The management of an organization requires a clear understanding of the change processes by the leaders, staff, and other stakeholders to ensure the effective execution of various successful activities. Students must learn to overcome barriers in the event of the change to ensure that they form teams, new and manageable structures, and a shared culture and vision based on learning objectives. Fullan (2014) reveals that informed leadership ensures success in schools. Embracing an environment of interaction is critical in managing effective change in schools. It is clear that frequent interactions promote positive attitudes among students, teachers, and/or other stakeholders. This situation greatly influences their self-concept, behavior, and overall performance. The understanding of various aspects of culture such as attitudes, values, norms, relationships, and beliefs amongst students, teachers, and other staff breaks the barriers that hinder the realization of improved performance in schools (Fullan, 2014).
Change Patterns in an Organization
Managers are currently applying change techniques that shape the behaviors and practices of organizational leadership. Such ideas are included in particular patterns that are used in the change processes (Hall & Hord, 2015). For instance, the revolutionary process pattern is known to lay emphasis on expansion. Most of the smaller enterprises are migrating to larger holdings; hence, a departure from past thinking in management is being abandoned. This situation results from the current intense competition that is exhibited in the markets as compared to the older times. The current business environment is even more challenging since it changes drastically; hence, most leaders have become more alert and inventive (Hall & Hord, 2015). The revolutionary approach has ensured the awakening of leaders amidst the major disadvantages of evolutionary strategies. Such an awakening has been due to the progression of computer technology, improved communication, innovation, market openness, and social drive among others. As a result, managers are challenged to shift from the evolutionary patterns to the revolutionary approach for survival and prosperity. For instance, Hall and Hord (2015) reveal that most organizations are currently altering the behaviors and attitudes of personnel and the levels of management through revolutionary patterns of change.
The approach of unilateral action lays emphasis on three major forms distinguished by their decree, replacement, and structure (Hall & Hord, 2015). A delegated authority is also seen as the extreme opposite of the unilateral means of change pattern. It is realized from this approach that most of the responsibilities for defining change and solving problems are given to the staff or front managers. This strategy can be accomplished through case discussion whereby a teacher or a manager only issues instructions or guidance without providing an analysis of what is required. The workforce is only encouraged to arrive at its solutions to change processes. Such an approach ensures the development of problem-solving skills amongst the staff. This situation helps them in carrying out organizational changes at the individual level (Hall & Hord, 2015).
Change Problems and Possible Solutions
Change problems emerge due to poor leadership, too much complexity, and the absence of coalition, clear vision, and communication. Other contributing factors to change failure include permission of barriers to change, poor planning, and deficiency of anchored organizational processes in corporate culture (Becker, 2015). Various problems experienced are discussed below.
Lack of Involvement and Commitment
At the initiation of a change in an organization, people think that they should be involved in teams due to their stakes to ensure success. Such a big number of people prove to be the bottleneck towards the success of the change due to the tendency of disinterest. Managers should identify and include people who are willing to ensure that intended change occurs (Becker, 2015).
Most change management plans fail due to poor communication. Processes, management, procedures, and redesigning of structures cannot be effectively accomplished if the flow of information is infrequent and outdated. The employees become unaware of the expectation of the organization if they fail to receive the correct and timely information. In such cases, the management can face resistance to the implementation of the change process. Therefore, there is always a need to establish proper and effective communication channels that involve everybody (Becker, 2015).
Lack of Training
Change requires the training of employees to ensure that it is effectively accomplished on time, and within the stipulated budget. A situation whereby training is not offered to the staff concerning the change can result in resistance. Training is required to instill new techniques in different employees depending on their age, abilities, performance, and preferences among other factors. A training plan should be devised with a view of implementing it appropriately to ensure that the employees are well educated on the change process (Hall & Hord, 2015).
Use of Poor Model of Change
Most managers realize a model that does not work through the resistance of employees or their feedback that is always negative. Proper planning must be put in place prior to the implementation of the model. Besides, the people understand the model that should work through proper communication (Hall & Hord, 2015).
Critical Role of Leaders in the Change Process
Change can be drastic thereby taking a long implementation time. In any given case, leaders are expected to be confident and sensible when developing plans and decisions. Besides, they must constantly be communicating their ideas to the employees. Belias and Koustelios (2014) posit that good leadership is required in such institutions at every stage of change to ensure that all issues concerning it are properly managed.
Leaders as Managers of Issues
Leaders must be in a position to manage the technical and emotional aspects of the organizations efficiently. They must be in a position to ensure that proper systems such as technology, structure, processes, and rewards are put in place. This state of affairs ensures that work systems support, sustain, and motivate the employees in the overall change process (Belias & Koustelios, 2014).
Leaders must be Shapers
Leaders in the change process must be responsible for effecting change through the top-down technique. They must control the activities by being role models. Through such actions, people embrace the change idea if they are well informed through effective leadership (Belias & Koustelios, 2014). This set of circumstances leads to the interruption of the resistance by the unwilling staff. Therefore, the leaders play a directive role that influences the employees greatly. They must ensure that the employees are emotionally shaped in such a way that they are invested in change (Belias & Koustelios, 2014). A good manager should provide room for the development and transformation of the employees by shaping their efforts and behaviors to avoid being leader-centric (Belias & Koustelios, 2014).
Role of Enabling Change
Leaders must be people who ensure that workforce is involved in effecting change. They should create an environment that encourages staff contribution in the implementation of new goals. Besides, they should engage with people and align the emotional aspects of the employees with the performance objectives. Furthermore, they should ensure proper communication of values and purpose to the employees with a view of solving the problems of conflict and uncertainty (Belias & Koustelios, 2014). To create an emotional alignment of staff effectively, the leaders must pass clear information about the vision, model of change, and motivation besides offering support to the shared values (Belias & Koustelios, 2014).
Change Management Plan and Challenges of Initiating and Sustaining Transformation
Change Management Plan
The plan highlights the changes that are proposed, their acceptance, and the way in which they will be monitored and controlled. The change control procedures will be used to direct the baseline of the project’s scope and its cost. Various activities that will be addressed include requests for inventory, analysis, documentation, approval, and follow-up activities to ensure accountability.
Identification of Change
One member selected from the team will put forward a request form. The manager (through the change management committee) will then approve or disapprove the baseline to provide a clear definition of the elements in the change request form (See Appendix 1). The selected member will fill the first part of the form prior to its submission. The manager will then record the information in the change control. Next, a change request number will be assigned.
The change request form will be assigned to the members who will then complete it to provide more information on the work to be completed on the intended plan. It will also show the impact of the changes and their deliverables. The change leader will then determine whether the request is viable by checking it against the considerations of sponsors.
After notification of the impacts of change and their recording, the manager then gives the request form to the sponsor for acceptance or rejection. Next, the change request will be reviewed. The decision will be noted by completing section 3 of the request form. If the request is approved by the manager, then the change will be updated to reflect the terms of costs, scope, and schedule among others. Upon refusal of the request form, the change control log will be revised.
The master log will constantly be checked for available change requests. To ensure the approval of all changes, the manager will complete the fourth section of the change request form to indicate the completion of implementing the new goals.
Challenges of Initiating and Sustaining Transformation
Change of Leadership
In most cases, new leaders face resistance to change since some workers feel that they missed promotion opportunities. Therefore, the managers must ensure that they relay information concerning the change in leadership, qualification of the personnel, and positions offered in the organization (Kanter, 2013).
Resistance to Change
Resistance to the implementation of new objectives is one of the biggest challenges in the change process. Managers always have a difficult task in reorganizing their employees to welcome the idea of change since the majority of employees are fence-sitters while others have negative opinions on the fresh ideas (Kanter, 2013). The resistance to change occurs due to uncertainty, threats, self-interests, different perceptions, and confusion. To overcome resistance, the managers must ensure that the staff is involved in various crucial activities at all times. They must educate and train employees using proper communication skills. They should also use various facilitation tools as early planning for change, constant training, and making minimal alterations simultaneously (Kanter, 2013).
Resistors to Change: How to deal with them during the Change Process
In most cases, leaders face the challenge of resistance when they implement change processes in the organization. The managers must be mentors to ensure that their employees are comfortable with the working conditions (Kanter, 2013). The leaders must further be change agents in the process of change; hence, they should identify any signs of resistance in the change process. They can spot resistance in the form of communication breakdowns, complaints, sicknesses, and absenteeism. Other sources of change refusal include low resources, poor channels of communication, reluctance to use new technology, and mistrust among staff among others (Kanter, 2013).
Managers must be proactive when analyzing the resistance of employees. This situation helps them control the situation until such employees gain enough confidence to accept the change. They should identify the losses that can be brought about by a mixture of reactions and emotions amongst the workers (Kanter, 2013).
A leadership behavior that is required in the change process is that which manages and protects the benefits of the organization through the identification of the needs of the employees and stipulated targets. These factors are brought together in an environment that ensures the intended goals are achieved. The leadership required should have a central role in cultivating and revolutionizing the organization to ensure more development. The leaders should also promote the change based on its vision as well as its strategies (Belias & Koustelios, 2014). Strategic leadership is currently crucial in situations where alterations are needed, especially in business situations. Such leaders must be committed to ensuring that the staff is involved in the change processes. These leaders also play strategic roles in the allocation of resources. Besides, they are charged with the alignment of such resources with the employee goals with a view of motivating them to build change teams (Belias & Koustelios, 2014).
Ethical consideration in Organizational Change
Organizations are currently undergoing drastic changes due to constant technology, innovation, and the need to respond to frequent market shifts. Therefore, it is clear that ethical considerations must be embraced, especially in matters concerning the employees, communication channels, and teamwork among others (Belias & Koustelios, 2014). The managers of change bear a responsibility for ensuring that the workforce gains access to better working conditions. The leaders are required to analyze the possible outcomes of the planned changes and their impact on the employees (Belias & Koustelios, 2014).
Protecting the rights and interests of the employees and other stakeholders should be planned to ensure equality, motivation, and improved accomplishment of organizational objectives (Belias & Koustelios, 2014). Through the proper implementation of ethics, communication becomes effective since honesty is upheld amongst individuals and teams. This state of affairs is accomplished by ensuring transparency in the processes of change management (Belias & Koustelios, 2014). Well-stipulated ethics also promote teamwork due to the behaviors developed by the management towards the employees and community. This set of circumstances significantly creates a sense of belongingness and purpose; hence, everybody benefits from the outcome owing to the successful realization of change.
Becker, E. (2015). Team building and group dynamics: creating and fostering a culture of teamwork requires trust, collaboration, and accountability. American Society for Training & Development, 69(4), 100.
Belias, D., & Koustelios, A. (2014). The impact of leadership and change management strategy on organizational culture. European Scientific Journal, 10(7), 451.
Fullan, M. (2014). Leading in a culture of change personal action guide and workbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Hall, G., & Hord, S. (2015). Implementing change, patterns, principles, and potholes. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice- Hall.
Kanter, R. (2013). Six keys to leading positive change. Web.
Appendix 1: Change Request Form
|Change Title:||Change Number:|
|Section 1: Change Request|
|Requestor Name: |
Requestor Telephone number:
|Date of Request:||Change Request Number:|
|Changes to be made:||Priority:|
|Description of Change:|
|Estimated Cost and duration:|
|Section 2: Evaluation of Change|
|Evaluated by:||Work Required:|
|What is Affect:|
|Impact on Cost, Schedule, Scope, etc.:|
|Section 3: Change Resolution|
|Accepted Rejected||Approved by (Print):||Signature:||Date:|
|Section 4: Tracking change|
|Completion Date||Completed by (Print):||Signature:||Date:|
|I confirm, via my signature indicated above, that the change documentation has been updated to reflect the approval of the changes accurately.|
Appendix 2: Change Control Log
|Change Number||Change description||Priority||Date Requested||Requested By||Status |