Development of Fencers Skill

Abstract

Fencing is a today’s modern sport, which is gaining popularity day by day and is successful enough to stand as one of the four sports in Olympic Games. Due to increasing popularity, the fencers are acing tough competitions as new techniques are arising and are being practiced by the world renowned fencers. In the renaissance period, fencing was just taken as a duel and was considered to be a violent and dangerous, but with the passage of time, fencer scholars introduced flexible fencing weapons and made this sport one of the leading sports in the world.

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The fencers have realized that fencing today requires great efforts and more practice is necessary for them to gain a standing position in world sports. This report focuses on the fencing weapons, protective clothing and fencing techniques being used today. Fencers require certain skills and techniques without which fencing would not be possible. So to have a competitive edge fencers are learning and innovating new skills in fencing. This is the basic demand required in fencing today. It is not just limited to general practices but a special effort is required by every fencer in skill development.

Preface

Fencing is a modern sport that is played by two opponents at a time and their main motive is to thrust the weapon upon the other contestant keeping in mind the rules and regulations of the game. This report is going to give a brief background of how fencing converted from a combat dueling to a fascinating sport. The literature review will then highlight the different weapons, forms, equipments, and clothing that are being used by fencers today and how these components have changed with the passage of time.

There have been a lot of misconceptions about this game so his report is will not only help to remove those misconceptions but also highlight various advantages that can be gained from this game. For people who are interested in this game but don’t know where to start and how to win.

This report is a pure guidance and a direction for beginners as well as others to gain an edge in fencing. Various tactics, techniques and skills are discussed in this report that would be helpful for them. The hypothesis of this report is proved with the help of secondary research methods. The data collected during this research would be analyzed and with the help of those results and discussion conclusion would be given.

Introduction

The term “fencing” is originated from self- defense, i.e. to guard and protect against any kind of injury or damage. Fencing is a modern sport and this is one of the four major games that are featured in Olympic Games every year, and today it is referred to as “European martial art of Swordplay”.

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Fencing was originated from ancient Egypt and Rome in those barbaric times in 1200 AD. With the passage of time it grew popularity, weapons changed and new technologies emerged in this field of sport. It grew so famous that today even women are participating in this dangerous sport and have won several medals too.

There are three weapons used in fencing: foil, Sabre and Epée. Foil is a light and a very flexible thrusting weapon and in this the target area is torso. Epee on the other hand is heavy thrusting weapon and the attacker can attack the competitor’s whole body. Sabre is a mild weapon which includes both light cutting and thrusting and the target area is everything above the waist, limiting the hands and back of the head area.

Fencing is divided into three main categories, i.e. competitive fencing, fencing as a martial art and other forms of fencing. Competitive fencing refers to the fencing as a sport, and this is further subdivided into Olympic fencing, wheel chair fencing and other variants i.e. one-hit-epee. Fencing western martial art goal is to train an individual for a formal academic swordfight and in this the actual sport features are missing. The martial art fencing includes classical fencing and historical fencing. Other forms of fencing are academic fencing, stage fencing and recreational fencing; these are totally different from the other two forms.

Fencing is such a sport in which dangerous weapons are used and there have been certain events where opponents had been seriously injured and also casualties occurred. Due to these incidents, protective clothing and materials are now used. Protective clothing includes jacket, plastron, breeches, gloves and a mask.

This sport consists of two opponents that stand against each other in a 2 meter wide and 14 meter long fencing strip. Both the fencer attacks the competitor with his/her weapon, generally the pointing end of the blade without receiving a touch. The fencer should be very strong, quick and efficient in both defenses as well as in attacking. The opponent is supposed to attack its competitor to certain restricted (which are different in the three gaming types). This sport is assisted with a referee and 2 or 4 side judges who keep a close eye on the two opponents and then score them. But now electronic scoring apparatus has taken over the judges and this new technology is more efficient and standardized (Right mire, 1999).

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Certain skills and techniques are required by every fencer to win. Some of these techniques are important to every fencer but some vary with the right or left handed fencers. These techniques will be discussed in detail below.

Overall, fencing has always been regarded more than a sport; it is an art form. On one side it reflects power and glory, and on the other a deeply personal, individual form of expression. Fencing is and had always been a fundamental part of life, from the warfare and battles to the charismatic and enchanting movies and facets of popular culture such as Zorro and The Princess Bride.

Background of Fencing

Fencing as a sport was emerged and was emerged in the ancient times in Egypt 1190 BC, in Temple of Medinat Habu, near Luxor in Egypt, built by Ramses III. They practiced this sports activity wearing the masks, protective weapons and under the supervision of judges. Following the trend of Egypt, the Greek and Roman civilizations followed the trend of Egypt and taught ‘ludi’ in their schools to their warriors by special and professional instructors called ‘doctores’ but they used short and wooden swords and light spears. Ancient Babylonians, Persians and Germanic tribes also widely practiced the swordsmanship.

But when Roman Empire collapsed in 426 AD the invaders brought heavy and crude weapons and fencing lost its importance and its consistency and was then only used for self defense because armors came in. These were more efficient and more accurate (Nick, n.d).

It was not until the beginning of the 14 century that the light weight weapons were used once again. One of the known fast-weapon at that time was rapier. Rapiers was developed from cut-and-thrust forces swords, but this instrument was used by the civilians who used it for their own protection, security and dueling reasons. Rapiers were most commonly used, but the primary means of attack was the thrust. Even though George Silver criticized rapier fencing and preferred traditional cutting weapons instead, rapier fencing stretched from Spain and Italy to northwest Europe (Egerton Castle, 2003).

But fifteen century got new grounds for fencing and modern fencing was introduced. The modern fencing was originated from Spain as it is stated that the first handbooks/manuals have been emerged from Spain and Spanish fencing schools opened under the fencers’ masters like Narvaez and Thibault. Later Marxruder from Germany was famous all over Europe for his teaching and techniques. And it was not until 1500 B.C. that rapier was extensively used. England of Henry VIII was the first supporter of fencing and he gave government grant to several fencing masters permitting them to teach the public and the gladiators with fencing techniques (Egerton Castle, 2003).

Italy also has a very strong connection with fencing as Italian fencers such as Agrippa and Capo Ferro also opened schools in Italy in late 16 and early 17 century introducing linear fencing and the lunge. By the end of the sixteen century dueling became very popular but it also had side-effects as the noblemen casualties occurred during this period were because of dueling than battles (Egerton Castle, 2003).

Fencing also emerged in France, when Queen Catherine de Médicis of France brought fencer masters in France in 1567. Her efforts were not fruitless and were joined by her own son King Charles IX who opened a French Fencing Academy and also awarded the various fencing masters with hereditary titles. In 1573 Henry de St. Didier was the first French fencing master to publish an article and preferred epee over Rapier. A lot of changes occurred in fencing as Foil (a lighter weapon) was introduced in France, Right-of -Way became generally accepted (set of rules).

These changes resulted in a fall in the death ratio and steps toward safer fencing. In the late 17 century, there was transformation from the dress of a swordsman to a gentleman’s dress. This revolution in dress was made by Louis XIV in France. Doublet and hose, top boots and cloaks were replaced by silk stockings, breeches and brocaded coats (WM Gaugler, 1998).

But again heavier weapons were introduced and gained popularity in the 18 century. This weapon is known as Epee. It was also in this century that Sabre was introduced, this was the light cutting and thrusting weapon which was invented from ‘Oriantal scimitar’ and it became a national weapon of Hungary. Certain enhancements in fencing took place as for the first time in fencing history fencing mask was invented. This accomplishment was carried out by a French fencing master La Boessiere who gave a much safer bridge to the fencers. Fencing had now shifted its image from brutal and dangerous to a non-violent sport and dueling was completely ceased after World War 1 (WM Gaugler, 1998).

In 1874, fencing gained popularity in America and it was not until 1896 when men participated in foil and sabre in the first Olympic Games. Since then it is emerging and opening new doors for all and now both men and women have joined Olympics in foil and Epee as well. Fencing is now also enriched with electronic scoring. This electronic scoring was introduced to epee in 1936, foil in 1957, and to sabre in 1988 (MA Walker, 2000).

Fencing has really developed but this sport is today’s fast emerging game which is gaining popularity day by day. And it would not be long when women are going to join sabre too and wireless scoring devices become norm with the new technology.

Objective of this research

The basic objective of this report is to educate the fencers with the basic skills and techniques that are required in fencing. These techniques will be a guideline for the fencers during their game. The research will give a complete picture about fencing as a sport. As fencing is an emerging sport and is gaining popularity in Taiwan, so this report discusses fencing in detail. There are certain advantages that are gained from this sport but security measures should also be taken by the players while playing because the weapons are deadly and they have caused casualties and harm to variety of fencers. All such security measures are thus mentioned in this report in detail.

Literature Review

Fencing Weapons

Unlike every sport requires some basic weapons or utensils to carry out the game the same theory applies in fencing. The fencer uses various thrusting and cutting weapons during their game. These weapons are divided in historical and modern weapons because this sport is not a new invention but a reformed sport of old times.

Historical Weapons

Types of Historical Weapons

Fencing is a modern sport but its roots are back from the renaissance period, therefore the weapons used in during that period were different. They are known as the historical weapons and they hold the same importance as of today’s modern weapons. The most well-known historical weapons are Hand-and-a-Half Sword, rapier, dagger and grand cane.

Hand-and-a-Half Sword

Hand-and-a-half Sword is generally known as a ‘Longsword’ and is used by both one and two hands. It was used in the late medieval and Renaissance period (1350-1500 BC) and weighs around 3-4 pound and is 4-4.5 feet long. This weapon was used for thrusting, cutting and striking both in battles and in personal dueling. Fencers using this sword stated that it was a dangerous weapon and only one could practice with this sword when it was dressed in full armor and they preferred ‘Wasters’ above this weapon as they are much safer and prove to be useful in group practice sessions ( G Zabinski, B Walczak , 2002).

Rapier

Rapier was developed in the 1500 in Spain as a trusting and cutting civilian weapon which was used for dueling and for self-defense both in homes as well as in battle fields. It is a 90 cm sharp pointed sword including a hilt (handle) and a hand-guard. The average rapier weight 1800 grams and later dueling rapier weight 1300 grams. The fights with rapier were much more mobile and faster than compared to other swords of Middle Ages. It was known as a ‘dress sword’ and an ‘espado ropera’ during this reign. Originally rapiers were double-edged but later they also became single-edged and some were also deformed to be completely edgeless. Rapier was extremely famous in Europe but in 1700 BC it was replaced with ‘smallsword’ which were smaller in size and were also light-weighted (Z Czajkowski, n.d).

Dagger

Dagger is a thrusting weapon which was used as a secondary weapon in the middle ages. It is a special form of a knife which is of a swords length and is mostly double-edged. Both in rapier and the dagger fencing game the entire body is targeted but there is more scoring in the ‘torso’ area ( G Zabinski, B Walczak , 2002).

Modern Weapons

Those deadly weapons of the dark ages have transformed into today’s most fascinating game. Currently the three modern weapons are used in Olympic Games. These weapons are no longer dangerous as now they are light and flexible and neither there are sharp and deadly edges. The three most common weapons which are used today are Foil, Epee and Saber. But only foil is discussed in detail while a general understanding is given about the other two weapons.

Types of Modern Weapons

Foil

Foil is the most lightest and flexible weapon among the three weapons, it is a revised version of rapier. It is 35 inches (110 cm) long and weigh lighter than 500 grams. The target area for foil is the Torso, i.e. the area covered by the jacket and not including the head or arms. For beginners this weapon should be used because it is the most convenient. Certain characteristics of this weapon are mentioned below:

  • A pommel with nut inside
  • A French handle grip which is 20 cm long(maximum)
  • Martingale
  • Coquille or guard which is round with a diameter of 9.5- 12 cm
  • Quadrangular blade which is 90 cm long (maximum)
  • Forte
  • Foible
  • Button (Pomanede, 2007)

Fencer while using foil should always place his unarmed hand up. Foil is also a “right-of -way” weapon which means that certain rules must be followed while playing with foil. When the fencer attacks the opponent usually with the straight arm within the striking distance this gives his action a right-of-way. On the other hand the opponent defends himself by a block or parry removing the right-of-way before he can retaliate. Now he has the right of way until the initial attacker defends himself. This process continues until point is recorded. A point is placed only when it strikes on the targeted area and the right of way was the attackers (Craig, 2008).

History of Foil

Foil was evolved in the late seventeen century when cutting was totally banished and this was designed specially for thrusting. The word foil was originally derived from French refouler and in French it was originally known as ‘Flueret’. In the 18 century French fencers developed various techniques and they insured that courtesy and elegance were the two inborn qualities that were required by fencer. With the help of Salles d’armes foil’s popularity doubled and it was not until 19 century that foil was developed in a modern weapon. The Italian and the French had been the two strong supporters of foil as they opened schools and published various treaties on techniques.

Later, in 1954 electronic foil was introduced, with this new invention there are new grounds opened for the fencing sport. But certain protective measurements must be taken while using this weapon in the sport. Recently in 2005, there was a major rule changed in foil, i.e. to discourage “Flicking” the button r the tip should be suppressed onto the opponent for 15 milliseconds (Pomanede, 2007).

Epee

Epee is a heavy thrusting weapon which was invented by a group of French students in the 19 century. They thought that foil was a very light weapon and to have a closer image of original duel they made amendments in foil and invented Epee. Epee resembled a lot like smallsword except that its point was not needle-shaped and that its attack would not cause harm to the opponent. Epee target area covered the whole body and there were no rules as that of oil or saber. Any one could attack first and double touches were allowed in this. Later electronic epee was also introduced which was similar to electronic foil except that the opponent is to depress the push- button for 1 millisecond (MR Garret, EG Kaidanov, GA Pezza, 1994).

Saber

Saber is the light cutting and thrusting weapon which was developed in the late 19 and early 20 century by Italy and Hungary master fencers, the most prominent among them was Italo Santelli. Modern saber fencing has been descended from the cavalry sabers of Turkic origin and of Europe’s dueling weapon: Rapier. It is in fact a combination of both. The target area at saber covers everything above the waist line, excluding the hands and back of the head.

Saber is similar to foil in a variety of ways as they both follow the ‘right-of-way’ rules and double touch is not allowed in both cases. But differences arise in the definition of parry and attack which has an overall effect on the scoring surface making saber a tougher game than foil. Saber fencers need to be more efficient and have strong footwork tactics (MR Garret, EG Kaidanov, GA Pezza, 1994).

Categories of fencing

Fencing is divided into three broad categories: competitive fencing, fencing as a martial art and other forms of fencing.

Competitive fencing

Competitive fencing refers to fencing as a sport in where opponents compete against each other on the ground field. This fencing is further subdivided into three forms Olympic fencing, wheel chair fencing and other variants. Olympic fencing is the modern fencing where competition is carried out using the set of rules and using modern fencing weapons-foil, epee and saber and scoring is determined using the electronic scoring apparatus.

Wheel chair fencing is the oldest sport activity which is practiced by the disabled. This sport has not only provided the disabled self-esteem and self-confidence but diversified this game. It was introduced in 1948 in London but today wheel chair fencing has set its pace not only in the European countries but also in Asian countries. Wheel chair fencing is also been played in Olympics in 2004 in Athens. Like fencing, wheel chair fencing has the same characteristics and rules except that the opponents are now sitting on the wheel chair. (Nowicki, 2008, PDF) Other variants include one-hit-epee and other competitive fencing but its rules differ from the normal fencing.

Fencing as a martial art

Fencing as a martial art is divided into classical and historical fencing. Classical fencing is not as famous as Olympic fencing but it requires the same competition, skill and practice and has opened new doors for women. Except that this type of fencing is not very much liked and it has been criticized by Olympic fencers. Historical fencing is a type of historical martial arts reconstruction whose basic motive is to keep a record of various texts and traditions in fencing. These historical fencers use different type of weapons which belong to different regions and periods.

Other fencing

Other types of fencing include academic fencing, stage fencing and recreational role playing.

Academic fencing is typically died out form of tradition that used to be practiced in Germany but is still practiced sometimes in Switzerland, Germany and Austria. This is basically the battle which uses a sharpened cutting weapon known as ‘Schlager’ and this battle takes place between the members of student fraternities.

Stage fencing means to adopt maximum theatre style when presenting ranges of styles. It includes both the fencing: modern as well as traditional. Especial fight scenes are directed by Fight Director and then these fencing scenes are being dramatized to give a theatric effect and to give clarity to scenes.

Recreational fencing deals with historical fencing. It incorporates fantasy themes in the society to give chronology to history or to maintain record of live role-playing games. Not only weapons differ from game to game but also the technique and scoring changes. Choice of weapon is dependent on local conventions. Participants can chose modern sport fencing weapons, period weapons or weapons invented for specific purposes.

It uses a special type of a protective device that leaves most of the parts of the head and the face unprotected not including the eyes on eyes a special type of goggle is worn. The basic purpose of this battle is to develop a personal skill or a character and there is no winner no loser and flinch is not allowed. Getting a proper cut on your face with a sharp blade was considered a visible sign of manly courage and used to be given a proper status of ‘akedimiker’ or the member of their upper class professionally. However the tales of intentionally getting cuts by rubbing salt and vinegar on the wounds have been discrediting as proper folklore.

Fencing protective measures

Certain protective equipments are necessary for fencers before the formal game starts. The fencers are advised to wear a fitted mask that covers the face and neck, padded long sleeve white jacket, padded underarm protector, padded breast protectors, white gloves, white pants and fencing shoes (Freudenrich, 2008).

Other protective measures are also advised to fencers some of the rules are mentioned below:

  • Always wear a mask before the game starts and never cross blade for any reason.
  • Always warm-up before the game to avoid muscle injuries.
  • Fencers clothing should never be torn from any wear because a simple blade can cause major injury.
  • Advanced fencers must wear their complete protective equipment including their jackets, underarm protectors, protective shield, breast protectors, sweat pants, trousers or knickers.
  • During the game never rush or force your opponent into the wall or the danger.
  • Always make sure that the weapon is secure for the opponent and the blade’s curve is even.
  • Fencing should always be kept at a distance; too close fencing can be dangerous.
  • Violent fencing should always be avoided as it can cause harm to other fencer.
  • Whenever the strike is made it should be quickly recognized in a clear and audible voice (Maxwell R. Garret, Mary Heinecke Poulson, Steve Sobel , 1981).

Fencing tactics

Fencers need to follow certain tactics so that their skill in fencing can be nourished and prove better results. Different professional fencers have given different tactics for fencer’s (beginners as well as players) in different time periods. One of the well-known swords master is Mark Ivie a teacher at ‘SwordsPlay Fencing Studio’ in California. According to Mark the fencer should follow the certain rules before playing the game

Evaluate your opponent

Every fencer has different personality characteristics and according to Mark the fencer has three attitudes: they are either aggressive, defensive or counter-attacker. Before the actual game starts the fencer should evaluate the opponent’s type and then start its moves (Ivie, n.d).

Play your own game

Every fencer has a distinction in its own move so he/she should always play their own moves depressing the opponent’s moves (Ivie, n.d).

Balance

Balance is necessary at all stages of the game and it is suggested that fencer plays in the middle of the strip so it is easier for him to move back and forth and maintain his balance. Balance can be maintained by the help of the unarmed hand (Ivie, n.d).

Speed

The better the speed the more chances there are to win. Steady balance and short distances will increase the speed (Ivie, n.d).

Eline cheris a well known author published the book “Fencing: Steps to Success” in 2001 and highlighted different techniques that could be followed by fencers to develop their skills at max. The techniques which were discussed in the book are as follows:

Moving on the strip

The movement on the strip consists of advance, retreat, bounce and on guard. On all the four movements the fencer should maintain its balance and not jump into conclusions. Its movements should be fast and efficient but certain characteristics should be kept in mind. Advances should always be made by the front foot while retreat with the rear foot. The fencer should also make sure that its body is steady and he takes smaller steps during the game. But during bouncing, the knees should be bent, the weight evenly distributed among both the feet and the knee and the toe should be facing the opponent (Elaine Cheris, 2001).

Determine the appropriate distance

The fencer while hitting the target should determine an appropriate distance from its opponent. It should not be so close that he bumps into the fencer and neither too far that hit could not be possible. And it should occupy a larger area making the opponent uneasy and gaining advantage at its move (Elaine Cheris, 2001).

During the strike

While delivering the hit at the opponent the fencer should be very quick and efficient. The chance to thrust the weapon into the opponent should not be wasted in any form. In case of epee double touches are allowed so in this case the strike should be in such proficiency that before the opponent fencer recovers from the thrust another strike is made. Not only efficiency is needed but the fencer needs to be tricky and deceitful.. During the game if one attack’s the other defends so its defending power should also be very strong. For strong defense fencer should be very careful because your opponent can also trick you. He should also have a high level of concentration and fencer should have quick eye-movements so it keeps a close eye on the rival’s blade to avoid strikes (Jacobson, n.d).

Other techniques

The fencer should have some basic foundation skills and strategies. The foundation skills include technique, athletic force and pattern recognition. These skills should be followed first and then the strategies should be adopted. The strategies are avoidance, RTC (recognize, trick and counter) and prediction.

Application of strategy is dependent upon the fencer’s ability of having expertise in the relevant technique especially physical techniques. This is important because of two main reasons. First, without having the ability to implement the fencing moves required by your action plan, you will never be able to execute your strategy. Second, you should give mental pressure to your opponent to make him fall in your trap set by your strategy. Your basic physical technique is the tool which will create mental pressure. That is why the fencer should focus on acquiring the physical techniques. Gradually, a fencer can expand his game by utilizing the acquired skill to favor the strategy. By the time additional techniques can be learned with the demand of new strategies.

Mental activities that occur during fencing are of two types: Conscious thinking and athletic focus. Athletic focus is most important of them because the ultimate success of strategy is heavily dependent upon the fencer’s ability to focus. While fencing the fencer should turn off his mind and should concentrate on Athletic focus to fulfill the strategy.

The foundation skill in achieving your strategy is pattern recognition. Before the generation of strategy you should identify the doings of your opponent. You should identify his each fencing step/ move. You should give attention to the motion, offence cause by it and the defense of that motion.

Fencing strategies are of three types: Avoidance, RTC (Recognize, Trick, Counter) and third is Prediction.

In avoidance you identify what steps are not working for you and you plan to adjust to those steps. To make your avoidance better you should learn to recognize more fencing actions. RTC deals with controlling what your opponent is doing. In RTC you use the gained information from your failed efforts to win the next fencing exchange.

The first element is to recognize the fencing action preferred by your opponent. In second step you should identify the move to trick him. The final element counter means to have your opponent’s move being controlled successfully. After all these you are ready to counter move and win the point (Fencing as Physical Chess, pdf).

Methodology

This research is basically designed in a systematic manner where first the objective of the report is met. That is to give a clear understanding of fencing and guide the fencers with various skills and techniques. To accomplish this objective a through research was carried out regarding this subject using secondary research. The information was gathered from different magazines, journals, books and web portals.

Then this gathered information was summarized and put in a systematic manner. The literature review gives the detail understanding regarding the topic. In this section fencing as a sport is discussed, the various weapons starting from the historical ages to the modern era. Foil which is a light thrusting weapon is discussed in detail and its basic background is also mentioned. Literature Review also mentions the different categories of fencing, the protective measurements that should be looked up by the fencers in fencing. In the end detailed information is presented about the skills that are required by fencers in this sport.

These skills are mentioned by the well known fencers and authors and following these skills the fencer will gain an edge. Later analysis will be carried out to elaborate the finding and in the end recommendation would be given.

This research has been done on the quality methodology and this methodology has helped in understanding the topic. All the data from the introduction to the literature review has been discussed using the qualitative analysis. This complete research will give a deep understanding about fencing and its variants.

Analysis

From the above research it can be analyzed that fencing is not just a fun sport but it is today’s modern sport which is gaining popularity around the world. The reason behind its popularity is its advantages which helping an individual to survive in this competitive world. Fencing has helped the fencer gain tactical thinking, discipline, dexterity, endurance as well as confidence.

In this competitive environment where new technologies emerge in short span of time opening new doors for everyone is providing an incentive for every individual to gain maximum benefit. Due to this competition is also increasing among the fencers. Not only is this game diversifying in its weapons but also in its terms. As now wheel chair fencing is introduced in Olympics. So there is a strong need for fencers to build new techniques in fencing and to gain a distinction in their own good moves. Good skills and good moves are required at every stage of fencing sport, except that one need to expertise in them. This can only be done by practice, practice and practice.

Conclusion

Fencing today stands as one of the most known sports. It has gained so much popularity that now it is considered among the first four Olympic Games. Due to this fencers need to have a through understanding about fencing, its various weapons that are being used before and as well that are being used today, basic types of fencing and most important the skills that are required in fencing. According to the research there are three types of fencing weapons: foil epée and saber but among all foil is the best for beginners because it is the most light weighted and saber and epee is used in the amateur game. These modern fencing weapons were originated from the previous (historical fencing weapons), even though we don’t use the historical fencing weapons any more but its importance stands as a landmark for fencing.

Fencing has become so famous that now it does not limit itself to competitive or Olympic Fencing but now it has set new pace in martial arts, academic fencing, stage fencing, recreational role playing and also wheel chair fencing.

Due to its gaining popularity, it is getting competitive day to day and for that fencers need to be innovative and invent new techniques that would help them in the competitive game. Some of the most important techniques that every fencer must follow is to first evaluate your opponent, maintain a certain balance and speed. The fencer should always play his own game and should show efficiency while carrying on the strip. He should always determine the appropriate distance, be very quick and efficient, tricky and deceitful. Its defending power should also be very strong. Last but not the least; the fencer should follow this technique during his game: Avoidance, RTC (Recognize, Trick, Counter) and Prediction.

References

Alexander, 2008, Overview of Fencing and Gear. Web.

Marine Pomarede, 2007, Imperial Collage Fencing Club. Web.

Freudenrich, Ph.D., Craig. “How Fencing Equipment Works.” Web.

Mark Ivie, Fencing strategies. Web.

Jakub Nowicki, 2006, Wheel Chair Fencing. Web.

Nick, n.d, History of Fencing. Web.

Elaine Chiris, 2001, Fencing Steps to Success. Web.

Fencing as Physical Chess. Web.

Egerton Castle, 2003, Schools and Masters of Fencing: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century.

WM Gaugler, 1998, The History of Fencing: Foundations of Modern European Swordplay (Laureate Press).

MA Walker, 2000, The evolution of American women’s fencing” James Madison University.

G Zabinski and B Walczak, 2002, A Medieval Fighting Book from the Fifteenth Century on the Longsword, Falchion, Dagger, and Wrestling( Paladin Press).

Maxwell R. Garret, Emmanuil G. Kaidanov, Guglielmo Pezza and Gil A. Pezza, 1994, Foil, Saber, and épée Fencing: Skills, Safety, Operations, and Responsibilities.

Maxwell R. Garret, Mary Heinecke Poulson and Steve Sobel, 1981, Sports & Recreation. Foil Fencing: Skills, Safety, Operations, and Responsibilities for the 1980s.

Z Czajkowski, n.d, The Fencing Duel in Hamlet.

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"Development of Fencers Skill." YourDissertation, 15 Nov. 2021, yourdissertation.com/dissertation-examples/development-of-fencers-skill/.

1. YourDissertation. "Development of Fencers Skill." November 15, 2021. https://yourdissertation.com/dissertation-examples/development-of-fencers-skill/.


Bibliography


YourDissertation. "Development of Fencers Skill." November 15, 2021. https://yourdissertation.com/dissertation-examples/development-of-fencers-skill/.

References

YourDissertation. 2021. "Development of Fencers Skill." November 15, 2021. https://yourdissertation.com/dissertation-examples/development-of-fencers-skill/.

References

YourDissertation. (2021) 'Development of Fencers Skill'. 15 November.

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