Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Attributes
The term leadership and management are frequently used as synonyms of each other and arguably are interchanged through out phrases and sentences (Wren, 2005). They both involve influencing employees. Groups, teams and organisations need both effective and efficient leaders and managers (Ricketts, 2009).
Leadership is a concept indispensable for a successful performance in an organization. It is a concept to get people to do things willingly. It is a relationship that the leader influences the behaviour and actions of his followers (Welte, 1978).
Management on the other hand, is getting things done in order to achieve a common goal in an organization. In management, the manager relates to the people within a structured organization and with specified roles (Drucker, 1955). Management entails directing, planning and organising of staff.
Leadership is within management. Hence managing for success requires superiority in performance and effectiveness in organizational activities. This is preceded by holding both leadership and management responsibilities simultaneously. For instance, the manager will exercise execution of administrative and supervisory direction of employees. The line between management and leadership is very thin to allow the overlap of the two fields.
Leadership has several impacts on the performance of and organization. It ensures the employees are well motivated and have proper communication skills. It also assists in building the interpersonal behaviour of the employees (Nienaber, 2010). Good management leadership helps to initiate teamwork realization of both individual and organizational goals. Leadership has influenced the change in nature of management from an emphasis on results towards support and empowerment (Ricketts, 2009).
Leadership capabilities are pushing factors towards attaining organizational goals (Antonacopoulou and Bento, 2004). Furthermore, leaders have empathy to the employee and give attention to what actions and events mean. Reward and coercive powers are popular in influencing how subordinate staff perceives organizational tasks. The legitimate power the leader holds makes him be authoritative is delegating roles and responsibilities. In addition, the leader should come up with perfect strategies of conflict resolution (Ricketts, 2009). Conflict management is particularly significant since it assists to build the correlation between employees.
Leadership styles show how manager behaves towards members of the group. Leadership styles affect the effectiveness of subordinate staff when carrying out their tasks (Antonacopoulou and Bento, 2004). These leadership styles include; authoritarian, which focus power on manager and all the interactions within the group. The benefit of this style is that the power within the organization determines the degree of success. It also benefits the organization in prompt decision making process (Bolden et al., 2003). The only limitation is that the style is quite demanding hence bringing about resistance and decrease in productivity. Another style is participative, which decision making process involves the subordinate. This style benefits the organization by raising the general interest in the job and makes every individual to be part of the team. The limitation is that decision making is slower. The third style is the fair style, where the manager observes members as they work on their own. The advantage of this style is it instills a positive effect to the workers to feel responsible and trustworthy. Its limitation is it does not allow inspiration of leadership hence damaging the overall efficiency of the organization (Bolden et al., 2003).
Effective leadership influences excellent team performance. Leadership enhances team effort and cooperation. This positively affects the group since group members look upon the leader as their mentor. Effective leadership contributes to high achievement in the group’s performance. The team leader should be able to make the team responsible and committed to teaming effort. The leader should be Supportive and promote professionalism within the group (Jansen, 2008). The group leaders should have designated profiles since it increases the group’s effectiveness.
Developing leadership will look into several programs which cut across, sensitivity, creativity, and imagination (Reese and Porter, 2008). Leadership development looks beyond talent. Leadership development is an opportunity to step back and reflect upon practice in order to have an efficient and effective organization (Göran Svensson and Wood, 2005). The nature of having an effective leadership is to allow it to be a learning process within the organization. Focusing in economic outcome leadership should motivate and inspire followers to work towards organizational goals and objectives.
In line with perfect leadership for the organization a portfolio providing direction and developing a vision for the future leadership skills in the organization is essential (Hamlin, 2002). The changes come to transform the concept of management and leadership and will focus on a period between 12 to 18 months. The change will focus directly on four principal skills. These skills include intrapersonal and interpersonal attributes, communication skills, cognitive abilities and task specific skills (Reese and Porter, 2008).
The problem areas that affect intrapersonal and interpersonal skill are the lack of a social concept in leadership. The process of developing this skill will see to it that competence will be enhanced. Task to ensure this goal is met will be to train employee to have trust respect and obedience (Bolden, 2007). The time frame for this training will be 3-4 months. In evaluation employees will be given assignment to handle in pairs. The outcome of how they attribute personal capabilities such as relating with other employees in the workplace, attitudes and behaviour at the workplace will also be an evaluation point. Within the first year, the leader should develop interpersonal influence. The skill will be realized by putting knowledge, skills, values qualifications and training into practice. The personal capability is a practical tactic to be to assess the long term capacity for social security benefits in the organization. Developing this skill will influence a person’s position in authority and legitimate power (Bolden, 2007).
In developing task facilitation skills, cultural and organizational elements have to be put into consideration. The objective of this plan is to ensure employees have the capacity to handle certain tasks. The main task here will be to source for expert to train employees the skills needed to carry out certain organizational task. This will take 2-4 months. Evaluation will be to assess the knowledge and efficiency of the trained employee after the specified time frame. Self development and awareness will be the main assessment factors to ensure the job roles lead to experience (Belbin, 1993). Enhancing this principle it will open up for people to think beyond the apparent restrictions of their current role. The employee will have a capability to move between operational modes (Bolden, 2007). More over this leadership development skill will be incorporated with time management and delegation of roles. As a result, competency will be natured in a unique approach.
Cognitive abilities within the organization will be instilled through carrying out benchmarking and exchange programs with other employees. Psychologically this aspect is a multidimensional and a positive correlating factor. This skill is attributed to having mental skills to carry out tasks from the simplest form to the most complex. A series of assessment in a different perspective, bonding and career exposure trips will be undertaken within a time frame of 6-12 months (Burgoyne et al., 2004). This will enhance a practical procedure of improving the management. The assessment will include the ability to memorise, respond to flexibility, and using the correct procedure to carry out organizational tasks. In addition, employees will be tested on short term memory and working memory on what they learnt from the different exchange programs they undertook.
Lastly improving communication skills and channel of communication within the organization will be a key priority for an effective organisation (Fellner and Mitchell, 1995). The action plan here will be offering scholarships for competent employees to enhance this skill at a higher level. Outsourcing for expert to give talks on communication skills within an organization will also help to upgrade the status of the organization. The organization will strive to have the latest model of communication devices within the organization. Various methods of communication will be enhanced within a span of 8-15 months. The evaluation area will be to see to it that Employees and leaders within the organization disseminate information in a clarity and simple manner (Ricketts, 2009).
The impact of development will be evaluated from a range of perspectives such as benefits for both individuals and the organization. The development programs should be tailored with personal requirements of benefiting experimental and reflective learning (Rodgers et al., 2003). Thus, this will bring forth long time view of genuine and sustainable leadership. Each of these skills is important for effective management. The skills can also be used to initiate effective leadership within the organization (Ricketts, 2009). Once the group has completed the action plan, group members will shift focus to attaining the long term goals of the organization. The new approach will focus on collective leadership hence encourages change in the organisation.
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