Decision-Making in Context of Workplace Organization


Nowadays, the crude oil industry experiences a significant layoff of personnel and dramatic reduction of the employees’ salaries. The establishment of the action research will contribute to changes and the ability of the workers to accept the alterations in their payments. The primary goal of the write-up is to determine the efficiency of the process of decision-making in the context of workplace organization. In this instance, the problematizing processes have to be evaluated actively to assess and determine the flow of the decision. Moreover, the significance of the literature review, the insights and the problems’ redefinition and reframing are discussed.

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Problematizing Processes

It is evident that the problematizing of the processes had a tendency to exist due to the constant modifications of the flow of the action research. Problematizing remains a necessity, as it helps determine the existence of the problem (Lilley, Lightfoot, & Amapal, 2004). In this instance, the need for the company to lay off and reduce the salaries of its employees is necessary to remain competitive on the market. Nonetheless, questioning the validity of this process implementation was one of the features, which determined the flow of the action research.

Additionally, the lack of employees’ understanding about the essentiality of change was also one of the factors, as this aspect affects the performance and success of the whole organization. In this instance, questioning the influence of layoff and downturn on the emotional arousal of the employees was essential. In turn, the research problems become limited to the particular features, which define the efficiency of the processes in the company. It is evident that questioning the ability of the organization to persuade the employees to accept the alteration is the consequence of the previous problematizing processes.

Literature Review

The literature review revealed that the action research remains an essentiality and a cultivator of change, Greenwood and Levin claim (2006). Secondly, the implementation of the action cycles is one of the suitable approaches for the application of appropriate changes (Coghlan & Brannick, 2014). Finally, Dick underlines the necessity of careful evaluation of the research modalities (2011). These sources revealed the flow of the action research in the context of my workplace.

The necessity of paying attention to the human interactions was proved, as Beringer and Fletcher discuss the need for the participatory action research, as an active attitude generator (2014). Bordia, Restubog, Jimmieson, and Irmer emphasize the importance the interpersonal relationships and the employees’ support during the layoff with the assistance of examples from the past (2011). In turn, Githens underlines the importance of action research in the HRM (2015). DuFrene and Lehman support the necessity of the intensified interactions during the downturn (2014). The involvement of the employees remains essential due to the high interdependence between psychological wellbeing and the success of the organization (Fugate, Prussia, & Kinicki, 2010). In turn, Kupritz and Cowell mention the necessity of the interactions and provide the evaluation of the potential modes (2011). Finally, the article by Maurer and Githens underlines the need for decision-making on multiple levels (2010). Lastly, the interventionist role of the action research cannot be underestimated (Huzzard & Bjorkman, 2012). In the end, the literature helped me understand the paying attention to interpersonal relationships is essential, and the value of the personnel cannot be underestimated.

Nonetheless, the literature review helps determine the existence of risks related to the involvement of the employees, as Kandathil and Varman question whether a high involvement of personnel is entirely beneficial, as it might be a cause of the lack of the validity of the information for the decision-making (2007). Moreover, the obstacles might involve various external factors, which influence the flow of the research (Raelin, 2009). Nonetheless, the literature review assisted in my understanding of the existence of the risk. However, it was clear that they tend to exit while making different decisions.

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As for the potential modes of implication, the literature review proved my perspective of taking into account various perceptions and details. For example, Seo underlines the significance of the emotional state of the participants (2003). In turn, Bushe and Kassam claim the essentiality of appreciative inquiry as a relevant tool (2005). Lastly, the recognition of diversity is actively emphasized (Friedman, Razer, & Sykes, 2004). In the end, the literature review proved my perception of the necessity of paying attention to the various factors. Moreover, it contributed to understanding that the models have to be used simultaneously to acquire the relevant information about the problem.


Understanding the ideas of the problem and the action research is essential for the determination of the sufficient flow of action research. Firstly, the necessity of the involvement of the multiple levels of participants implies that the problems’ definition questions the degree of participation. Furthermore, the continuous monitoring of the action on the various stages of implementation contributes to the redefinition of the problem.

The insights of the case are provided by revealing the potential implications of the action research by focusing on relevant information about the layoff and current economic condition. Furthermore, acquiring the information about the inability of the employees to accept the alterations provides the necessary data and implies paying high attention to the employees’ attitude. It is evident that experiencing the problem from a different perspective is critical, as workers and management have different perceptions about the current issue.

Problems’ Redefinition and Reframing

Redefinition implies discovering the problem from the different angle (Stenberg & Grigorenko, 2007). Firstly, the issue was developed as ‘the implementation of the action research determines the right solution to maintain the company competitive on the market’. Moreover, it was questionable whether the layoff and reduction of salaries are the most suitable solutions.

It is evident that the literature review helped redefine the problems and reframe the issues. The current problem was reevaluated, as I understood that employees are the principal drivers of the company’s success, and relationships with them have to be cherished. In this instance, the problem was redefined as being able to choose of the relevant modalities of action research for the cultivation of the attitude of acceptance of the alterations among the employees and providing the support during the downturn in the context of the crude oil company.

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The understanding of the essentiality of the action research is critical while establishing the solutions to the issues in real business scenarios. It remains evident that paying exquisite attention to the literature review and modification of the research problem influenced my understanding of the intentions of the action research and evolved due to the desire to learn new prospects about the matter. It is evident that the complexity of the action research allowed determining the plethora of solutions to the problem at the workplace. It became apparent that the involvement of the personnel and having active interactions with them remain essential, as they are the primary drivers of success in the complex organizational structure. In this instance, the research should continue its alteration towards the cultivation of the understanding of the human relations and utilization of various action research modalities simultaneously while establishing the logical solutions to the issue concerning the attitudes of employees during the layoff.

Action Research

The complexity of the action research and its ability to cover multiple aspects simultaneously contributes to the development of the solution related to the workplace scenario. The action research implies that the particular modifications are necessities due to the constantly changing situation on the crude oil market (Greenwood & Levin, 2006). It is apparent that a profound understanding of the action research features contributes to the redefinition and further problematizing of the problem since new essential constituents have a tendency to appear. In this instance, understanding the role of the contribution of the interpersonal relationships during the layoff reveals another important perspective of the action research (DuFrene & Lehman, 2014).

One of the primary issues of the research project is the fact the crude oil company experiences a significant downturn due to the unfavorable economic conditions in the world. Nonetheless, it tries to resolve this issue by introducing a major layoff of the personnel and a dramatic reduction of salaries. This matter leads to the existence of the inability of the employees to accept this alteration. In this instance, finding the suitable solution and modality of the action remain a necessity since several issues have to be assessed and determined. Furthermore, the decision-making has to be beneficial for the multiple levels of the organization, as the enterprise’s complexity cannot be disregarded.


In conclusion, the action research contributed to the essentiality of the problem modification, as the profoundness of the issue was revealed. Moreover, the critical points were altered during the cultivation of the solution to the research problem, as the variety of the issues, which have to be solved simultaneously increased. Nonetheless, despite being risky, action research remains one of the principle designs to find the solution to the issue, which will be strongly corresponding with the principles and fluctuations of reality.


Beringer, A., & Fletcher, M. (2011). Developing practice and staff: Enabling improvement in care delivery through participatory action research. Journal of Child Health Care, 15(1), 59-70

Bordia, P., Restubog, S., Jimmieson, N., & Irmer, B. (2011). Haunted by the past: effects of poor change management history on employee attitudes and turnover. Group & Organization Management, 36(2), 191-222.

Bushe, G., & Kassam, A. (2005). When is appreciative inquiry transformational? A meta-case analysis. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 41(2), 161-181.

Coghlan, D., & Brannick, T. (2014). Doing action research in your own organization. London, UK: Sage Publications.

Dick, B. (2010). Action research literature 2008-2010: Themes and trends. Action Research, 9(2), 122-143.

DuFrene, D., & Lehman, C. (2014). Navigating change: Employee communication in times of instability. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 77(4), 443-452.

Friedman, V., Razer, M. & Sykes, I. (2004). Towards a theory of inclusive practice: an action science approach. Action Research, 2(2), 167-189.

Fugate, M., Prussia, G., & Kinicki, A. (2010). Managing employee withdrawal during organizational change: The role of threat appraisal. Journal of Management, 38(3), 890-914.

Githens, R. (2015). Critical action research in human resource development. Human Resource Development Review, 14(2), 185-204.

Greenwood, D., & Levin, M. (2007). Introduction to action research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Huzzard, T., & Bjorkman, H. (2012). Trade unions and action research. Work, Employment & Society, 26(1), 161-171.

Kandathil, G., & Varman, R. (2007). Contradictions of employee involvement, information sharing and expectations: A case study of an Indian worker cooperative. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 28(1), 140-174.

Kupritz, V., & Cowell, E. (2010). Productive management communication: Online and face-to-face. Journal of Business Communication, 48(1), 54-82.

Lilley, S., Lightfoot, G., & Amapal, P. (2004). Representing organization: knowledge, management, and the information age. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Maurer, M., & Githens, R. (2010). Toward a reframing of action research for human resource and organization development: Moving beyond problem-solving and toward dialogue. Action Research, 8(3), 267-292.

Raelin, J. (2009). Seeking conceptual clarity in the action modalities. Action Learning: Research and Practice, 6(1), 17-24.

Seo, M. (2003). Overcoming emotional barriers, political obstacles and control imperatives in the action science approach to individual and organizational learning. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 2(1), 7-21.

Stenberg, R., & Grigorenko, E. (2007). Teaching for successful intelligence: To increase student learning and achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

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