At a time when globalization is becoming the centre stage in affecting people’s social and developmental purposes, teaching English language to multicultural student especially the disengaged remains a major problem that affects the attitudes of teachers. This paper offers a clear insight of the methodology that was applied by the researcher to achieve the different objectives of the study. According to Gibbons and Fauber (2006, p. 478) the ability to apply the correct methodology during the research process determines the overall acceptability of the results presented at the end of the study. To add to that, it offers an intricate critique of the process of interview that was used to establish the study results. Owing to the emerging needs for the different trends in education that calls for modernistic methods of enhancing knowledge accessibility, the paper analyses three different studies on teaching English to disengaged Arab students and offers a better platform for understanding how the results presented to them were actually achieved.
A Qualitative Study of ESL College Students’ Attitudes about Computer-Assisted Writing Classes
Purpose of the study
The purpose of the study was to establish the beliefs and attitudes of students who are not native speakers of English on the use of computers as a tool for assisting them to acquire writing skills. The study wanted to establish whether using computers would make the student to acquire writing skills easily or not. Specifically, the study focused on the attitudes and beliefs of the students in regard to developing their writing skills using computer-aided composition (WebCT) and web-based management system (CMS).
A theoretical framework contains interrelated concepts that acts as a guide to the study and determines what the study will measure as well as the statistical relationships to be used. In this study, the researcher was interested in measuring a number of relevant issues. Firstly, the study measured how students consider themselves to be technologically challenged in adapting computer-aided classes. Secondly, the study also measured the benefits and the obstacles experienced by students when using computers. The perception of students in regard to using a computer to improve their writing skills and the existence of cultural and individual constraints that interfere with computer-aided classes were also measured. By using key related theories such as such as theory on behavior and constructivist theory from the analysis of Barbara et al (2009), the author is able to reflect why many Arab students do not have a keen interest in learning foreign language.
Situation of the study
This study seeks to explain beliefs and attitudes of ESL students on whether they experience any problem in using computer in learning writing skills. The study also explores the benefits of using computer in trying to acquire writing skills.
Research Approach and methodology
Research approach is used to refer to the approach adopted to carry out a given research. It involves formulation of research questions and appropriate study methods like primary and secondary research. This study used a qualitative methodology. This simply means gathering insights by posing questions directly to the respondents. This method allows the researcher to acquire the needed information and also allows the interviewer to find out the strength of motivations and emotions that relate to the topic. In this study, qualitative data was collected using different methods which include observations, field notes, interviews, student diaries and use of papers assigned to the students.
The ability of a study to give highly acceptable results is pegged on authors’ capacities to observe high ethical levels (Kvale and Brinkmann, 2008, p. 87; Hussein, 2012 p. 237).
Presentation and analysis of results
Analysis of the collected data was done using qualitative content analysis. Information from multiple sources was reviewed in order to derive the required themes. The observations and the field notes were grouped systematically to facilitate a faster analysis. Before analysis, the researcher identified presence of recurring regularities in order to come up with patterns that could be sorted into different categories. These categories were examined using two criteria namely external heterogeneity and internal homogeneity. The first criterion is based on finding whether there is a clear difference between categories. The second criterion aims at establishing whether data in a given category is meaningful. The researcher used NUD*IST 6 software to code data and determine themes.
After analyzing the collected data, it was found out that students valued and enjoyed the use of computer-aided classes. They argued that WebCT course increased their speed of acquiring writing skills. Through observation, the researcher was able to comprehend the class structure and different activities from the instructor. The process of brainstorming and repeating main ideas was thought to be highly successful. After analyzing data collected through interviews, the researcher found out that computers were very essential in helping students to acquire writing skills very easily.
This finding supplements the views of other researchers like Ruwaida (2011) in the article Cultural Transfer as an Obstacle for Writing Well in English: The Case of Arabic Speakers Writing in English. Unlike it was previously believed that culture strongly influences learning of multicultural students, Ruwaida (2011, p. 206) indicates that teacher influence and attitudes were found to be strongly correlated (Gawi, 2012 p. 127)..
In comparison to the article Saudi Arabian educational history: impacts on English language teaching by, Abdurrahman just like Elyas and Picard (2010, p. 136) presents critical analysis and detailed outsets that leave the reader convinced of the need to improve teachers attitudes and perspectives to disengaged Arab students. The evaluation of the benefits of improving attitudes with regards to performance and their further extrapolation is moving (Al-Hamly & Coombe 2005, p. 509: Saif, 1999 p. 586).
This method as reflected in the study is effective in that it provides an effective comparison of different variables; a consideration that make the study highly reliable (Al-Kharabsheh, Al-Azzam and Marwan, 2009 p. 978; Hani & Tamara 2011, p. 179).
Becoming a Do-it-yourself Designer of English Language Teaching Materials
Purpose of the study
The learners’ needs have been supplemented by designing of materials that are suitable to enhance learning in various contexts. The author is quite categorical that the ability to tailor down the learning needs of students largely depends on the ability to apply practical knowledge that has been gained over a considerable length of time. Though the article lacks a specific section that talks about the problem of interest, the authors clearly bring out the purpose of the study. From the title and the abstract of the article, the purpose is brought out and associated with the environment culture upon which Arab students learning English live. Further in the introduction, moving statistics make the phenomenon to sink further in the reader’s mind.
it is important to note that language learning has been found to have various facets of challenges that must be met by teachers. Nonetheless, there is minimal longitudinal relationship between the practical knowledge of research that is being applied and growing body of research. The author notes that teaching of English language can be elevated by designing a do-it-yourself approach One of the main considerations that make the article to shout with authority is its guided theoretical framework. By emphasizing that the problem of disengagement of Arab students to learning English has been there for along time, the cumulative effect is outlined to be scaring (Elsadig 2012, p. 127). A methodological case study based on qualitative analysis has been noted by the author as an integral area that can assist the teaching of English language. Besides, the in-service teachers of language have the potential of improving their levels of deliveries if they adopt this learning design.
Gardener, in the theory of multiple intelligences emphasized that students’ strengths could be in one of the different intelligence domains (Voicu 2012, p. 22). Deviation from conventional thoughts that proper growth and development can only manifest itself in learning therefore results to major loss of an Arab student’s ability to learn English. Notably, using the highly defined model, Wyatt (2011, p. n/a) is able to articulately persuade teachers to look at Arab students from a diverse point of view and anchor the willingness to develop their knowledge in English as opposed to developing negative attitudes. In concurrence, Derderian-Aghajanian and Wang (2012, p. 100) indicates that student’s response to learning English can be leveraged by outlining existing loopholes and how helping students develop positive attitudes can enhance their performance.
Situation of the study
the use of teachers as material designers when applying the do-it-yourself approach has indeed proved to be successful. The article has made use of adequate and reliable resources to prove the effectiveness of the approach. Notably, the experience levels of teachers in addition to effective use of available materials define the core situation of the study. The information presented on data collection can indeed be used to gain practical assistance without much assistance from external sources.
However, emergent issues affecting teaching English to disengaged students have greatly changed in the last decade, a consideration that could make the outlined recommendations less effective (Bahous, Nahla and Nabhani 2011, p. 33). It would have been more effective for authors to use more recent studies to capture core changes in the society especially literacy consideration that allows people to understand and broadly address issues.
Research Approach and methodology
Data collection for this article was done through questionnaires and interview schedules conducted to students and teachers identified by the sample. The primary method used in the study is essential in promoting viability and acceptability of the study. Analysis of the study is identified as quantitative and descriptive, and which the article has conducted using standardized methods. Data saturation also comes out as having been achieved and strongly aids in drawing the conclusions.
Interviews in the article were conducted with assistance of the questionnaires designed with particularistic questions that would help the researcher easily categorize the response of the painters. In this respect, highly structured interview questions were employed by the researcher. There is great effort throughout the study to link any external idea or ethical consideration that authors employed in their study. By crediting the sources of key information, authors adhered to academic procedures and made it possible to generate new ideologies in the field. In the last paragraph, the author puts some very important remarks that broaden how readers relate the results to the society. It clarifies that though the study was highly conclusive, it does not necessarily indicate that teachers develop negative attitudes towards students who are les interested in learning.
Presentation and analysis of data
This section in the article is perhaps the most critical one in the whole study as it formed the centre point in developing acceptable findings for the end of the study. To add to that, it acted as a key factor in determining how effective the assimilated recommendations would be in addressing the problem or ergonomics for the painters in their work. By providing a clear outline of the procedures that were assimilated by the researcher, it was clear that the reader can be able to comprehend the method and the sources of the results discussed in the latter analysis and discussion chapters. Finally, it serves as the major link between the initial chapters and the later ones by providing statistics to the theoretical frameworks.
Motivating Students in the EFL Classroom: A Case Study of Perspectives
Purpose of the study
It is not an easy task to offer adequate motivation to EFL learners especially when there is need to enhance language development in respective areas of weakness. The authors are quite unanimous that students often lack learning motivation due to the myriads of difficulties which they face. Hence, learners can be assisted to cultivate positive attitudes in classroom in spite of the difficulties which they face.According to Beach et al (2008, p. 188) and Merriam (2009, p. 58), an understanding of the purpose of any study is essential in guiding the research thesis through out the period of the research. This article’s key strengths lie in its presentation and succinctness of the purpose of the study and different ideologies.
As a matter of fact, there are myriads of both qualitative and quantitative research studies that have offered viable solutions toward de-motivation of learners. The authors have adopted an approach of surveying teachers and interviewing learners in order to come up with solutions to this challenge. Extreme attention on skills of writing has been noted as one of the de-motivating factors that hinder learners from learning English.
From the study, it is evident that learners have limited experience in learning. Besides, there are several materials that are used by teachers that have proven to be less interesting to students. Such materials also lack clear correlation between the major subjects taken by students and language courses. Worse still, the pre-structured syllabi and lack of motivation among students is a major teaching hindrance among teachers.
Situation of the study
Throughout the study, the authors emphasize their major points by giving professional opinion and consulting previous studies (Ibrahem and Breen 2010; Dan 2004; Al-Hajaya and Al-Khresheh 2012 and Abdulwahed, Hamed and Abdurrahman 2012). By acknowledging previous researches, the study creates a progressive scholarly model that explores why students and teachers lack motivation in English. In its analysis, Aziz and Kabilan (2010, p. 22) indicate that from the large number of measures evaluated during the study, the results are highly comprehensive and therefore capture most of the factors that may hinder adequate learning and teaching of English language. Though the article does not indicate why there was a slight difference in the number of males and females involved in the study sample as compared to the study by Alhaysony (2012), “An analysis of article errors among Saudi female EFL students: A case Study, lack of thorough emphasis when teaching English language has been noted as one of the potential de-motivating factors. It is also definite that the syllabi should be structured in such a way that teachers are able to expand their teaching horizon and improve the likeability of English language.
Research Approach and methodology
The article gives the setting of the study, participants and key variables for assessment. To make it more holistic, the high school students have been interviewed and the same extended to their teachers in form a survey. The study employed a longitudinal model and involved 116 and 69 seventh and eighth graders respectively. Key measures used in the study included assessment of English language popularity which was done through a sociometric procedure. Ego development was further assessed by Loevinger and Associates constructed model which had 11 short form interview questions and 36 full sentences tests.
This study in the article observed all the copyright demands for different literature materials that were used inform of payments to the different library fees and notifications to the authors where needed. Besides, it ensured that the research fits within the operating programs of the different interviewees to avoid disrupting their institutional operations. To increase the probability of getting the correct information from the different respondents, the researcher guaranteed total confidentiality to the respondents. To this effect, the interview sheets neither possessed the name of the respondents, nor their departments.
Presentation and analysis of data
As one of the final stages before the results can be discussed, data analysis is very critical as it is used to answer the research questions, test the research hypothesis, and generate the necessary recommendations for the study (Alhaisoni 2012, p. 144). Data analysis in the article assimilates a strong qualitative approach and incorporates inferential and descriptive systems. Initially, the data is summarized according to the different variables under survey in the study. It is worth noting that observations recorded are considered to be representative of the whole outcome of the interviews (Abdulwahed, Hamed and Abdurrahman, 2012 p. 233). In addition, graphs, and tables that summarise the findings of the interviews have been used effectively.
In comparison with the article Knowing and Teaching Elementary Language Arts: A Math Lesson for English Teachers by Bowe (2009), this portion of the study has been effectively presented with clear linkage between the variables and the title of the article. Besides presenting the findings clearly, an effective analysis has been presented within the known phenomenon and therefore meeting the purpose of the study. Besides, the conclusion brings out clearly the importance of the findings and recommendations given.
To recap it all, this paper has explored the methodology that was adopted in the process of conducting the research study. Moreover, the results of the study were interpreted in terms of the interview method that was applied in the research process. The paper also identified the emerging trends in education and how different but effective methods can be adopted in order to deliver the best teaching practices among Arab learners.
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