Job analysis refers to the process of identifying and determining details of job duties and requirements, including their importance to a specific job. Generally, the process involves collecting and analyzing data in order to make informed decisions that conform to specifications of a job. In most cases, a meta-analytic perspective is important in order to ensure that the selection process conforms to specific job descriptions (Steel & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2009). Moreover, applicant selection protocol is the process used to determine whether a certain job fulfills specific requirements as required by the applicant (Gatewood, Feild, & Barrick, 2007).
Methods of data collection for job analysis in this context include the use of questionnaires and interviews. In the job of insurance adjusters, jobholders spent 20% of their time answering client’s questions, and this task was critical towards achievement of most job objectives. The questions required them to identify tasks involved in the job, identify tools and technology used in the field, list the level of knowledge and skills they possess, and identify their abilities to handle their respective jobs. When the insurance adjusters completed the questionnaires, they presented log sheets with data about each of their tasks and the duration they spent on each activity for a period of one week. This was followed by performance of desk audits, which entailed observing employees as they worked at different times of the day and keeping track of the kind of work they performed. Later, an interview was conducted on supervisors, clients, employees, and managers who normally interacted with the insurance adjusters on a routine basis. Finally, comparison of the job was done with respect to other jobs in the department to establish a suitable job class and the amount of compensation. After the process of analysis, a job description was prepared to reflect the findings.
The following section highlights tasks performed, tools and technology required, and skills requirements in specific job description.
The tasks performed included examination of claim forms and updating records to reflect current information. Another task involved investigating and assessing the extent of loss on certain assets in order to review compensation policies.
Tools and technology requirement
Tools and technology used included the following: advanced computer systems to store crucial information; personal computers for flexibility purposes; mobile wireless communication devices; and scientific software to aid employees detect and determine fraud in insurance claim.
Knowledge and skills required by insurance adjusters include the following. First, the ideal person should have ability to read comprehensively in order to understand in-depth knowledge of the field of study; this would be coupled by speaking abilities in order to convey information adequately. Secondly, he/she should possess effective writing skills to convey information easily. The person should be able to make decisions based on rational judgements and come up with solutions to problems. Moreover, he/ she should be good in mathematics and sciences, as most problems concern calculations. Some of the abilities that insurance adjusters possess include the ability to communicate effectively and convey information to people, ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing, and ability to critically reason and combine all information to come up with an effective solution.
Comparison with Job Description in O*NET
After comparison with the job descriptions online, additional tasks were noted, which include coresponding to claimants and various individuals to cater for their needs and preparation of reports on findings and investigations. Some appropriate tools included Expert System software and financial analysis software, which were not captured in the above analysis. Additional ability included the ability to organize information systematically in their respective files for ease of retrieval, as well as skills to solve complicated problems and coming up with solutions to them. Based on the environment of study, some factors were not appropriate for the job context such as face-to-face discussion, as each employee has his own personal office. In addition, employees spent a lot of time sitting when serving clients. Finally, communication of information with peers, employees, and subordinate staff was different because different offices were located at different buildings.
Job Analysis of Various Job Positions
There are various methods used for analysis depending on the kind of job and the number of jobs that an applicant needs (Schmitt, 2012). In collecting information about Mechanical Engineering and Land Architecture, methods used were observation, interviews, and questionnaires. In the job of mechanical engineering, jobholders spent 30% of their time answering client enquiry questions and this task was critical towards achievement of most of the job objectives. The contents of the questionnaires were mainly based on task of the job involved, knowledge and skills required for the job, environment that they operate best in, and tools and equipment required for the work. Interviews were conducted with other employees of the companies concerning the job and later findings were used to create a job description (Fine & Getkate, 2014).
Tasks of mechanical engineers include investigating machinery breakdowns and fixing them, helping in structural design of products using different tools at their disposal, and research, design, and maintenance of mechanical machines. They also work hand in hand with electrical engineers to solve complicated issues. Moreover, mechanical engineers have mandate to research and create efficient mechanical machines to enhance improvement on the existing machines. Knowledge and skills required for mechanical engineers include complex problem solving skills, mathematical and physics knowledge, computer and electronics competence, and critical thinking capabilities to solve tough mechanical issues. Finally, various tools and equipments used by engineers include signal generators, voltage comparator integrated circuits, development environment software, and computer-aided manufacturing CAM software.
The other job position in my study is architecture, where jobholders spent 15% of their time answering clients’ questions. Similarly, the questionnaires were provided that required them to give crucial answers on the tasks of job they performed, skills and knowledge they possessed and the tools and technology they required for their jobs. Then, interviews with clients and employees were conducted to provide more information on the job. Some of the important tasks of architectures included preparing site plans and their value estimates for land development, and preparing graphic representations for proposed plans or designs. Others included creating landscapes that best suit the terrain of the land, colluding/liaising with civil engineers during construction in order to come up with creative structures, and analyzing data to come up with the best designs for landscapes and bridges (Brannick & Levine, 2002).
The abilities and skills that Architectures had included the ability to create different design to suit different landscapes, complex problem-solving techniques to come up with solutions to problems, high level of coordination, and ability to know how to manage time effectively. They also needed to possess administration and management knowledge and ability for reading comprehension. Tools and equipment used by land architectures included video cameras that were used to take field-shot videos for analysis, spreadsheet software to analyze research findings on the field of study, notebook computers for small details, and desktop publishing software (Wilson, Bennett, Gibson, & Alliger, 2013). After the job analysis process, data obtained was used to create job specifications for different job categories.
Applicant Selection Protocol
The following table represents an applicant selection protocol obtained through the process of job analysis.
|Knowledge and Capabilities||Should be able to apply knowledge of the principles and concepts in the respective fields to help in research|
|Communication||Should be able to use both oral and written interpersonal skills to motivate and effect change.|
|Critical Thinking||Interaction of knowledge and skill to identify and provide solutions to complex problems|
|Problem Solving||Should be able to handle any kind of problem at hand eager to help with organizational roles in the company|
|Work Samples||Should have had experience for at least 2 years with the relevant field of study to help improve the goals of the company|
|Self-Management||Should be self-driven, independent and time conscious to help improve of the performance of the company|
This job position would be assessed through various key questions, among them being enquiry about personal profile, educational background, work experience, and achievements, expected compensation package and learning expectations. The questions would also enquire about the contribution that potential candidate would make to the firm.
Brannick, M., & Levine, E. (2002). Job analysis: methods, research, and applications for human resource management in the new millennium. London, England: Sage Publications.
Fine, S., & Getkate, M. (2014). Benchmark Tasks for Job Analysis: A Guide for Functional Job Analysis (fja) Scales. NY, USA: Psychology Press.
Gatewood, R., Feild, H., & Barrick, M. (2007). Human Resource Selection. OH, USA: Cengage Learning.
Schmitt, N. (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Personnel Assessment and Selection. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Steel, P., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. (2009). Using a Meta-Analytic Perspective to Enhance Job Component Validation. Personnel Psychology, 62(1), 533-552.
Wilson, M., Bennett, W., Gibson, S., & Alliger, G. (2013). The Handbook of Work Analysis: Methods, Systems, Applications, and Science of Work Measurement in Organizations. London, England: Routledge.