Evaluating one’s work in the context of studying a certain discipline is expected to reveal the contribution of a student to the body of knowledge. The assessment of competencies developed during a course implies the synthesis of conceptual theories and principles that relate to a given specialization. Not only such a process will allow to identify gaps in knowledge and develop a basis for future studies, but also help to look back at work done and reflect on the positive experiences from learning. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is completing an exploration and synthesis of the knowledge gained during the social studies course with the help of three essays.
The paper will be differentiated into three sections pertinent to the study’s purpose. The first section will deal with conceptual knowledge, reviewing the theories and principles that underpin the chosen specialization. In this part, three different essays will be discussed to provide a comparison between them. In the second section, the application of the knowledge presented in the essays to professional or real-life situations. The third section will address concerns for future studies and identify potentially beneficial areas that can be discussed in the further practice.
During the course, attention was given to diversity management (DM), strategic management, and the establishment of the policies of transparency in the workplace. These issues were considered important in the essays, with the work included in the evaluation focusing on the process of diversity management within organizations. Pay transparency is a controversial issue with the range of different opinions on the topic (McGill, 2016). Strategic management is another essential issue to discuss as the development of a successful corporate strategy is considered imperative for achieving the established goals.
In the essay “Diversity Management at Marketing Companies in the Age of Globalization in Memphis, Tennesse,” the main argument was concerned with the need to study the concept of DM as applied to a variety of organizational contexts. Diversity management is a concept that has been historically connected to cultural and social changes in a given country, and in the United States in particular. Centuries of slavery, segregation of African Americans, and gender discrimination have all contributed to the shaping of the environment that needed changing. With the advent of the civil rights movement and the strive of the society to ensure equal treatment for all, diversity management has played an increasingly important role. As more workers from various backgrounds were hired into organizations, employers had to create conditions that would positively influence every person. According to the findings of the article by Ayega and Muathe (2018), the issue of diversity management had only started gaining attention in the research literature in the 1990s when the need for it became more evident. Due to the increased awareness of the issue, scholars began examining the concept of diversity management in greater detail for exploring the influence of hiring diverse employees into companies.
In the essay “Argumentative Paper on Pay Transparency,” the perspective that the honesty regarding the compensation of workers is limiting to organizational success is presented. Pay transparency is a term used for describing a compensation scheme that allows employees to be open and honest about their compensation without the fear of retaliation. The practice has been highly debated as different workers may perceive the issue discouraging, especially in terms of the variations in pay among men and women. Nevertheless, considering pay transparency is important for gaining the understanding of various practices implemented to create a sense of fairness among employees. Even though there are many more disadvantages of pay transparency than advantages, the topic was used in the essay as a tool for developing a better idea of how organizations operate.
The essay “The Walt Disney Company Strategic Management” explored the concept of strategic management as an important decision-making skill. The term refers to the identification and the use of strategies that companies implement for achieving better performance and reaching competitive advantage. A company is considered to have a competitive advantage when its rates of profitability are higher than the average indicators of all other companies in the industry. Therefore, strategic planning is necessary for addressing both unfeasible and foreseeable contingencies applicable to both large and small businesses since even the smallest companies have competition or can struggle from significant challenges.
Strategic management, pay transparency, and diversity management are all topics that will allow for a better understanding of how companies can become more efficient in reaching their goals. While the three essays had different topics, all of them are similar in the sense that they target the audience of business personnel that makes relevant decisions regarding the creation of a positive environment in the workplace. The essays on DM and strategic management are similar because they are both concerned with the process of management as a system of methods used for dealing or controlling people or things. While strategic management was explored through the example of the Walt Disney Company, diversity management discussions were studied through the lens of marketing organizations in the city of Memphis. The integration of specific examples from business allowed to look at important issues from the perspective of real-life managers and leaders who make decisions regarding the reaching of organizational objectives.
It is also important to mention that essays on diversity management were written for the purpose of compiling a dissertation on the identified topic. Therefore, the essays represent preliminary drafts of the information that was later included in the final version of a large work. This points to the fact that the issue of diversity management at companies was the most pressing in the current studies, with the high potential of the issue being studied in the future. For instance, the literature review essay was necessary for analyzing the range of literature on the topic of diversity management in order to create a basis for further explorations and the implementation of research experiments. Therefore, compared to other essays, the study of DM in the organizational contexts is vast and multi-dimensional.
In comparison with the essays on diversity and strategic management in organizations, the paper on pay transparency did not offer specific examples. Rather, the essay had an argumentative orientation and had the aim of presenting a range of perspectives on the shortcomings of pay transparency. The largest part of the essay was dedicated to discussing the adverse results of pay transparency within organizations, such as increased turnover, privacy concerns, employee dissatisfaction, and others. One section of the paper provided a counter-argument in order to account for the opposing views on the issue.
Such a structure is different from the other two essays on DM and strategic management as the author expressed a personal perspective on the problem through synthesizing available literature on the topic. A valuable point to mention is that the exploration of pay transparency can be linked to the research on both diversity and strategic management (and corporate social responsibility in particular) because of the similar principles of equality and fairness applied to the subject. For instance, when workers are aware of the amounts that their colleagues earn, they spend less time being worried about whether their pay is justified (Obloj & Zenger, 2015). Similarly, if there is a diverse workforce in an organization, employees from minority backgrounds may be less concerned with whether they will receive fair treatment that the majority receives.
When speaking of the essay focused on strategic management, its value is reflected in the exploration of the Walt Disney Company as an example of successful implementation. The company was chosen for its high level of a strategic advantage as there are no viable substitutions for it. The organization has shown to focus on the interests of its customers and address financial challenges with the help of implementing innovations. One of the main challenges that the company faces is linked to the decline in broadcast, cable, and television revenues, which calls for the integration of radical strategic shifts. In particular, the exploration of the Internet as a tool for attracting the audience was chosen as a strategy that will bring the organization the necessary level of success. Compared to the other two essays discussed in the analysis, the paper on strategic management is relatively brief and offers significant room for future studies.
One Essay’s Contribution
While it was expected that the essay on diversity management would provide the greatest contribution to the understanding of social studies, it was chosen to focus on the paper that discussed strategic management. Surprisingly, the concept of strategic management allowed reflecting on how companies address concerns of ethics and responsibility to society. In social studies, the topic of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been given a lot of attention as the public has raised concerns regarding organizations’ impact on society. The Walt Disney Company, for example, focused on environmental stewardship as an integral point of its CSR strategy. In the Corporate Social Responsibility Update (2017), the company has set such objectives as zero net emissions of greenhouse gases, zero waste, and the conservation of water resources. These objectives are integrated into the process of strategic management along with other transformative steps for gaining a competitive advantage in the industry.
Within the example of the Walt Disney Company, it was identified that the organization was experiencing some challenges in attracting customers, especially due to the increased popularity of online entertainment. The establishment of a strategy that would address social concerns can be of great benefit for attracting potential clients as well as ensuring that Disney has a positive brand image. Corporate social responsibility efforts represent a step of the company in the direction of communicating its ethical intentions to society and reinforcing a positive image in the eyes of customers. The discussion of strategic management efforts implemented by the Walt Disney Company contributed to the increased awareness of CSR efforts that bear extreme relevancy in the context of social studies.
Social studies require students, which represent potential professionals in the field, to develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the good of citizens in culturally diverse and democratic societies. The main purpose of social studies in ensuring that young people can become thoughtful persons the academic background and the skills of whom allow them to function in an increasingly complex and multi-cultural environment successfully. Within the context of social studies knowledge, students are expected to explore both history and cultures of the global societies, gain an understanding of the diversity and the unity of world history, geography, traditions, institutions, and different values. Since social studies combine the knowledge from social studies and humanities (for example, political science, history, geography, and others), the essays on management can contribute to the multi-dimensionality of the discipline.
Diversity and Social Studies
When speaking of the first essay, the concept of diversity should be discussed further. In the social studies environment, the concepts of unity and diversity have been subjected to rigorous debate. This is explained by the fact that these notions are contingent and subjective and thus depend on such variables as class, community, gender, nationality, and others. Two of the essays spoke about diversity management specifically as the method of establishing an environment in organizations that will promote the cultural, ethnic, and gender variability of the workforce. This issue is especially relevant in the sphere of social studies because of the growing complexity of modern society as well as the events associated with the Civil Rights Movement of the twentieth century. This means that discussions of diversity as a universal concept are commonplace in the specialization of social studies.
The concept of diversity plays an integral role in discussions of social justice. According to the study by Mehrotra, Hudson, and Self (2017), studies on diversity and social justice remain limited in the context of social studies courses. In social studies, it has been recognized that the sphere of business also cares about social justice because of the wide applicability of principles involved. As mentioned on the website if the United Nations, social justice represents “the underlying principle for peaceful and prosperous coexistence. We uphold the principles of social justice when we promote gender equality or the rights of Indigenous people and migrants. We advance social justice when we remove barriers that people face because of gender, age, race, ethnicity, religion, culture or disability” (UN, 2019). In the organizational context, social justice matters because it can help eliminate the barriers that limit the aspect of representativeness as well as hinder the engagement and satisfaction of workers.
The adoption of the Declaration on Social Justice for a Fair Globalization represents a landmark in the growing commitment of the society to establishing justice. The Declaration is important to consider due to its focus on guaranteeing fair outcomes for all citizens through employment, social dialogue, protection, and fundamental principles in the workplace. Therefore, the discussion about diversity plays a central role in social justice considerations as a tool for ensuring better equality and better access to valuable resources among diverse communities.
Pay Transparency and Social Studies
In regards to another piece of work prepared for the current program, pay transparency was discussed. It is relevant to the social studies specialization due to its role in ensuring the development of positive conditions that reinforce the desires of employees to work and grow as specialists. Social workers often look at the way people are compensated for their work to make conclusions regarding fairness and transparency. It was found that in many ways transparency had an overall negative role on workers; for instance, it is against the right to privacy, reduces productivity, and encourages turnover.
Due to the controversial nature of pay transparency as a strategy implemented at organizations, its application to the social studies context is challenging. However, in social justice, establishing equal pay for workers is essential for eliminating bias. If, for example, all workers in a company knew what everyone was paid, any discrimination will be underlined, and the management will have to make corrections for reach fairness (Elsesser, 2018). Since there are many arguments against pay transparency, it is not widely adopted because “many organizations fear that revealing employees’ salaries will result in too many complaints from disgruntled workers,” as mentioned by Elsesser for Forbes (2018, para. 1). In relation to the study of social work, the integration of positive practices for pay transparency is studied within the context of influencing fairness. For example, it is important that all workers in a company agree with the policy and transparency for ensuring fair pay. However, without reaching consensus on the practice, honesty regarding the amount of money each employee earns can lead to many challenges.
Strategic Management and Social Studies
Strategic management was the third concept explored in the last essay and thus was necessary for understanding how organizations operate. As applied to the specialization of social studies, the knowledge of how companies reach their objectives may help in getting an understanding of effective processes. The example of the Walt Disney Company represents a social phenomenon to a great extent as it contributed to the shaping of an entire generation. Imagining the society without the works of Walt Disney is impossible, and the opening of Disneyland in 1955 made a dramatic shift in the entertainment industry. Now, however, with the prevalence of digital media and virtual types of entertainment, the company is witnessing a decline in financial success (Kafka, 2017). Because of this, the implementation of effective strategic management efforts was needed. While the topic’s connection to social studies may not be greatly evident, it is important to consider as applied to the general context of organizational management.
If to relate strategic management to social studies, considerations regarding corporate social responsibility (CSR) arise. The integration of CSR into strategic management requires companies to have a wide knowledge of social duties with which they deal on a regular basis. Economic responsibilities are the most common and basic types of CSR as organizations are expected to offer goods and services to customers at reasonable prices, hire workers and create jobs, as well as pay taxes. However, in regards to strategic management, CSR can be used for increasing competitiveness. Ethical management as a component of social responsibility has gained increased attention in recent decades as more companies incorporate the principles of fair treatment to gain a better position compared to competitors. For instance, a small company that sources products locally provides discounts to underserved populations and senior citizens can create a positive image of the brand and make the organization stand out against competitors. In such a scenario, CSR can serve as a tool for increasing the loyalty of customers as well as the company’s profitability.
Even though the concept of strategic management seemed to be distanced from social studies, the analysis of the essay showed that the two could be integrated. Such a conclusion points to the fact that social studies are concerned with the range of topics applicable to organizational contexts, suggesting that opportunities for future research are vast. Connections found between strategic management and social justice represent an approach to viewing corporate affairs as a system of steps and processes that influence the reaching of company objectives.
Consumers, Agents, and Managers
In terms of identifying consumer, agents, and managers, several important points should be mentioned. Within the context of diversity and strategic management discussions, the consumer is represented by the target audience of the essays – social studies students and the general public that is interested in learning about management issues. The agent is the writer of the work as they were the ones to synthesize information from numerous resources in order to present an unbiased view on the nature of diversity as a whole. The managerial role in the essays’ discussions on diversity is assigned to relevant stakeholders who are responsible for ensuring the diverse environment in the workplace. In most cases, it is the management of different organizations that should establish the necessary level of diversity in the workplace. In the exploration of pay transparency, the roles of consumers, agents, and managers stay the same as mentioned above.
Influence of External Forces
In terms of the importance of external forces illustrated in the essays, the impact is significant in terms of addressing the real-life issues explored in the social studies context. In the essay on diversity management in the workplace, the social and political forces influence the way in which organizations promote the policy of acceptance and equality. These external powers provide an understanding of how the issues of diversity should be addressed in the management context. For instance, if there is a generally accepted idea that the workforce should be made up of individuals from different backgrounds, nationalities, and ideologies, Human Resource managers should adhere to the same rule. The emergence of diversity management as a principle focuses on both addressing and preventing workplace conflicts that may arise on the basis of employees having different perspectives on a problem or being from various backgrounds. Importantly, depending on the approach of the management, diversity can be a factor that has either a positive or a negative influence on organizations.
Other external forces that influence the considerations of diversity management are concerned with the range of contemporary perspectives on the issue. These perspectives address both the benefits and challenges of promoting diversity in the workplace. For example, in the HR management context, the establishment of an environment in which the needs of diverse workers are addressed leads to a higher level of satisfaction and motivation, as well as greater engagement compared to non-diverse settings. In terms of the challenges, there is a perspective that diversity can lead to the lower success of communication between employees since many of them have different worldviews.
In regards to transparency, there are several external forces that shape the discussion on the topic. On the one end of the spectrum, it is argued that transparency is ineffective for addressing various types of discrimination in the workplace as such problems as gender inequality cannot be elevated through pay secrecy elimination. On the other end, transparency is perceived as an effective method for encouraging low-earning employees to work harder to get better pay in the future.
Within the discussions of strategic management, some external forces must be mentioned. In the essay, social, demographic, cultural, and natural environments contribute to the understanding of the topic. The products, services, and customers all depend on the way the society is built, what cultural concerns are present, as well as how demographic changes take place in a given context. Strategic management is necessary for organizations of all sizes and orientations, from for-profit to nonprofit since many of them are challenged by the threats and opportunities resulting from the changes in environmental variables. Strategic management is a complex process, which means that forces that influence its shaping are also multi-dimensional and complicated.
If to look at the essays as contributions to the greater knowledge of social studies, it becomes evident that the agents, consumers, managers, practices, and external forces all contribute to the exploration of the works. In all three essays, the focus is placed on the aspect of management as a method for establishing a positive environment in the workplace that promotes diversity as well as other practices associated with fair treatment. It is the manager who is responsible for hiring employees from diverse backgrounds, address any difficulties that arise on the basis of different worldviews, and set organizational goals associated with the improvement of fairness and equal treatment. In terms of transparency, managers are the ones to decide whether the policy would benefit their organization and evaluate the impact of the practice on the company’s environment. Strategic management is a process that can involve both pay transparency and diversity management depending on the goals and objectives that a company has established.
The range of external forces that were found to influence the decisions on diversity and transparency are all linked to the current social, political, and economic environment within which firms operate. These forces allow for a better understanding of the discussed issues as a complex pattern of interconnected influences on the organizational environment as a whole. Moreover, these forces are necessary to consider as they allow for the possibility to uncover the most pressing issues that exist within companies and how these issues can be addressed. In many instances, the social climate in a country will dictate how organizations address concerns of diversity while the overall financial situation will reflect the efforts associated with transparency.
In summary of the section, it is imperative to note that it was not expected to find as many connections between social studies and diversity and strategic management as well as pay transparency. However, the exploration of the essays pointed several connecting points between the discipline and the topics of the papers. This suggests that social studies are also concerned with what is occurring in companies, how leaders address the challenges of equal treatment, or how relevant social issues are solved within organizational contexts.
Directions for Future Inquiries
The overview of essays written for the current course showed that the predominant interest was based on ensuring the prosperity of organizations in the contexts of diversity, strategic management, and fair compensation. All three essays agree on the hypothesis that for companies to be successful, they should be attentive to the concerns of their employees, listen to customers, and be transparent in their intentions. There is an agreement that significant planning efforts are needed for ensuring that companies reach a competitive advantage. In terms of diversity, the creation of a positive environment in which workers from various backgrounds are accepted and valued as important contributors to the success of organizations. Diversity can also be used as a tool for strategic management: a company can communicate the message of acceptance and equality as the main characteristic of the business not only for addressing corporate responsibility concerns but also for attracting clients.
Furthermore, there is an agreement between the essays in the sense that managers play the most important role in ensuring that organizations reach the desired level of competitive advantage. Managers are individuals who have the responsibility for fulfilling specific tasks linked to assigning tasks to employees and reporting the results of the implemented strategies. In diversity management, strategic management, and pay transparency, managers are expected to play leading roles in deciding which strategies will benefit their organizations the most. The process of management is considered important in all of the essays because strong management has a direct influence on increasing the performance of employees, engagement, and satisfaction.
As identified above, the essays are concerned with effective organizational management as a method for ensuring the potential success of companies. In the context of future inquiries, it is possible to evaluate the process of management as a contributor to ensuring that diversity in the workplace is preserved, that a given company has a strategic direction, and that concerns about pay transparency are addressed. In terms of strategic management, future study opportunities are vast as managers have a direct influence on whether the objectives are reached or not.
In terms of the conflicting aspects of the essays, there are not many points that could be mentioned as there is an overall consensus that careful planning of organizational objectives and their management can lead to the success of most companies. There may be a conflict of opinions in regards to which management processes play the most important roles in organizations. For example, diversity management is given a lot of attention and is seen as a detrimental aspect needed for ensuring that a company reaches its goals. In the era of globalization, the expectations of the public regarding hiring diverse workers into organizations have increased. Because of this, there is some level of disagreement in regards to what processes should managers implement to ensure the success of their companies.
When discussing the origins of the agreements and conflicts identified above, it should be mentioned that organizational success plays an essential role. With the great availability of information, the determinants of organizational success may range from one company to another. However, success is defined as the ability of companies to sustain financial prosperity as well as make a positive difference in the world. The main determinants of organizational success include the existence of the driving force to create the sense of happiness, workers implementing the rights roles and assignments, the establishment of an effective strategic plan, and the continuous improvement of capabilities for management and leadership. Pay transparency, for example, is discussed in the context of companies reaching the desired level of success through the development of an environment in which employees are treated fairly. In terms of diversity, it is seen as one of the driving forces of creating a positive atmosphere in a company that can reach success.
Aristotle said, “happiness is the meaning and the purpose of life, the whole aim and end of human existence” (Goldie, 2014, p. 181). The idea of happiness has been attributed to reaching organizational success and therefore is considered one of the most important aims that all companies are expected to reach. Within this view, an organization is expected to maintain a climate in which workers can maintain positive relationships with one another because people are social beings and require close communication. Following this logic, it is suggested that reaching the desired level of socialization is possible through teamwork, which is defined as the probes of cooperative use of individual skills for reaching the established objectives. Getting back to Aristotle’s perspective, happiness within organizations can be reached through teamwork among workers.
While discussing the concept of happiness within the context of the identified essays may seem too ambitious, the ultimate intention of all business processes is reaching the desired level of appreciation and happiness. Scholars have been puzzled by finding the perfect formula for achieving happiness at work, especially since many employees have struggled with achieving the right balance between their personal and organizational life. The first line of inquiry is proposed to resolve the issues associated with the influence of diversity management on the ultimate happiness. This principle represents a great potential for further studies and can be connected to discussions about diversity, pay transparency, and strategic management. Ultimately, the agreements and disagreements in the essays all go back to success and happiness as the main objectives that most companies set for themselves. Due to the complex nature of happiness as a concept, it is possible to view the idea of diversity as a contributor to the ultimate satisfaction and complete engagement of workers.
Implications for future research are not necessarily concerned with resolving the conflicts that exist between the essays. Rather, it is advised that the new studies account for the gaps in the past studies. As suggested previously, it is possible to combine discussions of diversity with the concept of organizational success and happiness. In many organizational contexts, the idea of establishing diversity is challenging because of the existence of boundaries that require expanding. For companies the management of which is highly invested into the wellbeing of the staff, having to make dramatic changes can be limiting but ultimately rewarding. Studying the way in which happiness in the workplace can be achieved through diversity is expected to bring a better understanding of beneficial processes and allow managers to find the right way in which things should be done.
The second line of inquiry is proposed to integrate a discussion on how different aspects of organizational management can be used for achieving corporate objectives. Combining considerations of strategic management and diversity practices also represents numerous perspectives for research. The two aspects of management can be combined to explore how a company can reach the established objectives in the most effective and cost-efficient way. Researching training programs that have shown to increase diversity in the workplace is expected to reveal important recommendations on how the fair treatment of all workers can become a strategic advantage. Additionally, research on CSR efforts may be integrated into discussions of diversity management as the subjects go hand-in-hand with each other.
In conclusion of the analysis of the essays, it should be mentioned that the concept of diversity management represented the most important subject of exploration. In a highly globalized society, the concept of diversity is expected to allow organizations to create an environment in which workers from different backgrounds are respected, valued, and accepted. Strategic management is another important contributor to creating a positive situation within companies as it is directly associated with the increased changes in achieving success. Both of the mentioned components were explored in the context of organizational management, the objective of which is ensuring that a company reaches the desired level of accomplishment. As evidenced by the example of the Walt Disney Company, every organization works toward being consistently successful financially, and the strategic management allows them to become such.
When speaking of pay transparency, much more controversy was identified during the discussion. While the paper focused on presenting the view that there are many more disadvantages to the system’s integration than advantages, surprising connections with social studies topics were found. Pay transparency is a multi-dimensional subject of research and within the exploration of social justice allows for the discussion of the fair and equal treatment of workers in organizational contexts. Overall, the exploration of the essays resulted in the examination of close connections between social studies and such topics of diversity, strategic management, and pay transparency.
Corporate Social Responsibility Update. (2017). Web.
The source includes some information on the corporate social responsibility program implemented by the Walt Disney Company. It was necessary to use in the discussion of strategic management as applied to social studies.
Elsesser, K. (2018). Pay transparency is the solution to the pay gap: Here’s one company’s success story. Forbes. Web.
The author offered a closer look at the implementation of pay transparency policies in the workplace for the purpose of reaching equal pay. It was found that the pay gap can be elevated if employers are transparent about workers’ compensation.
Goldie, A. N. (2014). The golden thread: The art of living life at the peak. Victoria, Australia: Global Publishing Group.
The reference was used for citing an Aristotle quote regarding happiness and did not offer additional information for current analysis.
Kafka, P. (2017). Disney wants to make a huge shift in its business model – But it’s not ready to do it yet. Recode. Web.
The article illustrated some of the most pressing challenges that the Walt Disney Company was experiencing in the recent years. The intention of the author was to show that despite the corporation’s intentions to make a significant shift in strategy, it required careful planning and dedication.
McGill, J. (2016). Is pay transparency good for business? NZ Business, 30(10), 23-24.
The researcher focused on exploring the range of positive and negative influences of pay transparency on organizations. It was found that the disadvantages of the policy outweigh the advantages, which represented a ground for further exploration.
Mehrotra, G. R., Hudson, K. D., & Self, J. M. (2017). What are we teaching in diversity and social justice courses? A qualitative content analysis of MSW syllabi. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 37(3), 218-233.
In the article, scholars investigated the social studies curriculum for identifying which content was necessary for reaching the necessary level of accreditation. Specific attention was given to the exploration of emerging themes that appear in the course of knowledge acquisition.
Obloj, T., & Zenger, T. (2015). Incentives, social comparison costs, and the proximity of envy’s object. HEC Paris Research Paper No. SPE-2015-1085, 1-15. Web.
The researchers investigated the idea of inequity aversion and envy in the context of pay transparency. It was found that pay transparency policies in the workplace were limiting to the success of organizations, especially in terms of decreased productivity.
UN. (2019). World day of social justice 20 February. Web.
The information presented in the page is concerned with discussing social justice as a beneficial principle for establishing fairness in the workplace and other settings.