Environmental sustainability should be embraced by all organizations to ensure the efficient use of renewable and non-renewable resources and minimize adverse environmental impacts. This concept has received increased attention in the United Arab Emirates as the country approaches its Vision 2021 celebrations. The police department plays a vital role in the enforcement of law and order and maintaining high standards of security. However, this department is marked by high levels of wastefulness and carbon emissions. The purpose of this study is to examine the implementation of environmental sustainability in the day-to-day operations of the Dubai Police Force, with specific attention to officers in the General Department of Administrative Affairs.
A case-study-based, qualitative approach will be used to determine the officers’ perceptions of environmental sustainability and what can be done to ensure that they embrace this practice. A total of 66 police officers from 11 different police stations in Dubai will be interviewed. The participants will be mainly male, with ages ranging from 18 to 45 years old. Questionnaires will also be administered to the subjects. Archived data in the form of memos and email communications will also be analyzed and used to build the case study. Triangulation will be done to enhance the validity of the study. Coding of the data analysis will be done using NVivo software, while data analysis will be aided by the QDA Miner and ANTCONC software applications. It is expected that the completion of this study will guide the development of relevant policies and enhance environmental sustainability in the daily operations of the Dubai Police.
Behavioral Change to Implement Environmental Sustainability in the Dubai Police Force
Sustainability can be defined as the capacity to continue with a specified behavior for an indefinite period. When considering environmental sustainability, three main factors are important: renewable resources, pollution, and non-renewable resources (Bölük & Mert, 2015). Therefore, environmental sustainability can be defined as the ability to use natural resources to meet current needs in a way that ensures that future generations will also meet their needs. This definition implies that the rate of use of renewable resources should not exceed the rate of their production. Similarly, projects involving the generation of waste should ensure that the waste does not exceed the assimilative capacity of the environment. In the case of non-renewable resources, their use should be accompanied by the creation of alternative renewable sources.
The relevance of the concept of environmental sustainability has increased in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as the country moves towards Vision 2021. Pistoni, Songini, and Perrone (2016) report that the government has shown commitment to ensuring that its operations consider emerging socio-economic and environmental factors. A sustainable environment with minimal reliance on external support is one of the main agendas of the UAE Vision 2021 (Jayaraman, La Torre, Malik, & Pearson, 2015). Balakrishnan (2017) explains that for a long time, the UAE has relied on imported food to feed its population. Additionally, a significant portion of the electrical energy used in the country is produced by the combustion of fossil fuels. Amery (2015) also observes that many of the organizations in the service industry use significant amounts of energy. These trends should change as the country moves towards self-sustainability. The UAE has immense potential to produce solar energy (Gherboudj & Ghedira, 2016). Therefore, the government has taken initiatives to ensure that solar energy production receives adequate attention to ensure its success. Moreover, the country encourages the efficient use of energy to promote environmental sustainability. Measures are in place to ensure that each government department embraces sustainable practices in environmental conservation. One of the departments that have embraced this initiative is the Dubai Police (Mamitimin, 2016).
Dore (2015) explains that for a long time, society has believed that the manufacturing industry should spearhead the promotion of a sustainable environment because it plays a major role in the emission of greenhouse gases, effluents that pollute water bodies, and non-biodegradable wastes. However, this perception is changing with the realization that everyone has a role to play in protecting the environment. Having a sustainable environment requires commitment and teamwork involving all stakeholders. The Dubai Police Force has realized that as an organization responsible for maintaining law and order, it also has a role to play in promoting sustainable environmental practices (Malloy, 2013). The police force also has an obligation to ensure that its activities do not affect the environment.
The Dubai Police Force, which is among the most effective and impressive police forces in the world, is the department responsible for maintaining law and order in the emirate of Dubai. It consists of about 17,500 officers who work under the leadership of the Vice President and Ruler of Dubai, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum (Amery, 2015). Headquartered at Al Twar and with the jurisdiction of approximately 4000 square kilometers, the force is headed by a chief of police who answers to the Ruler of Dubai. The current chief of police is Major General Abdulla Khalifa Al Marri (Amery, 2015). The Dubai Police has three primary departments, the first of which is the General Department of Operations, which is responsible for controlling the activities of the entire force and responding to emergencies.
The General Department of Artificial Intelligence is responsible for gathering intelligence to ensure that the Dubai Police Force remains proactive. This department facilitates the detection of security threats and acts accordingly before members of the public are affected. The last department is the General Department of Criminal Investigation, which is tasked with fighting crime within the country. Each of these departments is headed by a general commander who works directly under the chief of police. However, the total number of departments has increased to 14. Additional departments include the General Department of Administrative Affairs, Traffic, Human Resources, Finance, Airports Authorities, Services and Supply, Punitive Establishment, Total Quality, E-Services, Community Services, the Police Dog Unit, the Dubai Police Academy, the Decision Making Support Center, as well as the General Department of Organization, Protective Security and Emergency.
The Dubai Police Force is characterized by high levels of discipline. Authority flows from the chief of police to general commanders and finally to junior officers. The Dubai police rank among the best forces globally because of their professional behavior and record, as they have kept crime rates in the emirate under control over the years. The police have also established a strong rapport with the community, which has resulted in successful social outreach programs, an enhanced sense of belonging, and curbed crime rates in the emirate. However, Amery (2015) reports that officers often work in very stressful environments. Sometimes they are expected to work extra hours to ensure that security is not compromised.
This study focuses on the implementation of environmental sustainability within one of the most important government departments, the Dubai Police Force. The department is adopting a new initiative that involves the reduced use of heavy trucks to ensure that their activities are sustainable (Amery, 2015). The environmental factors that the Dubai police are faced with, coupled with the socio-economic environment, are unique, and may not be similar to what other police departments in other parts of the world experience. The number of cars in this city has increased consistently over the years, which complicates police work. Compared with other regional police departments, the Dubai Police Force has earned a reputation for being pragmatic in handling security threats and for high responsiveness to distress calls (Amery, 2015). Such impressive performance also means that the department must facilitate the regular movement of its officers. The study will examine what police officers in the Department of Administrative Affairs are doing or should do to enhance environmental sustainability in their daily operations. Officers in this department provide their services to employees working in the buildings where they are situated.
The Dubai Police Force is a specialized area of study because of the nature of police operations. Officers work under a strict code of conduct in all their procedures. Unlike other conventional companies where employees can deviate from standard practices due to the desire for creativity, police officers must work according to a specific set of instructions. The actions of junior officers are based on instructions given to them by senior officers (Amery, 2015), which means that it is impossible to convince junior officers to embrace certain practices without the approval of top commanders. Therefore, deviations are not acceptable and could lead to disciplinary actions against the officer. Therefore, investigating strategies that can be implemented to ensure environmental sustainability requires one to consider that these officers are subject to specific directives. Another issue of concern is limited awareness levels among officers of issues related to environmental sustainability, which may cause resistance to change. A significant number of police officers know that their duty is to maintain law and order and guarantee the security of the emirate using all legal means at their disposal. Therefore, officers feel that the nature of their work has nothing to do with environmental sustainability, which has led to little or no regard for environmental protection by the police.
The UAE has various initiatives meant to reduce the overreliance of the economy on the oil and gas sector. Borchardt and Ibisch (2013) show that the oil wells in the country may run dry within the next 20 to 45 years. Therefore, there is a need for sustainability initiatives that focus on reducing the economy’s dependence on this sector. One way of achieving sustainability goals is to reduce energy consumption rates by government institutions without compromising their efficiency. The Dubai Police Force is an example of a government department that should embrace sustainable environmental practices. This department plays a crucial role in maintaining law and order as well as responding to emergencies.
Therefore, as much as the department needs to ensure that its activities are environmentally sustainable (through efficient resource use and minimal environmental pollution), it cannot scale down its operations. Therefore, there may be a need for the department to devise energy-efficient strategies for facilitating the movement of its officers and other administrative operations (Parris, 2016). Policy changes to minimize energy consumption may be needed in various areas of the police department, including offices, field units, and officers’ residential houses. It may also be necessary for the department to adopt new practices that can enable it to produce its energy instead of relying on energy from the national grid (Dore, 2015). The Dubai Police Force has yet to embrace sustainability initiatives that would improve the efficient use of energy and water resources while minimizing environmental pollution.
Implementing environmental sustainability initiatives can be a challenging process. Meixell and Luoma (2015) explain that when taking such initiatives, it is important to be specific about what needs to be achieved. Having broad objectives complicates the process of determining what needs to be achieved and the approach needed to realize the set objectives. Hence, it is necessary to narrow down the focus to have a comprehensive understanding of what needs to be accomplished. The following are the specific questions that highlight what the researcher seeks to achieve in this study.
- How can behavioral changes of Dubai Police Force officers in the General Department of Administrative Affairs promote sustainability in the department’s operations?
- Why is it important to promote behavioral change among officers in the General Department of Administrative Affairs?
Conceptual and Theoretical framework
Research can only be meaningful if it adds new knowledge in a given field (Cahan, 2017). A detailed literature review makes it possible to identify knowledge gaps or conflicts in existing literature, which helps to avoid the duplication of knowledge. This section provides a review of work from previous studies in this field.
Organizational Behavioral Change
Implementing environmental sustainability within the Dubai Police Force requires policy changes. Amery (2015) suggests that it is important to target the highest authority when trying to introduce policy change in law enforcement. Behavioral change cannot occur overnight. The ability of officers to change their stance about the usage of the natural resources at their disposal depends on various factors, the most important of which is the goodwill of top officers. The commanders must ensure that new environmentally-friendly policies are followed by junior officers. Officers know that disobeying the command of top officers may have negative consequences. The environmental mind map in Figure 1 below shows how policies should be developed to help enhance the sustainable use of water resources.
Water scarcity in the United Arab Emirates and other countries in the region is a major concern that should not be ignored by the Dubai Police (Amery, 2015). The Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) is working to ensure that enough clean water is available in the country (Walker & Laplume, 2014). One current strategy in use is the desalination of seawater, which is expensive and highly complex. Thus, the Dubai Police Force has a role to play in ensuring the responsible use of this resource to avoid worsening an already bad situation.
Climate change is another issue of environmental concern (Nadal, Marquès, Mari, & Domingo, 2015). Dubai has registered impressive population and economic growth over the past decades, which has resulted from the advancement of the trade and tourism industries (Borchardt & Ibisch, 2013). The number of cars and industrial facilities has also increased. However, this growth has environmental repercussions. The carbon footprint is now a major concern among environmental conservationists in the city. As the number of engines using hydrocarbons continues to increase, the levels of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere also increase (Sharma & Ghoshal, 2015). It is necessary to find ways of addressing this problem before it worsens, and the Dubai Police Force has a role to play.
Climate change has increased the importance of environmental sustainability (Palmer & Flanagan, 2016). Human activities have adverse environmental consequences and if nothing is done to address the issue, the problem may worsen. Therefore, a central pillar of sustainability is the environment (Colombo, 2014). A polluted environment poses serious health problems (Galpin, Whittington, & Bell, 2015). Consistent environmental pollution constrains meaningful economic activity in an area. The Dubai Police Force should ensure that its environment is sustainable. Apart from observing hygiene standards and ensuring responsible waste disposal, officers should also use energy and water resources responsibly. Emissions from police cars, offices, and residential premises should be minimized as part of the environmental sustainability initiative.
Having systems and structures that eliminate the waste of natural resources is crucial to the public and private sectors. Gleick (2014) explains a few strategies that can be undertaken to enhance environmental sustainability. For instance, replacing old-model cars with solar-driven or hybrid cars can help to address environmental pollution and energy consumption through efficient fuel use. Given that the region enjoys sunlight throughout the year, solar energy is a viable source of sustainable energy (Gherboudj & Ghedira, 2016).
Behavior Change Models in the Efficient Use of Electricity, Water, and Fuel
Consumer behavior is multifaceted and does not always adhere to conventional economic theories of decision-making (Butler, Pentoney, & Bong, 2017). There has been a move away from the ‘rational choice’ model of human conduct, where an individual factually assesses the dangers and advantages of all options before picking the best course of action (Frederiks, Stenner, and Hobman, 2015). Therefore, environmental concerns or material interests cannot accurately foretell personal choices concerning pro-environmental conduct and resource utilization. There is a vast body of evidence from psychology and behavioral economics demonstrating that user choices and activities usually diverge from the neoclassical cost-effective expectations of judiciousness due to numerous and consistent preferences in human decision-making that elicit unexplained behavior (Van Der Linden, 2015). Behavioral economics and psychology provide an appropriate model, as described by Frederiks et al. (2015), which can direct the successful formulation and implementation of consumer-focused approaches and public policy intermediations to enhance energy conservation and environmental sustainability, which is the basis of this study.
The role of the Dubai Police Force
The Dubai Police Force plays a critical role in enhancing peace and security in the country. According to Balakrishnan (2017), the Dubai Police Force has three primary divisions. The first division is the General Department of Operations, which has a wide area of jurisdiction (Colombo, 2014). This department is responsible for maintaining traffic flow in the city and for conducting car and foot patrols to ensure that law and order are maintained. It is responsible for responding to and addressing any emergencies in Dubai. The General Department of Artificial Intelligence is another crucial department within the Dubai Police (Cahan, 2017). This department seeks to use emerging technologies to gather intelligence. Cybercrime has become a major concern in a global society. The General Department of Criminal Investigation is the third main unit of the Dubai Police (Balakrishnan, 2017). It is responsible for investigating criminal acts of various magnitudes within the borders of the country.
Activities are undertaken by the department that has a direct impact on the environment
Cahan (2017) reports that the police constantly move from one location to another to ensure that law and order are maintained. The common modes of transport include cars, trucks, and motorbikes, whose increased use has a direct environmental impact through atmospheric pollution. Dore (2015) reports that significant energy is used in police officers’ residential houses. Electrical energy is often used for cooking as opposed to gas energy. This waste of electrical energy occurs because police officers are not billed for their electrical energy consumption. Chen (2017) also reports wastefulness in offices, for example, cases where lights are not turned off when not in use. Furthermore, the Dubai Police Force has yet to embrace the use of energy-saving bulbs to reduce its consumption of electric energy. Promoting sustainable energy practices is a problem in many police departments because officers believe that their activities have nothing to do with environmental pollution (Colombo, 2014). Instead, they believe that their primary role in environmental conservation is to arrest and prosecute those who break environmental laws.
How the Dubai Police Force can achieve sustainability in its operations
Lorz, Makeschin, and Weiss (2014) explain that government departments often lack the kind of pressure experienced by private entities to remain operational. The knowledge that the government will always fund its operations creates laxity and promotes extravagance, waste, and the theft of public resources (Borchardt & Ibisch, 2013). Therefore, the department should consider ways of enhancing sustainability in its operations.
Replacing traditional trucks and cars with energy-efficient vehicles and hybrid cars is a useful strategy to minimize the massive emission of carbon. Given the importance of tourism to Dubai’s economy, the Dubai Police Force has a crucial role in ensuring high levels of security to appeal to regional and global tourists and businesspersons. Therefore, constant movement from one part of the city to another to stop security threats and other unlawful activities is inevitable (Khare & Beckman, 2013).
It may be necessary to introduce policies and a culture of energy conservation (Amery, 2015). The department may need to organize seminars and training sessions for their officers to increase awareness about environmental conservation and their role in it. Officers should also adopt a culture of efficient resource use by eliminating wastage. Education and punitive measures are helpful in avoiding waste (Malloy, 2013, Kidd, Feris, Murombo, & Iza, 2014).
The Dubai Police should also embrace a culture of excellence in its operations. Wastefulness occurs when tasks conducted by one officer are repeated by a different officer due to inefficiency (Lloyd, 2018). Officers should be reminded to maintain high standards of efficiency in their operations to avoid resource wastage through duplication of tasks (Kolokytha, Oishi, & Teegavarapu, 2016).
The studies conducted by Balakrishnan (2017), Cahan (2017), Colombo (2014), and Amery (2015) among others report the need for environmental sustainability as well as describe the roles of various Dubai Police departments in maintaining law and order. However, none of these studies focus on environmental sustainability in the day-to-day operations of the Dubai Police Force. Therefore, it is evident that there is a literature gap in the area of environmental sustainability in the police, which is what this study aims to address.
Research Design and Methodology
This study will use a qualitative approach to answer the research questions. Qualitative studies can use five different methods to obtain the expected findings. These methods include a narrative approach, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. A narrative approach entails exploring and recounting interesting facts about the life of an individual. An author focuses on a few individuals, gathers stories about their experiences, and develops a chronology that links the different phases of the story (Lewis, 2015). After this, the stories are analyzed for themes, followed by the identification of momentous turning points in the life of the individual. A thematic analysis of each narrative in the specific context is then used to answer the research questions.
A phenomenological approach captures a detailed account of how a number of people experience a given event. Therefore, the author only focuses on a single phenomenon and gathers data from individuals who have undergone the experience (Palinkas et al., 2015). In addition, the author also studies the context in which the phenomenon is experienced. Phenomenologists isolate personal experiences to study how their subjects experience the phenomenon of interest. As a result, it is possible to identify common experiences in specific contexts.
In a grounded theory study, the author aims at developing a theory or a general explanation that best elucidates a given phenomenon, process, or interaction. The author seeks a general account, a theory, of a process, or of how people act or interact (Lewis, 2015). Such studies report the steps involved in the sequential unfolding of the theory. The entire process is documented using evidence from interviews and memos. In the end, the findings may lead to the development of a new theory or advance an existing one.
Ethnographic research entails interactions between the researcher and the participants in the study with the goal of explaining the development of specific patterns of culture, speech, and behavior in a given cultural group. The researcher first needs to identify a specific ethnic community and the phenomenon of interest. Interviews may also be used to collect specific information. Records of behaviors and rituals may also be used to inform an ethnographic study. In the end, the researcher is able to provide a detailed description of specific themes and the cultural behavior of the target group.
The main concept in case study research is to choose a case and explain how the case illustrates a problem or phenomenon (Lewis, 2015). Consequently, it is possible to analyze the case comprehensively. Cases may be derived from distinct entities such as organizations, groups, communities, or individuals. Multiple sources of data are usually required in a case study to provide an in-depth perspective on the issue within the case. Ultimately, the researcher should provide an exhaustive description of the case, emergent themes, and generalizations from the case study.
This work will use a case study approach to examine the issue of environmental sustainability in the day-to-day operations of the Dubai Police. Lijo and Gopalakrishnan (2015) explain that case studies often provide a clear picture of a given phenomenon and are effective ways of explaining specific events about a research topic. Generally, attaining environmental sustainability is not an easy feat because it can have great financial repercussions if adopted in the wrong way. Therefore, internal and external stakeholders in any organization should work as a group to reach their goals. In the Dubai Police, field jobs are mostly assigned to middle management officers and officers in administrative affairs. Nonetheless, convincing these officers to incorporate environmental sustainability in their day-to-day duties of maintaining law and order can pose challenges. There may be resistance from officers who think that environmental sustainability is an extra burden because it is not part of their usual job description. Therefore, the researcher will target this group of individuals to obtain an in-depth perspective on the issue of environmental sustainability in the Dubai Police Force. The study can be expected to take 8 months and will involve a blend of qualitative data collection methods to enhance the validity of the outcomes.
Primary sources are the best data sources when conducting academic research (Malloy, 2013). In qualitative studies, the collection of primary data entails reaching out to specific individuals who are directly involved in the issue under investigation. However, not all people in an identified particular setting can participate in a study due to time and financial constraints involved in the use of large numbers of participants. Sampling is a crucial step that enables the researcher to identify and select a feasible number of subjects from the study population to take part in the study.
The study population includes police officers in Dubai. However, data will be collected from officers in the General Department of Administrative Affairs. This group was identified through purposive sampling. The subjects’ setting will be considered during the interview because these police officers are tasked with providing security to people working in the same building as their workspaces. Nevertheless, it will be necessary to identify officers within specific police stations in the city, which will be chosen by purposive sampling. In contrast, simple random sampling will be used to select police officers at each station. This sampling approach will make it possible to have a manageable number of respondents for the study while ensuring the representativeness of the sample. A total of 11 police stations were identified after considering the geographical location of police stations, their proximity to each other, and the feasibility of the sampling procedure.
A total of 6 officers will be sampled from each police station. Their positions will range from the operational level to middle management officers. This number is informed by the nature of their work, which involves three 8-hour shifts for each group. Therefore, 2 officers will be sampled from each shift. The rationale for sampling from each shift is to provide all officers with an equal chance of taking part in the study. The age of the participants will range from 18 to 45 years, while their ethnicities and nationalities will be varied. Additionally, the participants will be mainly males, who are the predominant gender in the Dubai Police due to the conservative culture of the Emirates and other cultural beliefs. However, this occurrence does not mean that females will be excluded from the study. Overall, the sample size will be 66 police officers in administrative affairs (n=66) from 11 different police stations.
The researcher will use primary data that will be obtained from the sampled respondents. After identifying the right participants, the next step will be to find effective ways of collecting the required information from them. The researcher plans to have face-to-face interviews with these officers. Face-to-face interviews are among the most effective ways of collecting data from respondents (Brennen, 2017). This approach permits physical interaction between the researcher and the respondent, which increases response rates among participants. Face-to-face interviews also reduce cases of misleading answers where respondents provide fabricated responses for the sake of completing the interview. The physical presence of the researcher emphasizes the significance of the study, which subconsciously prompts the respondents to accord the entire process with the seriousness it deserves. Face-to-face interviews also enable a researcher to gather facts from non-verbal cues such as body language and facial expressions (Robinson, 2014).
Before distributing the questionnaire to the respondents, the researcher will have the environmental sustainability questions reviewed and examined by an expert in this field to enhance the credibility of the study. Moreover, to enhance the reliability of the study, the same subjects will be re-interviewed to determine whether the individuals’ points of view had been changed by other external influences between the first and second encounters. Semi-structured and unstructured (open-ended) questions will also be used in this study to provide room for additional explanations. Triangulation, which is the process of data validation through cross-verification from diverse sources, is valuable in strengthening the understanding of a specific phenomenon (Carter, Bryant-Lukosius, DiCenso, Blythe, & Neville, 2014).
Triangulation will be used in the case study to gather primary data from archived files by examining the contents of internal memos, official letters, and emails between the internal departments and other stakeholders. These steps will improve the reliability of the data and provide greater insight into ways in which the Dubai Police Force is working toward becoming an environmentally sustainable organization. More data will be collected using questionnaires, which will be used as a tool to standardize the questions and formalize the interview process. Questionnaires also ensure that data collected from the subjects are standardized. Standardization of data not only enhances the process of data collection but also simplifies data analysis, as opposed to when respondents are asked diverse questions. The questionnaire will be printed on paper, which respondents can read before starting the interview. Prior knowledge of upcoming questions will reduce the pressure on candidates worrying about the questions.
The study seeks to find ways to implement environmental sustainability initiatives in the General Department of Administrative Affairs of the Dubai Police. Once primary data are collected from the respondents, the next phase will involve analyzing the data to derive meaningful interpretations. The researcher will use qualitative methods of data analysis. A qualitative analysis makes it possible to explain why a given case study turned out the way it did and changes needed to avoid similar undesirable occurrences in the future (Borchardt & Ibisch, 2013). Since triangulation will be done to enhance the validity of the findings, it will be necessary to code the resultant data before analysis.
In this regard, the NVivo software will be used for coding purposes. Coding will also facilitate identifying the relations between different aspects of behavior change in the police department and draw linkages by connecting them. Consequently, the researcher will be able to identify the targeted dimensions that will be explained. Semi-structured and unstructured (open-ended) questions will also be used in this study to allow respondents to explain their answers. For example, there may be a need to explain the current strategies used by the department to promote environmental sustainability and provide detailed suggestions for areas that need to be addressed to improve the existing strategies. Data analysis will be done using the QDA Miner and ANTCONC software applications. Different outputs from the software will be included, for example, codebooks, memos, display matrices, tables, and charts.
Researchers face ethical issues in all stages of investigative work, from conceiving the study to reporting the findings (Sanjari, Bahramnezhad, Fomani, Shoghi, & Cheraghi, 2014). Some of the challenges include privacy, confidentiality, informed consent, and the possible impact of the study on the subjects. Therefore, it is necessary to consider all these aspects in the initial stages of academic research (Hewson, Vogel, & Laurent, 2016). Informed consent entails getting the approval of participants before contacting them to take part in the study. However, even before contacting the participants in a given organization, it is imperative to obtain the necessary approvals from the relevant authorities (Marshall, McCarthy, McGrath, & Claudy, 2015). The Dubai Police Force, as an element of law enforcement, is very strict when it comes to collecting information about its operations from its members. Consequently, it will be necessary to contact senior police officers at the selected police stations to request permission to interview their officers. Afterward, it will be necessary to explain the relevance of the research to the participants and their role in it. The researcher will also remind them that their participation is voluntary, which means that they will be permitted to withdraw from the study at any stage if they wish to do so. All their questions or concerns will also be addressed.
The identity of the respondents will be kept private. The anonymity of participants is important in qualitative research because it enables participants to respond to interview questions candidly without fear of victimization. During the interview sessions, the researcher will audiotape the proceedings, but this will not involve the disclosure of identifying information. Numbers will be used to distinguish one participant from another. The researcher will also ensure that none of the subjects have been compelled to take part in the interviews by their superiors. The recordings will be kept safe and will only be accessible by the researcher.
Given that this work is academic research, it will be necessary to ensure that academic ethics are maintained. Plagiarism or any other form of academic malpractice will be avoided in this research. Also, the researcher will obtain ethical approval from the Academic Institutional Review Board at Abu Dhabi University (IRB-ADU) before planning to meet the interviewees.
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Appendix 1: Pilot Study
Findings and Discussion
The researcher contacted the Department of Administrative Affairs in a local police station to investigate the practices that they have embraced to conserve energy and water. With permission from the station commandant, the researcher was able to gather information from 10 officers. The preliminary data collected from the small sample of respondents showed that there were major concerns about the effective use of energy and water resources that should be addressed if environmental sustainability was to be realized in the Dubai Police. It was necessary to evaluate the current practices before determining any initiatives necessary for promoting environmental sustainability in the Dubai Police Force.
A mixed method triangulation was essential to enable the use of the case study findings from the Department of Administrative Affairs of the Dubai Police. A qualitative method was needed to generate critical information about the current state of affairs in the police force, which could be studied and addressed later using a quantitative approach. Qualitative data was obtained by distributing questionnaires and collecting information from police officers in the General Department of Administrative Affairs. The survey questions focused on the awareness levels of environmentally sustainable practices, levels of environmental consciousness, and the challenges that resulted from embracing environmentally friendly practices.
The most notable challenge was resistance to change. Consequently, it was expected that finding appropriate strategies to change the behavior of those employees would motivate other workers within the Dubai Police Force to embrace environmentally sustainable practices. It was also necessary to formulate environmentally sustainable resource allocation methods and compare them with best practices from around the world. A new unexpected dimension that was mentioned by one of the respondents was the waste management procedure of the Dubai Police. The current system was not well equipped to deal with overused resources, which is a vital area of focus in environmental sustainability endeavors and cannot be overlooked.
The main limitation of this research is that it examined the responses of a specific group of police officers whose job description was to attend to the needs of people in the buildings where they were located. Additionally, a limited number of interviews were conducted. However, future studies could increase the scope of the study by adopting a quantitative approach to cover a wider range of individuals. Also, further studies could be done to cover different police departments and other individuals from the general population within the organization.
The execution of the pilot study enhanced the author’s knowledge of new data collection methods, which included the commonly used qualitative method of interviewing participants. The pilot study provided a clue of how interviews should be managed and how to ensure that the interviewer’s mode of communication did not affect the interviewee’s understanding of the posed questions, thus eliminating any biases that could influence the research findings. It was also noted that other types of primary data were essential to increase the reliability of the case study findings. These included sending memos and official emails to different departments and observing the behavior of the target group.
The main limitation of this study was that the findings of this study cannot be generalized to the entire Dubai Police Force. A very small sample size of 10 was used compared to the approximately 17,500 police officers in the Dubai Police. However, the reliability of the data was assured in the study, which ensured that the collected data could inform future quantitative studies to obtain more representative findings from a larger sample size of the target group. Coding of important terms from the responses of the interviewees, for example environmental consciousness and similar terminologies that could increase the number of the dimensions to be studied and related, was done with the aid of coding software (NVivo), which facilitated data collection, thereby leading to time savings. Overall, the findings of the pilot study showed that new policies will be needed to ensure that resources allocated by the government are used responsibly to achieve its stated goals and objectives. Embracing best practices such as those of the police force in the Republic of Ireland is highly recommended.
Appendix 2: Questionnaire
What does it mean to be an environmentally sustainable organization?
Which factors do the police force consider in environmental sustainability?
What are the challenges that the police force face in the adoption of environmentally sustainable procedures?
|Research question 1: How can behavioral changes among Dubai Police officers in the General Department of Administrative Affairs promote sustainability in the department’s operations?|
|Background data (knowledge of the background data)||Key areas (discuss the key areas of environmental sustainability)||Understanding the essence of environmental sustainability||Factors that affect environmental sustainability|
|Fulfilled ||Fulfilled ||Fulfilled ||Fulfilled |
|Upbringing: To begin the interview, I would like to ask you the following questions.|
|How long have you been working for this department? |
|What can you do to influence the development and implementation of sustainable water management policies at this organization? |
|What are the current energy use practices of the Dubai Police? |
|What factors contribute to the significant use of water and energy within the Dubai Police? |
|Who is currently responsible for the wastage of water and energy resources within this organization? |
|Which areas of operation are responsible for massive water use in this organization? |
|What policy changes are necessary to ensure that energy is used efficiently in this department? |
|Which stakeholders should be involved in addressing the current problem of water and energy wastage in this department? |
|Why should the identified stakeholders be involved in finding a solution to the current problem? |
|What other measures are needed within this department to promote efficient operations? |
|What challenges do you foresee in the implantation of environmentally sustainable operations in the department? |
|What strategies do you think can be used to overcome these challenges? |
|How do you think an environmentally sustainable workplace will affect the operations of your department? |
|Why is it important to promote behavioral change among officers in the General Department of Administrative Affairs? |
|What do you think can be done to promote behavioral change among officers in the General Department of Administrative Affairs? |
|Before we conclude the interview, I would like to thank you for taking the time to attend this interview.|
|Interviewer Form |
Interviewer’s Name _________________________
Participant Name _________________________
Participant Organization _________________________
Audio file number _________________________
Date of interview _________________________
Approved follow up. _________________________