with restricted data. Many organizations are utilizing external and internal to create better, brighter, real-time conclusions giving them a definite edge over rivals. This benefit grows as more information is generated. The aviation industry is undergoing an expansion that mandates airline operators to search for better instruments to function in the expanding sector. Some airline operators are considering altering their basic business models.
The aviation business creates and manages complex data and data registry. Many airports and airlines lack the infrastructure to control and process the number of information being generated. With the correct facilities set up, such information can be utilized to exercise control and create a competitive edge and advantage. Chen, Mao, and Liu (2014) emphasized that big data is a valuable asset and priority for airline operators.
The authors suggested that BD impact could be shaped into effective revenue-producing approaches. With over 200,000 commercial take-offs daily, data generated from these shuttles are becoming critical in decision making by airline operators and manufacturers. Schwartz (2014) asserts that digitalization improves flight operations, reduces flight cancellation, and delays. Digitalization promotes efficiency by encouraging the implementation of system sequences between flight controllers and pilots. Scherer, Wünderlich, and von Wangenheim (2015) believed that data strategic applications promote the adoption of a new reconnaissance technology.
The implementation strategy supports an efficient air transport system. The new platform will replace the present sensor systems using a satellite-based infrastructure that can guarantee security identification with precision. Lee and Park (2016) believe that digitization and data strategic applications play a significant role in sustaining small carrier investments. The low return on investments is a substantial challenge for the same carrier airports. However, the availability of data strategic applications eases remote management of these airports, with its controls positioned in bigger airports.
Phillips (2016) suggested the possibility of air traffic personnel using data strategic applications to fly and land aircraft in smaller airports. Such prospects translate into high levels of consumer fulfillment because of service expansion along local routes. The possibility to manage different flight towers using data strategic applications illustrates the significance of digital technologies in improving the consumer travel experience and communication channels. Padrón et al. (2016) stated that digitalization provides backup to aid contingency planning during sabotage or emergencies. Data strategic applications in aviation improve service efficiency and reliability via the optimum utilization of data infrastructures.
Blockchain is a secured and linked registry with a growing database. The ledger records are processed and managed by cartography. Blockchain technologies can function as the technical basis for transactions, trade, investment earnings, electronic source transmission, smart investment, and implementation (Tapscott & Tapscott 2017). Underwood (2016) studied Blockchain technologies and listed the benefits of its properties. These benefits are associated with supply, promotion, and its characteristic feature. Primarily, because Blockchain is dispersed across several geographical locations, therefore, it does not have a central database.
The distinguishing feature of Blockchain technology removes the dangers of a central database, and its transparency provides effective adaptability. Blockchain allows a virtually real-time authorization of listed transactions, which lessens the transfer intervals of payments. Because of the advantages of deploying Blockchain technology, the capability to digitize and digitalize an investment portfolio is distinguished (Tapscott & Tapscott 2017). Relevant elements like trade times and prices could be eliminated because Blockchain technology empowers an organization to allocate external and internal resources (Vranken 2017).
This, in turn, eases insecure or impossible trades because of the absence of payments of obtaining trust. In deploying Blockchain technology to improve the travel experience, airlines may gain more significant cost economies, bolstered security, and solutions to effective resource allocation. This technology addresses the security-related question of airline operators and a substantial influence on the expenses of the airline market.
Additionally, embracing this technology a significant competitive edge for the organization. The most notable result of embracing Blockchain is its impact on customer satisfaction via a better client loyalty plan, which significantly enriches the brand awareness of the airline (Ebarefimia 2017). The finding is a comprehensive survey that analyzed the impacts of the use of Blockchain innovation in aviation. A positive correlation has been found between Blockchain engineering and enhancing passenger satisfaction (Ebarefimia 2017). Therefore, Blockchain deployment in data strategic applications improves the passenger’s travel experience.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the capacity of complex systems to perform intelligent tasks using machine learning. AI deployment could be reactive or limited memory. AI integration in the aviation industry has been disruptive as it changes the business approach towards its operations and profit maximization. As airlines drive growth through fleet expansion and technology, they seek to improve the customer’s travel experience by enhancing efficiency and avoiding human errors. AI technology is revolutionizing the aviation industry with an accurate and precise mode of operations using machine learning.
Machine learning has been adopted in fleet operations control, customer service, passenger retention, and machine processes. Under fleet operation management, AI has been deployed in dynamic pricing, pricing optimization, flight rescheduling prediction, fraud detection, crew scheduling, and customer service.
Augmented reality (AR) is a practice that evokes the composite view of a real object with virtual articles. Palmarini et al. (2018) described AR at the attribute of blending virtual and actual posts in a real-life environment and the capacity to operate in real-time. Using advanced AR technologies, the understanding of the operator’s environment transforms into an interactive environment (Palmarini et al. 2018).
The use of AR technology aircraft repairs and maintenance has been widely accepted and beneficial (Palmarini et al. 2018). AR engineering in the aviation sector is modeled to build eccentric interfaces using wearable visualization methods to present information as electronic and graphic databases (Palmarini et al. 2018). According to Palmarini et al. (2018), conventional repair techniques cannot be used on contemporary aircraft and need to be upgraded to manage the intricate procedures and avionics. By integrating AR design, maintenance workers could perform complex jobs without handbooks, which frequently contribute to frustration and error (Palmarini et al. 2018).
AR could reduce the training time of MRO personnel because it has been demonstrated to decrease the compulsory manual maintenance jobs. By implementing AR innovation, information on maintenance operations could be transferred between distinct augmented platforms, eliminating the challenge of knowledge transfer between employees (Palmarini et al. 2018). By improving performance in executing and managing aircraft repairs, airlines could boost security, stimulate cost reductions, improve efficiency, and curated travel experience (Palmarini et al. 2018). By implication, the quality of MRO on aircraft operations increases flight performance and customer experience.
Airline automation changes the process of task accomplishment by introducing new synchronization needs of the operator. Automation is the machine implementation of works once achieved by people (Noy, Shinar & Horey 2018). Automation technology has been adapted in-flight cabin, seat booking, staff rosters, and ticketing. Automation has become a radical technological improvement in aviation because it enhances operational performance and flight security (Noy, Shinar & Horey 2018). Automation has a positive effect on decreasing workload and raising task efficiency (Washington, Clothier & Williams 2017).
Although automation improves performance and safety, airline operators are wary of the risks of using automated functions. Human dependence on automatic services sometimes encourages pilots to operate under abnormal conditions (Noy, Shinar & Horey 2018). Additionally, relying on automated systems influence the imperfect monitoring process that creates adversities under critical conditions.
This study methodology summarizes the approaches used for the analysis. The chapter also provides information about theories that underpin the adoption of these approaches. The section will offer justifications for all the segments within the chapter and provide clear reasoning supporting each strategy.
The research design is an approach adopted to incorporate different areas of the study to achieve its objectives. The study design guarantees that the findings resolve the research problem. Several research designs were considered and discarded. The research considered an exploratory technique, which is appropriate for hypothetical questions and a descriptive method of analysis that reviews previous works of literature. Given the comparative dominance of digitalization, data strategic applications, and the restricted access to research its use, the descriptive method of analysis that describes a phenomenon by providing additional data is appropriate for this investigation.
This assumption is valid if the sample analysis creates inferences into future possibilities and identifies market trends. Based on this evaluation, the study design supports the deployment of quantitative and qualitative approaches in data analysis. Descriptive research design provides an appropriate basis for data collection since it facilitates the analysis of passenger’s attitudes, opinions, and perceptions of service quality with the Dubai International Airport based on the deployment of data strategic applications. A descriptive study design reveals information that may not be quantified using qualitative or explanatory research layouts (Mohajan 2018).
The adoption of the descriptive design encouraged the researcher to use several approaches to expand the scope of the investigation. Such information offered additional insights into the region of research and notified the management of the impact of data strategic applications on customer’s curated travel experience. This descriptive study design strategy allowed the researcher to guarantee the confidentiality and variability of the procedure by enabling participants to respond to the survey queries under normal conditions.
Research philosophy is a conviction about the methods of data collection. Positivism asserts that the techniques and methods of sciences are essential in social research and can be deployed to examine social phenomena. However, interpretivism states that technologies and approaches of sciences do not apply to social phenomena. This study will adopt a post-positivism strategy, where it recognizes the independent knowledge of the researcher in distributing and evaluating the findings of the investigation (Mohajan 2018). The researcher will also use a structured literature review to examine the impact of data strategic applications in the aviation industry.
A descriptive strategy will be used to test the predetermined theory that defines causality, utilizing empirical approaches. The inductive strategy aims at assessing the sample to create new concepts and answer the study questions linked to the research objectives. The analysis will adopt probability sampling to gather data from participants. Probability sampling is useful because it offers independent selection patterns among distinct classes. Therefore, the system provides an equivalent probability and contains less prejudice in the sample choice. Such a strategy facilitates high data reliability and validity.
Noble and Smith (2015) emphasized that a precise and transparent outline of the study procedure preserves consistency and neutrality. To guarantee the trustworthiness of this information, the researcher sustained a decision path to ensure that the conclusions were transparent and flawless. The observations will provide the opportunity to understand how clients assess knowledge during active flight schedules. Using direct observation, the researcher will find out whether clients could locate the beacon signals using their smart devices to avoid delays. The researcher will observe the impact of data strategic applications on ticketing, in-flight activities, boarding checks, luggage identification, online shopping malls, and passenger identification.
The analysis employed probability sampling to assess data on the targeted classes of passengers that use the Dubai International Airport. Probability sampling is an appropriate strategy because it permits a proportionate selection of all components of the population. Therefore, the procedure offers balanced probabilities in contrast to other methods. The approach facilitates a fair representation of the target group, and this action is critical to ensuring that the conclusions and interpretations represent the perceptions of the participants (Rahi 2017). The concentrated sample size for this analysis was one hundred and fifty respondents because the most important target for this particular analysis was transit travelers.
The study deployed random sampling in categorizing the respondents. Such a strategy ensures that travelers had a similar prospect of being chosen to be part of this sample, thereby removing any inherent or mindful bias that could undermine the standard of data collection. Random sampling is appropriate for this analysis because members of these groups are comparable in critical respects such as nationality, geographical locations other than Dubai, and non-VIP clients, meaning they would be subjected to identical safety checks and procedures.
Data Collection Process
The researcher obtained approval and permission from the management team to facilitate the selection process. Since transiting customers had little time, the selection process was thorough and precise. The researcher stationed in the waiting lobby to select participants during their free periods. The technique permited rational responses from customers who were not under any pressure to meet flight schedules or security checks. Most passengers who were selected had temporary stopovers with more than 10 hours waiting period. This fact was necessary to avoid turnoffs and hostile reception from customers or irrational responses that would affect the credibility and reliability of the study findings.
The airport supervisor gave the researcher consent to interact with its employees. Thus, the primary sources of data collection were airline employees and transit travelers. The survey design allows the grouping of considerable amounts of information from a small sample population at a reduced cost (Rahi 2017). It is easy to measure and analyze data using nominal resources. Nevertheless, questionnaires may not provide reliable information as it relates to passenger perceptions of curated travel experience.
Based on the research objectives, this researcher will apply several methods to collect data and answer the research questions. The researcher will conduct a structured literature review and a descriptive research design. Under the structured literature review, this study will explore different works of literature and factors similar to this research to match the assumptions and definitions that have been examined. This technique involves gathering existing information from several databases, such as research papers, articles, aviation publications, and digital sources. The information collected from massive databases will depend on its significance and reliability.
The researcher used specific keywords for data extraction. The Google search engine was used to find key strings like the Internet of things (IoT), big data, artificial intelligence, Blockchain technology, and data strategic applications. The structured literature review will be used to balance the research information deficiency. Yin (2014) said that a quantitative study contains information evaluation through the arrangement and organization of data converted to codes and subjects. Based on these research assumptions, several statistical tools were used to test the reliability of the observational outcome. The data analysis process will include information coding, data cleansing, record matching, sample proofing, and evaluation.
The researcher’s observations determined the impact of data strategic applications on flight schedules, aircraft maintenance, pricing, luggage identification, passenger identification, ticketing, and the passenger’s travel experience. The observations also permitted the capacity to clarify how clients access information about their flights and other services. This information is essential in facilitating the timely transport of passengers without flaws. Under direct observation, the researcher identified if clients could navigate through the terminals using airport programs and apps. The researcher administered open-ended questions to evaluate the customer’s perceptions of service quality and its impact on the travel experience.
The impacts on the passenger’s travel experience were based on services provided before take-off and after landing. The services described the overall airline performance as it affects and addresses passenger demands. The questionnaire allowed the grouping of important information based on the sample size at a reduced cost. In addition to the ease of measurement, the questionnaire prevented pressured and bias responses. The researcher avoided conversations with the participants, aside from the brief introductions and the reasons for the survey. The contact limitation between the researcher and respondents eliminated interviewer bias.
Questionnaires sometimes offer limited assistance to measure the attitudes and emotions of the respondents. However, its use in open-ended queries did not restrict participants from expressing themselves differently and accordingly. The additional information was valuable because it provided insight into the problems being addressed. It also answered the questions in the literature gap. Open-ended inquiries prevented response error because participants could study the questions beforehand. The technique limits mistakes compared with close-ended questions in which respondents tick boxes under specified answers. The surveys were given to selected participants as they awaited clearance at different areas within the boarding terminal. The respondents subsequently dropped the completed surveys at strategic locations within the airport.
Primary and Secondary Data Sources
The research will use reliable primary and secondary data sources. Credibility is attained by showing that the outcomes are acceptable from the participants’ view. Transferability occurs when the consequences of this study can move to other circumstances and prospective research. Dependability means the tested data is reliable. Dependability addresses modifications and changes that alter the researcher’s investigation (Yin 2014). Based on these assumptions, the articles used in this investigation will be recent and reliable. The researcher will review materials and journals published between 2014 and 2019. The secondary data will include articles, journals, and online sources. The selected airline employees and passengers that use the carrier will form the primary data for this research.
The information accumulated was treated under different processes to ensure credibility and achieve its objectives. The first phase involved data purification using tables to categorize results in columns and rows depending on the similarities or tendencies on the answers obtained from the respondents.
The next phase involved data treatment includes:
- Classifying all of the research information accumulated for treatment.
- Ranking database on its relevance to the research objectives.
- Dumping information that has been incomplete.
- Categorizing answers from the respondents to the survey questions.
- Discarding duplicate responses.
The data purification process enhanced data originality for analysis to guarantee content validity. The treated information was then analyzed using a mixed-methods approach. The researcher adopted a content analysis as a qualitative method and descriptive statistics as the quantitative technique. Under the descriptive statistics, the frequency and percentage distribution of data were calculated. These approaches were critical in boosting the standard of the inferences drawn from the information. Data visualization methods, like charts and tables, were implemented to enhance the visibility of the data being analyzed.
Validity and Reliability
The validity of a study determines its credibility by testing the correctness of the research findings. Research validity could be construct, content, face, and criterion. Internal validity describes the trustworthiness of the study procedures and tools deployed throughout the analysis (Mohajan 2017). The researcher created questions that addressed the subject under investigation. The research questions were structured in simple English to improve comprehension and understanding for passengers who understood English as a second language. To ensure the validity of the research findings, open-ended questions were adopted to guarantee the freedom to express themselves.
The study findings met the requirements of external validity because the researcher interviewed transit passengers and airline employees. The responses were based on personal experiences since they utilized different data strategic applications within the airport. Therefore, the findings could be compared to other airports with similar facilities irrespective of geographic location. This study examined the impact of data strategic applications on the curated travel experience.
Based on this objective, the research questions related to operations that enhanced customer satisfaction. By implication, if comparable research were conducted, under a digitalized environment, the findings would be similar and reliable. In testing the validity and reliability of the research tools, the researcher conducted a pilot experiment within the airport to ascertain whether the descriptive approaches would yield sufficient information that could be matched to supply recommendations to fulfill the gaps in the literature. The researcher observed the airport before the initiation of the study and issued questionnaires to arbitrary respondents.
The researcher participated in casual discussions with employees and followed various elements to ascertain whether the observations could provide data for analysis. After the surveys were returned, the researcher eliminated vague questions and clarified unclear statements that led to the misinterpretation of data. The pilot study provided a pivot for the actual examination. The researcher adopted the test-retest procedure to find out whether the information provided by the study participants will be comparable in two events.
Reliability data was ascertained by a positive correlation between the test and analysis. The procedure was successful in boosting the standard of the analysis process and ensuring the right information was supplied to enhance decision-making. The method promoted the likelihood of defining the effectiveness of the study data and demonstrated its representation in a real environment.
The primary moral issue of the research was the informed consent form. The researcher painstakingly assured all participants were informed on what the study included. The participants were educated on the objectives of the research and how their responses were utilized. All respondents were also advised of the right to withdraw from the study, and involvement was voluntary. These steps guaranteed that participants were not under duress, and data information collected was factual. The confidentiality and privacy of respondents were other ethical issues for the research. Participants were confident that the information they supplied would not be shared or used against them.
To protect the confidentiality of the participants, the researcher utilized coded ID tags to represent each response form. Assessing the anonymity of both the participants and employees improved the quality of answers, because there were no worries of victimization. The researcher worked under strict adherence to research guidelines and ethics. The researcher adhered to standard guidelines when assessing and reporting the findings of this study.
Results from Literature Review
The researcher reviewed many works of literature on factors that influence the customer’s travel experience. This study seeks to answers two research questions on data strategic applications.
- What is the impact of data strategic application and digitalization in aviation?
- What is the impact of data strategic applications on a curated travel experience?
The research questions were resolved by evaluating digitalization and its significance on performance. This study considered specific aviation attributes such as service quality, price structure, safe, and rivalry. The study findings were consistent with the analysis of different works of literature on the impact of digitalization in aviation (Comitz & Kersch 2016; Jeeradist, Thawesaengskulthai & Sangsuwan 2016; Skorupski & Uchroński 2016; Tokgöz et al. 2018; Upadhya 2016).
Data strategic application is changing the aviation business by creating a competitive digital environment. The findings suggest that commercial airlines may considerably increase performance in pricing and safety by implementing strategic digital technologies. The implementation strategy must cover consumer interface and flight functionality. Improvements in economic performance enhance consumer satisfaction, which contributes to improved profits and market development. Based on the findings of the review, data strategic applications and digitalization enhance airline operations by bridging communication gaps, improving the quality of service delivery to passengers, and maintaining aircraft. Predictive repairs and maintenance reduce uncertainties in flight schedules, thereby improving customer satisfaction.
The researcher acted as a reflective practitioner and an observer. By implication, the researcher observed negative or positive impacts of data strategic applications in Dubai International airport. Chen, Batchuluun, and Batnasan (2015) describes participant monitoring as a process of devoting time to observe events in its cultural and social context. The researcher sought evidence supporting the impact of data strategic applications in Dubai International Airport and aimed to prevent the challenges of research bias and objectivity. The researcher adopted different roles to ensure the credibility of the study findings.
As an Ethnographer, the researcher analyzed the culture and practice of the airline and passengers to create empirical interpretations. The researcher administered survey queries and engaged in passenger observation to obtain information. The culture and tradition within the airline formed the organizational norm, internal control, routine operations, maintenance strategy, and objective measurement. The research queries were simple to understand, receptive, and casual.
As a professional, the researcher understood the knowledge of operations regarding the aviation business. Therefore, the researcher obtained several permissions based on informed knowledge management operations within the airport. Implementing personal understanding in discussions and inquiries influenced the confidence of the supervisors who provided, authorized access to passengers and employees.
As a historian, the researcher studied different works of literature on data strategic applications, digitalization, and its impact on the travel experience. The researcher’s knowledge of researcher ethics and guidelines enhanced the data collections process to guarantee the credibility of the study outcome and recommendations. Monitoring as a method of gathering information may be confronted with problems of prejudgment because an investigator might compromise the observations to match his or her assessment. Mohajan (2017) adopted a model in assessing the reliability of observable data. It was crucial to ascertain whether the researcher neglected the model because of endangered objectivity.
The analysis demonstrated that the credibility and reliability of the findings removed concerns of subjectivity from the research. The deductions and observations were commanded by the researcher’s conduct, experience, and physical assessment as a participant-observer. According to the test model mentioned above, the outcomes were reliable since academics can repeat the procedures in different locations and airports and still make similar conclusions and recommendations.
Number of Observations
The information gathered was reported as field notes. The observable information contained different aspects of the research, which include comments, decisions from casual discussions, and benchmark information obtained from the airline’s records. The researcher reported over 200 observations and coded 310 responses. Some responses were discarded because of similarity, while others had unique content. The study followed a systematic procedure to attain these outcomes. The observations were random but narrowed to specific parameters as the analysis progressed. As found in table 1, the researcher reported the types of observations to guarantee the authenticity of data and demonstrate the frequency of interpretations during each phase.
|Frequency of Observations|
|Descriptive||The investigator monitored every activity as a novice||124||19%|
|Focused||The investigators observed activities that aligned with the study goals||215||33%|
|Selective||Responses from casual comments were observed||315||48%|
As found in table 1, the investigator began with a descriptive observation process. The researcher observed every activity to understand the mode of operations, features, and structure of the airport. The frequency of descriptive observation was 124, while the frequency of focused observation was 215. The researcher made selective deductions and observations based on the study objectives.
As found in figure 1, the percentage of selective monitoring was 48 because the researcher made 315 observations. The percentage distribution of descriptive and focused observations was 19% and 33% respectively.
The investigator determined the gender frequency of participants as they queued at different locations in the airport.
|Frequency distribution of participants|
As found in table 2, the results showed that 250 passengers agreed to participate in the project. The participants were randomly selected after having brief discussions with them. The researcher conducted a 5-days investigation on the impact of data strategic application on the passenger’s travel experience. As a result, participants were limited to customers who provided answers to the survey questions. For each visit, the researcher observed and reported its findings as field notes.
As found in figure 2, the gender distribution showed that 90 women and 160 men participated in the project. The percentage distribution showed that 64% of the sample populations were males, while 36% were females.
Age Distribution of Participants
Since the investigation was an informal setting, it was difficult to ascertain the age of each participant. However, the researcher estimated their age by categorizing them based on physical traits. The researcher made four broad groups for the investigation. The strategy was adopted to understand the basis of their responses and the impact of data strategic applications on service quality.
|Age distribution of passengers|
|Middle age passengers||190||76%|
|Aged or Elderly||20||8%|
As found in table 3, the results from the sampled population showed that 76% of the passengers were categorized as middle-aged, while 14 percent were youths. As found in figure 3, eight percent of the sample populations were elderly travelers, while 2 percent were children. Based on the age distribution, the researcher concluded that the business nature of the city accounts for the influx of middle- age travelers who could be investors, managers, or shareholders.
Curated travel experience is a mix of different coordinated processes within the aviation industry. Data strategic applications have been deployed in various units of the airline’s operations. The researcher noted that the organization utilized Blockchain technology, IoT, big data, artificial intelligence, augmented reality, and automation in the value chain of its operations. The IoT technology was used in MRO applications to predict the aircraft maintenance status.
The researcher observed that predictive maintenance strategy reduced delays by 35% because it saved the engineering work time by 4 hours. Based on this advantage, the airline could overcome flight delays due to repair challenges. The investigator also observed that Blockchain technologies were deployed at different sections of the service unit. For example, Blockchain applications were used to track passenger’s luggage and shipments. The technology also facilitated automated payments, identity management, and prevented repetitive payments via the online interface. The passenger loyalty programs and ticketing was done through Blockchain technology.
The researcher was privileged to question some passengers who were waiting in the lounge for interconnecting flights. The passengers used the Dubai Airport as a connecting terminal to their destinations. Based on this reason, they had ample time to answer a few survey questions on the impact of data strategic applications for service delivery. With augmented reality, passengers could watch visual scenes of beautiful islands and vegetation during in-flight travel (Sternberg et al. 2016). Entertainment activity reduces the strain of long travel hours.
Answering the Research Questions
The researcher administered survey questions to passengers and employees in the waiting lounge. One hundred and sixty responses were collected from transit passengers because most answers were invalid, and others could not comprehend the inquiries due to language barriers. The researcher discarded some forms because of the response similarity. The researcher also gathered 50 responses from employees who participated in the project. The employees worked at strategic units within the airline.
The Benefits of Data Strategic Applications and Digitalization in Aviation
|Data strategic applications within units (services)||Satisfied||Not satisfied||Indifferent|
|Ticketing service (TS)||148||8||4|
|Flight delays (FD)||70||88||2|
|Luggage Identification (LD)||144||10||6|
|Boarding checks (BD)||146||12||2|
|In-flight meals (IM)||60||70||30|
|Timely security checks (TSC)||136||14||10|
|Terminal identification (TI)||140||12||8|
|Online shopping malls (OSM)||154||4||2|
To answer the first research question, the researcher sought to understand the impact of data strategic applications and digitalization in aviation. The table summarizes the passenger’s responses to data strategic applications. The researcher could only communicate with passengers who were waiting for connecting flights. Most of them had to wait for hours in the lounge. Because of the waiting time, the researcher engaged those who were willing to participate in the research.
As found in table 4, 160 participants provided responses that aligned with the study objective. The researcher asked participants to assess each service unit and answer if it was satisfactory. The researcher categorized their responses as satisfied, not satisfied, and indifferent. The results showed that 148 persons were satisfied with the ticketing service while eight persons noted their reservations about the service quality. In answering questions on flight delays, 70 passengers were satisfied with the airline’s services. For luggage identification and boarding checks, 144 and 146 participants were pleased with the airline’s services.
It is important to note that some participants were dissatisfied with the airline’s services. Most of them had language barriers, and it affected the communication process. For in-flight meals, 60 participants were satisfied with the airline’s services. One hundred and thirty-six members of the selected passengers were pleased with the timely security checks, while 140 were happy with the terminal identification process. Over one hundred and fifty-four participants were satisfied with the online shopping service.
|Percentage distribution of passenger’s response|
|Data strategic applications within units (services)||Satisfied||Percentage||Not satisfied||Percentage|
|Ticketing service (TS)||148||92.5%||8||5%|
|Flight delays (FD)||70||43.75%||88||55%|
|Luggage Identification (LD)||144||90%||10||6.25%|
|Boarding checks (BD)||146||91.25%||12||7.5%|
|In-flight meals (IM)||60||37.5%||70||43.75%|
|Timely security checks (TSC)||136||85%||14||8.75%|
|Terminal identification (TI)||140||87.5%||12||7.5%|
|Online shopping malls (OSM)||154||96.26%||4||2.5%|
The chart shows the percentage of distribution of passenger responses at Dubai Airport. As found in figure4, the results showed that 92.5 percent of the participants were satisfied with the ticketing services. Most of the service units scored over 80 percent satisfaction rate. The areas include luggage identification unit, security check unit, terminal identification, and online shopping. However, some passengers were dissatisfied with the airline’s operations in flight delays and in-flight meals. Due to cultural differences, most passengers were not given their local breakfast, and it influenced their perception of in-flight meals. Consequently, most flight delays were caused by weather change and communication signals with the receiving airport. The adoption of data strategic applications in Dubai airport had a positive impact on aviation
The Benefits of Data Strategic Applications on Curated Travel Experience
To answer the second research question, the researcher sought to understand the impact of data strategic applications and digitization on the curated travel experience. It was observed that Dubai airline adopted technologies such as big data, IoT, augmented reality, automation, artificial intelligence, and Blockchain. These technologies enhance the quality of service delivery in ticketing, luggage identification, timely security checks, airport location and identification, passenger communication, feedback analysis, and predictive maintenance. The responses from the employees were summarized below.
Due to the nature of operations, the researcher observed 50 employees at different work sections. The investigator asked questions about technology adoption and its impact on work performance. The areas of interest were ticket sales, security checks, luggage identification, aircraft repairs, and maintenance.
|Data strategic adoption with service units||Employee Satisfied||Not satisfied||Indifferent|
|Internet of Things||48||1||1|
The responses from employees were confidential as an ID tag represented each participant. The tag was used to encourage responses without prejudice. While the researcher observed the airline’s operations, a survey was conducted on the impact of digitalization on performance. Most employees complained of overtime due to passenger volumes. However, they were satisfied with the company’s utilization of innovative applications to ease their work schedules.
For example, the maintenance officer noted that predictive repairs have a significant impact on time and machine hours. The costs of operations have dropped because they could identify worn-out components even before it creates problems. As found in table 6, most employees were satisfied with the adoption of Blockchain technology, augmented reality, teller automation, passenger identification technology, IoT, and Big data.
As found in table 6, 45 employees were satisfied with the adoption of Blockchain technology. For teller automation and artificial intelligence, 49 and 47 employees acknowledged its impact on their work performance. Based on the analysis, a positive response represents its impact on the quality of service delivery. By implication, the quality of service delivery influences the customer’s travel experience.
The percentage distribution of the employee’s response showed that workers acknowledge the impact of digitalization in aviation. As found in figure 5, the adoption of automation technology, AI, and IoT significantly improved employee productivity and service delivery. The response in the percentage of automation was 9 percent, while the value of AI and IoT was 94 percent and 96% respectively.
Digitalization and Data Strategic Applications on Communication Processes
The adoption of data strategic applications has a positive influence on aviation. However, its implementation in communication could be another challenge in service delivery. For example, the user interface of most online applications should have multiple language capability due to cultural diversity. Based on this context, the researcher observed the types of device architecture deployed at the airport. The study noted the installation of wireless communications that serves transit passengers.
The wireless transmission covers Wi-Fi, call, and video data network. The technology facilitated operations in aircraft hangers, repair departments, security, perimeter fencing, and call centers. The researcher observed that communication apps were served in multiple languages to reduce the challenges of language barriers. The network architecture within the airport supported emergency telephone, air-interface encryption, and synchronization. Communicating with passengers is a significant feature of the curated travel experience. The study showed that information on flight schedules and weather information reduced customer’s anxiety and stress.
The researcher observed that information boards were placed at strategic points within the airport. As a result, passengers could see and read flight updates without asking questions. Such a strategy improved customer’s travel experience because it lowered uncertainties of flight delays, flight cancellation, and aircraft maintenance. The researcher also noticed the availability of digital road signs and destinations. Due to the size of the airport, passengers could avoid delays using several information boards. The information screens are powered by innovative architecture that shows real-time activities and the state of the airport.
|Communication process||Status||Supervisor’s response frequency|
|Wireless runways systems||Active||49|
The researcher observed the operations of five supervisors each in the operational management unit, flight dispatch unit, crew department, station control unit, maintenance control department, and support unit, resource planning unit, passenger service department, cargo department, and ramp unit. Based on the analysis, the researcher observed 50 supervisors from 10 critical units at the airport. The research findings showed that data technology in communication enhanced the quality of service delivery and travel experience. As found in table 7, the supervisors agreed that data strategic applications improved performance in daily operations.
|Percentage distributions of the supervisor’s response|
|Communication Process||Frequency||Percentage distribution|
|Wireless runways systems||49||98%|
As found in table 8, the percentage distributions of supervisor’s responses on the impact of data applications on service delivery. The researcher coded each response with ID tags to encourage valuable responses based on the research objectives. Communication and language barriers affect service delivery in an international airport. However, the researcher observed that most mobile programs had the capability of multiple language selection. This user input enhanced service delivery and curated travel experience. The wireless runway systems and Wi-Fi improve visibility and communication between aircraft controllers, ground tower controllers, and the security team. The responses showed the capability of data strategic applications in aviation.
Overview of Results
The study led to high-level credibility of information and insights, permitting the researcher to collate information pertinent to each of the study questions and goals of the analysis. The participant-observer research strategy helped investigators in gaining access to data and firsthand knowledge of the phenomenon being investigated. Challenges like mild hostility of passengers who did not accept the evaluation were resolved, allowing the researcher to observe and monitor the airline’s service delivery within the airport. The goal of the research was to evaluate the impact of data strategy applications on the curated travel experience.
The study agreed that technology enhances business operations, performance, productivity, and satisfaction. Data strategic application is a critical component in aviation. By implication, effective implementation of data strategic applications enhances the customer travel experience.
Discussion and Conclusion
Airports are flooded with passenger traffic using various features and requirements that alter customer’s demands and needs. This research identified the impact of data strategic applications on the curated travel experience. Besides, it recognized the significance of digitalization on communication to reduce customer inconvenience and address client requirements. The aviation industry is a competitive business that requires the continuous implementation of data strategic applications that enhance curated travel experience, boosts passenger satisfaction, create customer loyalty, manage costs, and generate revenue.
The study assessed the effect of data strategic applications and digitalization at Dubai International airport. The Dubai International airport was selected to ascertain the present situation, which emphasized the significance of digital approaches in enhancing passenger satisfaction. Improved travel experience is essential for generating profit and strengthening the airline’s competitive position. The findings of this research were consistent with recommendations in different works of literature (Comitz & Kersch 2016; Jeeradist, Thawesaengskulthai & Sangsuwan 2016; Skorupski & Uchroński 2016; Tokgöz et al. 2018; Upadhya 2016).
Technology-focused applications have a positive effect on activities, processes within the airport and improve the supply of passenger-centered solutions to boost satisfaction. Notably, data strategic applications have a positive impact on passenger customer facilitation by making sure passengers have timely access to information about tickets and light schedules. Therefore, data strategic applications can lessen the time and costs related to processing client demands. Technology improvements provide the foundation in evaluating the development of data applications in airports and their impact on the travel experience.
The researcher observed that the Dubai International airport had engaged in the execution of data strategic applications to improve curated travel experience and permits passenger facilitation. Data strategic application is changing the aviation business by creating a competitive digital environment. The findings suggest that commercial airlines may considerably increase performance in pricing and safety by implementing strategic digital technologies. The implementation strategy must cover consumer interface and flight functionality. Improvements in economic performance enhance consumer satisfaction, which contributes to improved profits and market development.
The airline created applications that rely on data architecture to provide travel routes to and from the airport. The adoption of data strategic applications supports information dissemination, which reduces flight delays and prolonged take-off schedules, which affect the company’s investment. Digitalization has significantly improved airport efficiency by encouraging innovative deployment, such as sequencing systems in traffic management. Data strategic applications facilitate the operations of smaller airports. Thus, data strategic applications empower transit operations, reinforce security, and handle passenger demands and requirements.
This research revealed the impact of strategic data applications on the curated travel experience. Airline investors that are not compliant with data strategic applications need a transformation to address customers’ demands and requirements. The deployment of different customer programs and apps at airports may serve consumer groups, like entrepreneurs, professors, or holidaymakers, thus developing a focused value proposition for each client.
Airline operators gather a large amount of information daily. It accounts for the industry’s success in creating customer loyalty flyers and several database programs, which enable flight business to maximize ticket sales. With the digital expansion, airline operators gather much more information, which may be leveraged on extensive information analytics to achieve competitive benefits. Even smaller investments enjoy data strategic applications and data analytics by prioritizing data asset requirements for content analysis. The researcher noted that data strategic applications could not resolve the needs of all consumer groups such as the aged, impaired, or disabled passengers.
These groups of passengers may become a source of delays and disruptions if support workers are unavailable. While data strategic applications offer options for the aviation business, it is an expensive investment. Therefore, airline operators must ascertain their strategic goals and execute a change management strategy. Most airports have electronic communication technologies that improve the consumer experience, which range from smart devices, information outlets, internet facilities, reserve parking, and restaurants.
The research findings are consistent with the recommendations in other works of literature on the impact of digitalization and data strategic applications in aviation. Data strategic applications reduce flight delays, improve aircraft maintenance, prevent human errors, and enhance curated travel experience (Comitz & Kersch 2016; Jeeradist, Thawesaengskulthai & Sangsuwan 2016; Skorupski & Uchroński 2016). The findings indicated that digitalization has a positive impact on passenger experience and satisfaction.
The study recommends that investors, airline management, and stakeholders should adopt effective strategies to guarantee aircraft safety, employee productivity, and passenger satisfaction. This study was successful in achieving the study objectives and resolving the research questions by demonstrating the impact of data strategic applications on the curated travel experience. The study showed that digitalization affects all airport operations, which creates the demand for its deployment to enhance passenger satisfaction and functionality. The research findings will be beneficial to airline operators, investors, policymakers, stakeholders, researchers, and customers.
For airline operators and investors, the analysis will provide valuable information about data strategic implementation. Most airline operators can use this analysis to guide the decision-making process. The recommendations of the study will guide policymakers in drafting new regulations and standards for data deployment in the aviation industry. Airline customers will understand the importance of data strategic applications as it concerns their safety, travel experience, and service satisfaction. The findings of this study will be used as a springboard for future investigations in the challenges of data strategic applications. This understanding will guide researchers towards new assumptions and the hypothesis for cross-examination.
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