Eagles Electronics Company Analysis


The company needs additional capital to finance its business expansion project and in particular, the capacity expansion projects. The planned capacity addition under the next five years is setting up a new production plant and adopting the most sophisticated production technology. The company plans to spend approximately £ 500 million over the coming years to fund the capacity addition, which will enhance the production capacity of the company. The expansion plans will result in the growth of sales of 30% per year and this will enhance the growth capacity of the company. The ability to finance the capital expenditures is subject to some risks, contingencies, and other factors, some of which are beyond the control of the company and which includes tariff regulations, interest rates, borrowing or lending restrictions, and the ability to obtain financing on acceptable terms (Swart & Kinnie, 2004).

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Events in the product market that could influence the share price of the Eagles Electronics

Stiff competition from other producers could limit the selling capacity of the company. Poor marketing strategies adopted by the company, which could adversely affect its selling capacity. The decline in production capacity reducing the volume of production of the products limits the amount of revenue to be generated because of sales.

Events in the capital market that could influence the share price of the Eagles Electronics

A general downturn in the capital market undermines the investment capability of investors. Announcements such as dividend cuts, which could make an investment in the company by the investors be slowed down

Sources of capital available to Eagles Electronics

Capital markets-companies wishing to acquire more capital to finance various investments do so by floating shares on stock markets, under initial public offer arrangement, where the public is invited to buy a certain stake in the company (Giroud & Holger, 2010).

Venture capital, which is offered by organizations who engage in financing relatively high-risk investments, which other lenders of capital may be unwilling to provide. These organizations also offer screening of the projects that are undertaken by the companies seeking their funds; as a result, venture organizations are given a share of the profits that these businesses make (Myers, 1984).

Family and friends-Entrepreneurs tend to seek support of friends and family members after exhausting their own initial investment funds. They seek funds for expansion purposes or for settling debts that fall due.

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Debt in terms of borrowed capital from banks and other financial institutions

The companies repay the borrowed capital and the accruing interest has to be noted that the lender assess the viability of the company before advancing the loan (Amihud, 2002).

Strategies to enhance share price value of Eagles Electronics

Managers managing the shareholder mix so that there are many people waiting in the wings they have met and impressed with the company’s performance can achieve this. This can ensure stronger stability on the downside, so that the company does not encounter big downdrafts. In addition, because they have reduced available supply of stock and they have attracted many investors to buy it, the share price will increase and enhancing improvement in the quality of the company’s products, placing it strategically located and thus improve its share price value (Goldstein & Alex, 2008).


  • 1. After tax cost of debt=cost of debt*(1-tax rate)



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Total assets=1800+450

=2,250 million pounds

Total Equity of the firm=750+500=1250 million pounds

In order to balance the balance sheet of eagles’ electronics then retained earnings will have to be 250 million pounds.

  • 2.cost of equity=risk free rate of return + beta*(market rate of return-risk free rate of return)



WACC (Weighted Average Cost of Capital)

Where debt is zero (0)

Source of capital Value(£million) weight cost Weighted cost=weight*cost
Long-term debt 0 0 7 0
Common stock equity 750 1 6.8 6.8
wacc 6.8

Where debt is £100m

Source of capital Value(£million) weight cost Weighted cost=weight*cost
Long-term debt 100 0.12 7 0.84
Common stock equity 750 0.88 6.8 5.984
wacc 6.824

Where debt is £200m

Source of capital Value(£million) weight cost Weighted cost=weight*cost
Long-term debt 200 0.21 7 1.47
Common stock equity 750 0.79 6.8 5.372
wacc 6.842

Where debt is £300m

Source of capital Value(£million) weight cost Weighted cost=weight*cost
Long-term debt 300 0.29 7 2.03
Common stock equity 750 0.71 6.8 4.828
wacc 6.858

Where debt is 400million pounds

Source of capital Value(£million) weight cost Weighted cost=weight*cost
Long-term debt 400 0.35 7 2.45
Common stock equity 750 0.65 6.8 4.42
wacc 6.87

Where debt is 500million pounds

Source of capital Value(£million) weight cost Weighted cost=weight*cost
Long-term debt 500 0.4 7 2.8
Common stock equity 750 0.6 6.8 4.08
wacc 6.88
Sales 1950
Cost of goods sold 1365
Gross profit 585
Depreciation 97.5
EBIT 877.5
Taxes (40%) 351
Net income 526.5 million pounds

Value of the firm= EBIT (1-T)wacc

Debt being 0


Debt being 100


Debt being 200


Debt being 300


Debt being 400


Debt being 500


Value of equity

Debt(£million) equity(£million) Total value of equity(£million)
0 750 750
100 750 850
200 750 950
300 750 1050
400 750 1150
500 750 1250

Modigliani and miller propositions

  1. Affirms WACC, weigthed average cost of capital is independent of the debt/equity ratio and equals to the cost of the capital (Modigliani 1978)
  2. The expected yield of a share of equity is equal to the appropriate capitalization rate plus a premium related to the financial risk(Modigliani 1978)
  • Residual dividend policy
debt 0 100 200 300 400 500
New financing needed 500 500 500 500 500 500
Retained earnings available 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500
Equity needed 100 % of debt
88 % of debt


79 % of debt


71% of debt


65 % of debt


60 % of debt


dividends 1000 1060 1105 1145 1175 1200
Dividends per share in pounds 100050
Dividend payout ratio 10001500

Dividend Cut

Dividend cut occurs when the level of the current cash dividend is lower than that in the previous quarter, this definition, includes dividends omissions that is marked by a cut to zero or missing dividends (Lie, 2005).Another definition is proposed by Modigliani and Miller(1961) who define dividends as payments made by businesses to shareholders. Firms are reluctant to opt for dividend cuts and they only do so under extreme circumstances (Roberts, 2008).

Residual theory of dividends

Divicut is a case where the company is forced to retain funds through lack of alternative financing options, with the explicit assumption that the firm is capital-rationed with access only to internal sources of finance. Dividends should be paid only when there are no further worthwhile investment opportunities. Having decided on the optimal set of financing, the firm should distribute to shareholders only those funds not required for investment financing (Modigliani & Miller, 1961)

Reasons why sometimes firms opt for dividend cuts

Dividend omissions are strategically motivated to preserve financial flexibility within the firm and violations of company covenants, as dividend cuts occur frequently even among healthy firms and are not necessarily indicator of financial distress (Bulan, 2009). Brockman & Unlu (2009) point out that countries with weaker creditor rights, firms adopt more restrictive payout policies in order to mitigate the agency cost of debt.

Powell & Veit (2002) emphasize the importance of achieving stable dividend policy. They suggest that managers tend to maintain a stable dividend payment because managers feel that a dividend increase should not occur unless there is confidence that the business could sustain the higher level in near future. Dividends should never be missed and that the market places a higher value on a business that maintains a stable level of dividends paid than on one that pays a constant proportion of its profit as a dividend.

Impact of dividend cut on Eagles Electronics

Firms that cut their dividends report very low earnings in the year of dividend change, in large part due to the recognition of negative special item, these firms report substantial earnings per share increase in subsequent years. Dividend cut trigger negative stock returns, are unrelated to future earnings after controlling for current earning, and are associated with an increase in firm risk, thus dividend cut announcements signal an increase in risk, which in turn triggers a negative market response (Grullon et al., 2002).

Dividend decrease do not convey new information about future earnings but rather increase in firm risk. DeAngeleo et al. (1992),found out that those firms that cut their dividends in the current year report lower next year earnings even after controlling for current year earning. Persistence earnings is positively related to the level of dividends, especially for low levels of dividends, that is low dividend firms have particularly low earnings persistence, this evidence suggests that dividend decrease firms may also have low earnings.


Debt 0 100 200 300 400 500
Dividends 1000 1060 1105 1145 1175 1200
Dividends paid 40 40 40 40 40 40
Amount of share to be purchased 960 1020 1065 1105 1135 1160
Shares purchased 96045
=21.3 millions
=23.2 millions
=23.7 millions
=24.56 millions
=25.2 millions
=25.7 millions
Dividends per share 960100
=9.6 pounds
=10.2 pounds
=10.65 pounds
=11.05 pounds
=11.35 pounds
=11.6 pounds

Total number of shares as a result of takeover=50+50=100 million share

Internationalization of Firms

Internationalization is a concept that is increasing in the modern world with many companies worldwide embracing the chance to go global. Exchange of goods and services internationally has increased leading to the need for companies to invest in international markets. Participants in the supply chain have increased their networks leading to a higher degree of interdependence. The globalization process has increased the speed of the internationalization process since it is accompanied by advanced technology.

Organizations internationalize due to the need to compete for the limited resources and the need to diversify their market globally. Political factors affect diversifying firms since the firms are expected to adhere to the different regulations existing in different countries they venture. They need also to show the ability to manage the currency fluctuations international policies that conflict (Bell, Crick, 2004).

Analysis of a Takeover

This is the last option should Eagles Electronics fail to raise the required amount to finance its expansion project. Takeover is the acquisition by one company of the share capital of another in exchange for cash, ordinary shares, loan stock or some mixture of these (Shivdasani, 1993). Shivdasani (1993) points out that those managers who seek to maximize the wealth of shareholders seek to exploit value-creating opportunities too. There are two situations when managers feel able to enrich shareholders via takeovers (Breale & Franklin, 2000).

According to Masum & Fernandez (2008), the internationalization process enables firms to avail their new and old products in new markets in different countries. A low market valuation makes a firm a takeover target, investors seem to track firm’s valuation multiples for indication on the potential for acquisition and managers strive to maintain high market valuations to prevent hostile takeover and market price will affect takeover activity if they are related to expect future acquisition prices. Moreover, the takeover premium might include synergy as well as efficiency gains, same industry takeovers where synergies are most likely do not involve a high takeover premium and hostile takeovers which are less likely to be synergy driven do not feature a lower premium( Jensen,1993)

Jensen (1986) points out that takeover may be launched by: a) raiders, they are purely financial investors and they take over the firm at exactly the right level of product demand and they shut the firm down immediately. Thus, the strategy implemented by raiders is that of first-best outcome in which the value of the firm is maximized through abandonment and not the company’s value as viewed by the managers or investors. b) Another firm: the management of another organization is able to undertake a hostile acquisition of a firm. Although their actions are almost similar to raiders, they are usually forced to disclose the bid.

Impact of takeover of the company (Benefits)

Synergy, takeovers bring real benefits to shareholders owing to genuine increase in positive cash flows and reduction in risk. The synergy benefits accrue to the shareholders of the target as well as to those of the bidder, it also results in risk reduction and away of spreading risk (Hackbarth & Erwan, 2008). Access to some aspects of target that the bidder considers underutilized, there is also overall increase in positive cashflows,through stronger management skills being brought to bear on the target’s assets and finally takeovers result in elimination or reduction in competition, where the bidder and the target are in competition for the market price for their output. A takeover could lead to a monopoly or at least a larger market share for the merged unit, this strength in the market place might enable prices to be raised without the loss of turnover (Alexandra, 1997). This could be of greater importance on the share prices of Eagles Electronics.

Cremers & Kose (2009) suggests that acquisitions fail to thrive because, acquires often pay too much for their target, either as a result of a flawed evaluation process that overestimates the likely benefits or as a result of getting caught up in a competitive bidding situation, whether the yield is regarded as a sign of corporate weakness (Fama & French, 2001).

Limitations of takeover

The approach has its various limitations, which are the approach does not allow for risk, any improvement in profitability may simply be due to a restriction of competition, rather than more efficient use of resources are. To assess properly the impact of the takeover requires an extended analysis ranging over five years, measures of profitability may have been distorted due to the application of acquisition accounting procedures and because of different accounting conventions used by different firms (Chava & Michael, 2008). Acquires often fail to plan and execute properly the integration of their targets, frequently neglecting the organizational and internal cultural factors. Inadequate knowledge, about the targets business should be corrected in the process of due diligence (Merton, 1985).

Assessing impact of takeover of produtos compostos by eagles electronics

Weston (1998) suggests that the impact of takeovers is assessed by financial characteristics approach, is based on examining key financial characteristics of both acquiring and acquired firms before the takeover, to study whether they are more or less profitable (Schwert, 1996).

  • Total shares to be exchanged=50 million shares

Shares exchanged=505=10 million shares

Net income of produtos compostos=30 million euro

Exchanging the euros to pounds gives us


=£25.5 million

Total net income=135+25.5

=£160.5 million

  • Free cash flow=operating cash flow-net fixed asset investment-net current asset investment

Operating cash flow=EBIT (1-T) + DEPRECIATION

=30+7=37 million euros


=220 million euros

The amount in pounds=220*0.85=£187million

year FCF=£million PVIF 6.88% PRESENT VALUE
1 187 0.9356 174.96
2 203 0.8754 177.71
3 219 0.8191 179.38
4 235 0.7663 180.08
5 251 0.7170 179.97
892.1million pounds
  • Acquisition through stock will be cheaper compared to use of cash, it will cost eagles electronics a stock of 450 million pounds as compared to paying cash of value 892.1 million pounds.
  • Eagles electronics should grow internally by doing so a net income of 526.5 million pounds will be realized in the first year of expansion as compared to a combined net income of 160.5 million pounds that will be realized upon takeover of produtos compostos.

Long term debt=500 million pounds

Equity=750 million pounds

Weighted average cost of capital increased to 6.88%


Pecking order theory, Myers(1984),suggests that business are reluctant to make new share issues, because, share issues are expensive in terms of issue costs, it is often believed that managers often feel that their businesses’ share undertakes its true value. Issuing new shares at this low value would in these circumstances, disadvantage existing shareholders to the advantage of those taking up the new shares issued. Due to that managers fear that the market may view making a new share issue as a sign that the directors believe that the shares to be overpriced in the stock market (Kaplan, 1992).

Alternatively, it could be viewed as an act of depreciation, only to be undertaken when the business has no option these points are likely to make it difficult to make a new issue and may lead to a low issue price. According to the pecking order theory, businesses will tend to finance their activities in the following sequence, retained profit, debt, which is relatively cheap to raise, particularly if it is in the form of a term loan from a bank or similar institution, equity share issue. Based on these options available to the firm, Eagles Electronics would be in a better position; to implement a dividend cut which in this case would be viewed as a means of internal financing and which would be cheaper in the end as compared to other options available to the company.


Alexandra, L. (1997) The art of mergers and acquisition integration: a guide to managing resources. New York, NY. McGraw-Hill.

Amihud, Y. (2002) Illiquidity and stock returns: cross section and time-series effects. Journal of financial markets, 5, pp. 31-56.

Breale, M. & Franklin, A. (2000) Principles of corporate finance: mergers and takeovers. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Chava, S. & Michael, R. (2008) How does financing impact investment: the role of debt covenants. Journal of finance, 63, pp. 2085-2121.

Cremers, N. & Kose, J.2009, Takeovers and cross-section of returns: Review of financial studies, 22, pp. 1409-1445.

DeAngeleo, H. & Douglas, J. (1992) Dividends and losses, Journal of finance, 47, pp. 183-863.

Fama, F. & French, R. (2001) Disappearing dividends: changing firm characteristics, Journal of financial economics, 60, pp. 3-44.

Giroud, X. & Holger, M. (2010) Does corporate governance matter in competitive industries, Journal of financial economics, 95, pp. 312-331.

Hackbarth, D. & Erwan, M. (2008) Stock returns in mergers and acquisition, Journal of finance, 63, pp. 1213-1252.

Jensen, M. (1986) Agency costs of free cashflow corporate finance and takeover, The American Economic Review, 76(2), pp. 323-329.

Kaplan, R. (1992) The balanced scoreboard: means that drive performance. Harvard business review, pp. 71-79.

Masum, M. & Fernandez, A. (2008) Internationalization process of SMEs: Strategies and methods, Vasteras, Sweden.

Merton, H. (1985) Dividend policy under asymmetric information, Journal of finance, 40, pp. 1031-1051.

Schwert, G. (1996) Markup pricing in mergers and acquisitions, Journal of financial economics, 41, pp 153-192.

Shivdasani, A. (1993) Board composition, ownership structure and hostile takeover, Journal of accounting and economics, 16, pp. 167-198.

Swart, J. & Kinnie, N. (2004) Managing the Careers of Professional Knowledge Workers, London: CIPD.

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