Fencing is a today’s modern sport and is now considered in the first four sports of Olympics. Fencing uses different and modernized weapons. Different techniques and preventive measures are used in order to protect a fencer’s body and life. Due to recent its popularity, fencers have realized that today, fencing needs strong efforts to maintain its popularity. The use of modern and flexible light weighted weapons has made fencing an interesting and easy sport.
Fencing requires strong skills at a professional level and perfect control on fencing weapons in order to win. Special efforts are required to improve the quality and performance of fencing in the modern world. The basic demand of fencing in the today’s world is preventive measures and improvement in the fencing techniques.
The shape and structure of our world are changed now, and there are number of things which are in new shape as compared to ancient days. In ancient days, there were only few tools available and most of the work was done by hands or manually. (Classical vs. Modern fencing, 2008)
People were always busy in finding food and shelter for their family. No one had time for sports and different activities. In ancient days, there were no machinery and most of the labor used for number of tasks. People used to walk on feet hundreds of miles. So, they didn’t consider sports as an activity for physical fitness, but now the shape and demands of our world are totally changed and everyone is showing interest to have more money and respect than others.
Now people travel in cars, eat junk foods and other unhealthy diet so there must be something for their physical activity or fitness. Until and unless a person is fit, one couldn’t perform responsibilities of life. A sport has great significance in a human’s life.
Sports make a person healthy and smart. Nowadays, a number of indoors and outdoor games are on the scene and every game has its own importance and advantages. (Herman, 2001) Everyone should be fit and active so that he/she can perform the responsibilities of his/her life efficiently. If a person is dull and unhealthy, no one can help him/her and he/she couldn’t be able to perform the duties of the life actively and couldn’t serve his family too. Sports play an important role in the lives of human beings. There is a strong need to realize the importance of sports in our lives.
There are number of indoor and outdoor sports are available, and kids, teenagers and elderly play games according to their own wish and strength. There are number of games help elders to maintain their health and fitness. Games play an important role in the children’s growth and education; they make them fresh, active and smart. Without games, a child could become dull and lethargic. Many games are famous worldwide and one of them is “Fencing”.
Fencing is the modern sport, and nowadays, this sport is very much popular in all parts of the world. This game is easy and enjoyable, and has some simple steps plus rules. This game is good enough to be in Olympics. Fencing is a game for all types of people. Anyone can play fencing with little efforts. Fencing has a set of rules under which the game has to be played. (United States Fencing Association, 2005) For every game, it is necessary to follow all rules and regulation as game only sounds interesting when there are some set of rules and punishment on violation of the certain sets of rules. (Nick, 1996)
Fencing was difficult in early days, but keeping an eye on the modern world’s requirements, fencers and other related officials has made this game easier than before. Fencers have added a number of weapons and other related items to make this game easy and interesting. Fencing is an official sport of the Paralympics game. Fencing is a game specially designed for wheel chair users. Those who have recently become wheel chair user can easily play this game as fencing weapons are light weighted so that wheelchair users can easily handle them. Different weapons are used in this game – all weapons use in this game are re-designed keeping an eye on wheelchair usersso that they can handle and use them easily and flexibly, (Nick, 2000)
In this game, mobility of wheelchairs is not required. There are number of fencers trying to adopt this game in a better way so that they can perform well. Basically, there are three types of fencers Type I, Type II,Ttype III. Similarly, there are three classes of fencing namely: Class A, Class B, and Class C.
- Class A: Fencers of this class can stand still on their feet and have full command of balancing their bodies.
- Class B; Fencers of class B do not have full balance on their body but have great command and control on arms and feet movements.
- Class C: Fencers of this class do not have full control on their arms and feet movement. They usually suffer from spinal injuries. There is a less number of events take place for fencers of class C.
Fencing sport is fast and athletic; it gives a new strength and energy to its players. Fencing is an upcoming game and is becoming popular day by day. Fencing is now included in all summer Olympic since 1986. The term “fencing” originated from the self-defense of swordsmanship. (Christoph, 1999) This term is derived from self-defense which means “to fight against any kind of injury or damage”. Fencing is widely known as” European martial art of Swordplay”. Fencing was basically originated from the ancient Egypt and Rome in 1200 A.D. With the passage of time, new technologies and new weapons are used in it, and it has got extreme popularity. (Alexander, 2008) It is now one of the best sports being played in the different parts of world.
There are a number of weapons used in this game, and time to time, the weapons are changed, and now, three types of weapons are in the use i.e. Foil, Epee and Sabre.
Fencing is an art of an armed combat which involves cutting, stabbing or slapping weapons directly with hands. Fencing examples include swords, knives, pikes, bayonets, batons, clubs and other weapons.
Fencing is mainly divided into three categories, i.e. competitive fencing, fencing as a martial art, and other forms of fencing. Every category has its own rules and features. The martial art fencing includes: classical fencing and historical fencing. Other forms of fencing are academic fencing, stage fencing and recreational fencing; these are totally different from the other two forms. Some people fear for fencing as they believe dangerous weapons are used in this sport and all weapons need care while handling. There are a number of cases recorded in which opponents had been seriously injured. For the safety and security from such accidents, protective clothing outfit with related accessories are used for fencing. Protective clothing includes: jacket, plastron, breeches, gloves and a mask.
Fencing requires some expert level skills to win. Fencing is a modern sport and needs care while playing as fencers have to do two tasks: to win and protect themselves from the attacks of the competitor. Moreover, as everything is modernized now, fencing is widely known as an art rather than a sport. There are two aspects for declaring fencing as an art, i.e. it reflects power and glory, and on the other hand, it is a deeply personal or individual form of expression. Fencing has lots of benefits for those who have recently become wheelchair users. Fencing requires some tools and weapons to play as every game does. The difference is, the fencing weapons are little dangerous so they need to be handled with extra care with speed.
The fencing history is parallel to the history of our civilization; it is present from the time of Rome, Egypt to the barbaric dark ages and still present in the modern world. The popularity of fencing is increased a lot, although, it was not very popular in ancient days, but now, new things and weapons have been introduced and the form of fencing is changed up to a great extent. The modern fencing is entirely different from the old fencing, but roots are the same as were in the ancient days. (Fencing History, 2002)
The oldest evidence of fencing was from carving in Egypt in the 1200 B.C, which illustrates fencing as a sport with different weapons, tools, rules and judgment. The Greek and Roman civilizations promoted fencing a lot and trained their students for fencing. After the collapse of the Roman civilization in 476 A.D, it bought dangerous weapons in fencing throughout the dark ages. (Timeline of fencing, 2002) In the fifteenth century, fencing started to modernize.
In the beginning of the fifteenth century, Spain had true fencers first two fencing manual were also published in Spain in the year of 1471 and 1474. At the end of fourteenth century, rapier came back into the use, and in the beginning of the fifteenth century, about fifteen hundred Italians started the use of extensive weapon, i.e. rapier. Italians had a number of fencing masters; Agrippa was one of the fastest fencers who first invented the four position fencing, i.e. prime, seconde, tierce, and quarte. (History of Fencing, 2008)
The sixteenth century also bought the changes and popularity in fencing. A number of noblemen were killed in dueling than in war. Italy had a number of fencing masters who came to France later and promoted fencing there. (History of Fencing, 2005) Queen Catherine de Médicis of France was a great fan of fencing and her son King Charles officially recognized the French fencing academy for new fencing learners.
The seventeenth century bought a new turn in fencing. Foil is the invention of the seventeenth century and approved it as a light weapon for dueling – new set of rules was also accepted for fencing. A set of rules made fencing easy and safe than before. It also reduced the number of deaths and causalities in the dueling. (Rules of Fencing, 2006) In the eighteen century, epee became the popular weapon for fencing.
Adsorbed was also introduced in the world of sport in following century. The year 1780 bought a tremendous change and development in fencing world. (Pomarede, 2007) La bossirie invented a mask as a safe bout for fencing. By this time, fencing had been declared and accepted as non-dangerous sport. The dueling was not completed obsolete before the World War I. Firstly; fencing was only played by men and women foil joined fencing in 1924.
At the beginning of the 20th century, a number of fencers had become the masters of sport, Italian, French and Hungarians were the masters of sport in this era. The international fencing foundation was built in France and French, Italian; Hungarians hold the roots of fencing till 1950. Their style and approach emphasized a lot in handling of weapons and speed. The fencing history is not ended yet, it can be made today as a number of things are needed to be changed and modernized. (Freud Enrich, 2000)
The use of light weighted tools and protective measures like a mask, clothing, etc. have made this sport, a non harmful sport and a number of people are now interested in fencing worldwide. (Ivie, 2008) Electric scoring machines are also used now as a norm of this sport. Electric scoring machines are a gift of the modern world and technology to the field of fencing. Light weighted tools and weapons have made this sport an easy and interesting sport for beginners. (Fencing Rules, 2006)
With the passage of time, fencing faced a number of changes and likewise in the case of fencing tools. There are numbers of tools are being used in fencing sport. Few of them are: Bolt Cutters, Cable Pullers, Come-a-long, Concrete Mixing Bag, Diamond Saw Blades, Earth Drills
Gate Clip Tool, Grain Scoop, Fiberglass, Handle, Fiberglass, Hasp Lock, Hydraulic Cement, Iwan Augers, Level, Torpedo, Level, Two-Way Post, Lopper, Anvil Fiberglass Measuring Tape 25′, Measuring Tape, Open Reel, Measuring Wheeling Boston Digger, Paints, Pipe Cutter, Pliers, Fence, , Hog Ring, Pliers, Hog Ring Tool, Post Driver, Post Hole Diggers, Post Hole Digger, Fiberglass, Post Popper Post Puller, Oz-Puller Post Puller Pull Chain, Pul Jak, Push Broom, Fiberglass, Rake, Bow, Rake, Roof Rake, Aluminum, Rope Puller, Shingle Remover, Short Stretch Tool, Shovels, Sledge Hammer, Snow Pusher, Snow Shovel, fiberglass Soil Probe, Spading Fork, Splitting Maul, Spud Bar Stack-It-Brackets, Strap Pull’R, Stretch Bars, Tamper, Telephone Line Tester Tie-Down Systems, Tree Prune, , Trenching Shovel, , Trowel, Pointing, Tubing Notcher, Tubing Welding Clamps, Vinyl Fence Notcher, Wheelbarrow Tire.
Fencing tools help a lot in playing fencing with different positions. Tools and weapons have a great history of their origin and development. However, in the ancient days, dangerous weapons were used in a number of different forms in the field of fencing. Fencing tools have a great and vast range of tools and weapons depending upon candidates’ requirements and arms movement. (Nowicki, 2006)
Different class users use different types of tools/weapons depending upon their body flexibility and arm’s movements. Electric fencing tools are also available in the modern era. There are a number of tools provide a best way of applying tension in fencing and wire netting.
Fencing comprises different steps; steps of fencing are as follows: there are two candidates or fencers stand on each other in a 2-meter wide and 14-meter long fencing strip. Both of the attackers are supposed to attack another with speed with the pointing blade without receiving a touch. Fencers should be bold, fast and strong to defeat the rival and to win. Slow attacks can harm both opponents. The opponent is allowed to attack competitor under the certain set of rules. Judges and referee are always present to keep an eye on both competitors and score them according to their performance. (Gaugler, 1998)
With the passage of time, the modern scoring system has taken place of judges – this scoring system is more modernized, time saving and reliable. Certain skills and techniques are required to win. (Scoring, 2002).
Adopting a right technique helps a lot to win. Techniques vary from person to person, i.e. left handed to right handed fencers. Overall, new technologies and development in fencing weapons have given importance to fencing and made the game easy and attractive worldwide. Every competitor is required to follow certain sets of rules and techniques. Numbers of tools are present today – their usage varies from tool to tool.
In early days, people didn’t want to join fencing and do well in it as it was famous as an angered sport, but today, this view has been changed. Fencers are now present worldwide and the game is approved as one of the four games in Olympics. (Zabinski & Walczak, 2002) Although, there is a wide room exists for the development and improvement in the fencing field. Certain rules and judges selection gives feel of relaxation and comfort. New weapons are also dangerous but they are less than other fencing tools. Fencing is one of the most popular games worldwide that uses a number of tools under some limitations.
The goal of this paper is to deal with the background, position and importance of the fencing sport in the today’s world. The paper emphasizes on fencing techniques and other related terms and factors. The main goal of this paper is to create awareness about fencing, especially for those who have recently become wheel chair users. This paper will give a complete overview of fencing, tools, history and status of fencing in the modern world. This report discusses fencing in detail.
There are a number of advantages of this modern sport, and it is the best game for all those who couldn’t play other games. This sport is great but on the other hand, protection is vital. It is very necessary to take protective measures in order to make sure the security and safety of fencers. The paper also deals with fencing tools – the fencing tools are really dangerous, thus, a strong and strict policy should be there for fencers in order to protect them from these deadly tools.
Fencing is now included in the Olympics games, and is now growing rapidly worldwide. The paper deals the reasons of fencing’s popularity. Fencing is an interesting sport. A number of things are required to play this game effectively which include but are not limited to: skills, confidence, will power and protective clothing. Further, the paper will discuss the game’s popularity.
Fencing is a new form of the game. It is very popular because of its tools and techniques. Today, there are thousands of games which have different set of rules and scoring systems. The wheelchair fencing is also quite popular its players are physically unfit. Normally, in other sports, players must be active and physically normal in order to participate and win. There are hardly any sport for wheelchair users and physically unfit individuals. (Pezza, 1994)
Fencing uses a number of weapons for different techniques. Different techniques with different positions have made this sport an interesting one for all. Not only physically unfit people can enjoy sport but also physically fit people can also enjoy fencing and its techniques with the aid of fencers. Different weapons are used in this sport – all of them are dangerous and have caused a number of casualties in lately. There are 222 cases reported every year of fencing causalities and deaths.
In order to prevent casualties and different damages, strong protective measures are taken to make fencing a secure game. Many policies and rules have been introduced in the field of fencing. In the ancient days, old weapons of fencing include but are not limited to: Hand-and-a-Half Sword, rapier, dagger and grand cane. Today, fencing is very popular and can be easily played..In addition, fencing is not just only a sport, but it’s also helpful in preventing different hazards of life.
There are different forms of fencing exist: competitive fencing, fencing as a western material art, and other fencing. Due to the increasing popularity of fencing and due to the modern technology fencers are now facing more challenges and more competitions the game. For winning a fencing competition, it is necessary that one must have strong technical skills and must be aware of number of factors which are involved the game. The tools use in fencing is really dangerous so it’s always recommended that fencers must wear protective clothing properly while using tools/weapons on different positions.
The competitive fencing is the most common type of fencing which is famous globally. The competitive fencing refers to a fencing seen in a number of competitions including Olympic. Federation internatile di escime (FIE) has designed a set of rules which are vital to be followed in all the fencing competitions.
Federation Internationale d’Escrime (FIE) (English: International Fencing Federation is an approved team for launching rules and regulation of fencing in different competitions. The federation was found in 1913 in France. Its head office is in Switzerland. The FIE is a body of 13 federations, all federations are specially designed for the Olympic Games to present and promote fencing in their respective countries.. Currently, the president of the federation is Rene Roch. The federation is responsible for organizing different fencing competitions around the world. FIE is an international governing body whose sole aim and purpose is to arrange and organize fencing competitions in the different parts of the world.
Different ways and methods are used to conduct a competition. Fencing competitions are now become very popular, this sport is now being played under a certain set of rules – its scoring methods follows an electronic scoring system that saves time – the system is more accurate as well. The new system has replaced the need of judges in the fencing competitions. The electronic apparatus is more accurate and provide exact and accurate judging system – it also reduces the possibility of a human error and biasness in referring.
Wheel Chair Referring
Wheelchair referring is the first Paralympics sport which was developed in the World War II. The game is not only a sport; it also helps in protecting one’s life. Although, there is a set of rules for fencers and fencing competitions, however, minor changes are allowed in the set of rules for the safety of fencers based on the environment and situation. The basic change in the set of rules is fencers are required to sit on a wheelchair fastened to a wheel frame, arm movement is allowed replacing the foot work and to increase the pace of bout. The tools and weapons are same for Paralympics. The change in the set of rules is highly depends on a fencer’s skills as well as on a fencer’s disability. The wheelchair fencing is one of the most common and famous games of disabled people.
The game is a kind of blessing for those who have recently become fencers and those who have been fencing for years. Fencing helps and educates fencers. It prevents them, and fights against the security hazards. The wheelchair fencing was developed by Sir Guttmann at a hospital and it was introduced in 1960 as a Paralympics sport.
Other forms of fencing have their own respect, but the wheelchair fencing is more popular and common. The new set of rules and policies and electronic scoring system made the defending easy and interesting. New and modern weapons have made fencing thrilling and full of danger for fencers and their viewers. New and modern weapons are light weighted than previous ones, but still require extra care while handling.
Professional skills are required in handling new and modernized weapons including, Epee and foil. Other fencing includes, hit Epee. The American Fencing league is one of the best examples of other fencing. The format of competitions is different and there is no electronic scoring system, unlike, the wheelchair fencing. In Europe and other countries, the fencing rules slightly deviate from the FIE rules as requirements and conditions vary from person to person and place to place.
At a school level, it’s not possible to train students in such a heavy and hectic environment, so there is always a need of relatively soft rules. Difference and changes in the rules can also be done on the basis of a fencer’s status and disability. There are three classes of fencers w.r.t. disability, body control and arms movement. Every class’s fencers have their own requirements and needs according to which the FIE rules sometime need to be altered. In different countries, a number of practices are going on at school levels it’s acceptable to train students at school level. Fencing is a modern sport and has many different advantages; top of them is a protection and security.
Different Forms of Fencing
Fencing has many different forms that exist in different parts of the world. Fencing refers to a sport, a modern and dangerous sport, it exists with different forms different names. Many different forms of were exist in the fencing history, some of them are still practiced in the today’s fencing world.
Academic fencing: Academic fencing also known as Mensur. It is French students tradition. It is played with a sharp blade and takes place between the members of students’ fraternities. This form always uses protective clothing, a gown which covers body, ears, eyes etc. for the protection against the sharp blade.
This form of fencing mainly relies on the protection and safety of one’s own, therefore, there is no looser and no winner in this sport. In 1880s, there were many myths associated with Mensur. Weapons used in Mensur were really dangerous and protective outfit was always recommended before playing Mensur. Protective glasses were also available which protects eye area from the sharp blade. Goggles were named as Paukbrille. Paukbrille were the special kind of glasses which was specially designed keeping an eye on cuts which could be caused in Mensur. Although, Mensur is now extinct in many countries, but there are still a few countries where it is being played, they include but not limited to: Germany, Swaziland, Austria, Flinders and Latvia.
Mensur was very famous and popular in 18th century, but with the passage of time, it is obsolete. The new forms of fencing have come with modernized and dangerous tools /weapons. In some parts of the world, Mensur is still popular and practiced at school levels.Different competitions also takes place in different parts of the world, although, the set of rules are totally different from the FIE rules.
Fencing was a very complex and dangerous sport in ancient days, people usually had fear about fencing. Time to time changes came in this field, and till 1920 fencing got modernized a lot. Various modern and light weighted weapons were introduced in this field. In the early days, it was really difficult for fencers to protect themselves with sharp and fast attacks of their competitors. Now, it’s easy as a number of preventive measures have made this game easy, protective and interesting. Different measures added flexibility and ease in fencing. Nowadays, different modernized tools and weapons are being used in fencing, namely: EPEE, FOIL and SABRE.
Epee is one of the most popular and common weapons used in fencing. Epee is a thirsting weapon which is specially designed keeping an eye on the today’s fencing needs. French students invented EPEE in the 19th century. The tool/weapon Foil was used in the early days of fencing then French students considered it as a very heavy weapon and they thought that foil must be replaced now. In the 19th century, French students made few amendments in Foil and invented a new weapon which is known as EPEE.
Epee looks like a sword, its end is not pointed and it could not harm an opponent. Its set of rules is totally different from Foil and Sabre. Double touches are allowed while using EPEE, its targeted area is the whole body, and anyone could attack first. Nowadays, electronic Epee is also available that has replaced the electronic foil. Fencer requires fixing the point of epee on opponents. The target area covers the whole body, and there are no specific rules for Epee.
Fencers believe Foil as the best weapon in fencing. Its light weighted version was invented in the 17th century. Using foil, a fencer needs to target his opponent’s body. Using fully, the targeted area is restricted torso. According to the rules of FIE, if fencers targeted any other area than Torso while using foil, it would not affect a lot. Targeting any other area or attacking on outside targeted area, stops the game, but it doesn’t score any point. Foil is the most ancient weapon which was widely used in fencing; however, modernized foil forms are available in the market, including electronic foils, push button foils, etc.
Sabre is a cutting weapon which is used to cut targeted area. In the Victorian era, sabre was used with the combination of different sharp blades. The target area of sabre is all area above the waist. Sabre is also a thirsting weapon of fencing. It was invented in Italy by French fencing masters. Sabre is same in different ways by foil. Its set of rules is also similar to foil. Foil and sabre, both of them use the right-of-way set rules. Sabre fencers require professional and expert level skills in order to deal with sabre. Sabre users require strong and perfect footwork tactics in order to win competitions. (Christop, 1998)
Modern technology has also affected Sabre as its new forms are used in the different parts of the world. Sabre makes fencing a tougher game, but at the same point, sabre also made this game easier than ever. All weapons used in fencing are different w.r.t. to targeted area, and the set of rules differ from one to another.
This paper has three objectives in a systematic manner, the first two objectives are met which are as follows:
- Background and history of fencing
- To educate fencers about different types of weapons and their uses.
Information of paper was gathered from different journals, magazines, published papers, books and other web resources. The introduction provides history and background of fencing, and its place in modern world. The literature review deals with types of fencing, tools and weapons used in fencing, classes of fencers. Literature review also deals with protective measures and protective clothing use while fencing. The modern techniques and new forms of weapons are also discussed in the literature review. The information presented in the paper was gathered from number of resources and then arranged in a systematic manner in order to meet the objective of the research.
Fencing is one of the most popular games in the modern Olympics, the status and interest of fencing can be calculated on the basis of its participation in the Olympics. Fencing is one of the four games which have been featured at every modern Olympic Games. The modern era has bought number of changes and differences in fencing. The new form and the older one of fencing are totally different. The scoring system has also changed in order to reduce the human error and biasness in referring. Later on, the theoretical frame work deals with protective clothing and skills required by fencers and their importance and advantages of fencing in the modern world. The conclusion part will conclude all the above facts in fencing to meet the last and final objective of the paper.
Theoretical Frame Work
Techniques and analysis are widely used in all high performance sports, including athletics. Techniques and analysis are also used to improve the quality of a sport, i.e. a sport’s performance. Statistics and calculations can be done in order to analyze fencing techniques and tactics. The matrix calculation function can be done for statistically analysis of fencing. The performance depends into two elements, i.e. matrix behavior and results.
Coaches and professionals can analyze the advantages, disadvantages and defects in the techniques and tactics using the results and data of this approach. This analysis and calculations help a lot in obtaining the final results and defects of fencing techniques and tactics. The matrix calculation provides perfect and accurate calculation in order to achieve a target. Different software are available in the market that relies upon the matrix calculations for obtaining results.
These software are available at economical prices with the aid of which coaches and professionals can easily find out the defects in the techniques. Some software also guides how to recover and reformed the defects in order to improve the sport’s quality and performance. (Statistics of fencing, 2008) The software perform reverse matrix and also uses some other methods in order to overcome the technique’s defects obtained by the matrix calculation. (Sport bulletin, 2008) This approach helps coaches to comprehend the related data easily and improve the deficiencies of the techniques. In addition, the analysis guides them in improving the quality of the sport.
Advantages and disadvantages of fencing techniques are clearly shown in Fig 1.
Importance of Fencing and Advantages
For a strong game and strong competitor, it’s really necessary to have all skills and will power to win a game. Fencing is not only a fun game, but also it has a lot of advantages as compared to other games. The main advantage of this sport is to educate individuals and the wheelchair users how to protect themselves, and with a disability, how can a person strive for life with others. It provides a complete command and control over other body parts including hands and the arms movement.
Fencing has taken a good place in this modern world, the proof of its status and popularity in the modern Olympics as well as in the Paralympics games. The wheelchair users and other individual having any physical disability can easily play this game, its and gives them a very good feeling of liveliness. Fencing is deemed as one of the most objective oriented games of the world.
Fencing is now one of the most important and well known games of the world. For improving the quality and performance of these sports, fencers are required to have complete and full understanding of its basic. Preventive measures must be implemented properly in order to safe fencers against harmful attacks through dangerous weapons.
There are three types of fencing weapons and each of them has different set of rules and usage. Due to its gained popularity, fencers are to always play their own game regardless of being a victim of any politics, and must show their efficiency being on the strip. In a nut shell, fencers should follow all the techniques, tactics and protective measures while fencing.
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