Persuasive Developmental Disorder and Asperger syndrome are categorized with Autism disorder. A person with the disorder possesses a problem with neural development, where their communication and social interaction skills are insufficient. Moreover, the individual has repetitive and restricted behavior. Autism interferes with the manner in which information is processed in the brain since nerve cells and synapses are altered. Therefore, they are unable to organize and connect effectively. This paper aims at discussing a case study and involves a 21-year-old student. Her name is Tracey, and she has Autism Spectrum Disorder. Tracey possesses exceptionally hard transitions, and it is vital that her routine can be predicted. Irrespective of the fact that the young lady is friendly, she often becomes impulsive, which leads to grabbing or pushing her peers. Tracey has the dream of going to college and acquiring an office job like her father. Her reading is 2nd-grade level. The young lady requires reminders on selecting suitable clothing, as well as changing clothes regularly. Moreover, she completes the daily living skills independently and easily follows directions that are paired with pictures. The pictures assist her in finishing the complicated tasks successfully. After graduation, Tracey has the dream of sharing a house with a friend from her school.
Description of Goals
Education and training are extremely vital for an individual suffering from Autism Spectrum Disorder. Various education interventions are considered as the foundations for managing the disorder. According to Hamilton (2008), education helps an individual to acquire various skills. These include academic attainment, leisure and play, daily- living, social, and social skills. These skills are extremely beneficial in ensuring the all-round development of an individual.
Education acts as the fostering agent through which an individual gets knowledge and skills to ensure a sustained life. Consequently, an individual develops individual and independence accountability. It is worth pointing out that education involves academic learning, skills to enable the person to adapt to different environments, communication, socialization, prevention of behaviors that hinder development, and other abilities to adapt to different environments. Education also helps individuals to improve their intellectual performance. Through the school environment, children are able to acquire social, interactive, and communication skills (Howlin, 2007). Health care professionals are exceptionally endowed with the ability to guide the client’s family towards the choice of appropriate practices. Moreover, the families acquire the skills to assess the benefits of these services.
For an individual with Autism, there is a need for job coaching, which helps the person acquire the skills to carry out the job. However, it is worth pointing out that supported employment assists the patient to acquire and maintain competitive employment. Moreover, supported employment is useful as people with the disorder are usually unemployed and underemployed. The work environment offers exclusive compensatory strategies for training and social support, which are essential to acquire various skills (Howlin, 2007).
The community can be useful to people with autism by providing employment in work environments, where people with autism can work best. Enduring support is imperative for these individuals before they engage in unsupported competitive jobs. There is a need to engage the client in a certain work schedule. The work environment must be socially integrative.
Independent living is greatly useful to an individual suffering from autism. Through independent living, the individual acquires the necessary skills to live alone. These include daily living, individual care, housekeeping, and meal preparation skills. Some individuals with the disorder have the ability to live on their own entirely. An individual can reside in their apartment or home, but with assistance in sorting out key problems. Independent living enables the individual to acquire immense skills.
Support on a Job
As far as the employment of individuals with autism is concerned, employment specialists are extremely useful. They assist the client to improve their profiles as job seekers, guide the clients while searching for careers and developing their jobs, carry out training at the job site, and come up with enduring support, which enhances job retention. Moreover, the specialists must stress an individualized approach. In order to work in an office effectively like her father, Tracey requires support. In the long run, she will possess adequate skills to enable her to work independently (Dosreis et al, 2006).
Recommended Residential Alternative
In my opinion, a group home is the most appropriate for Tracey. From the group home, the client will be able to acquire services, supplies, and housing. The client will acquire assistance for twenty-four hours, as well as training in regard to everyday living skills. From the group, there is adequate observation and reassuring interactive associations. From the group home, the client acquires a setting and home environment, where they acquire the skills required for independent living. The environment offers an adequate opportunity for the individual to acquire the necessary skills for living alone, in addition to a considerable amount of supervision. Supervision is imperative for identifying any behavioral irregularities, which ensures they are rectified on time. The group may be composed of four to fourteen individuals. A group is significant in that a person appreciates the fact that they are not the only ones suffering from the disorder, which is exceptionally rehabilitative.
Community members may have the concern that by choosing a group home for the client, the family is neglecting the individual suffering from autism. However, there are more benefits when an individual resides in a group home. The family members are able to carry out other responsibilities, while the client benefits from skills acquired from other group members.
Educators in a group home have a great role in assisting the client. The principal role is assisting the client to acquire basic living skills. These skills are in regard to individual care, housekeeping, and meal preparation. Educators can easily track the progress of an individual and the benefits obtained from other group members. Highly effective educators produce higher functioning individuals, who are able to live independently in an apartment or home. The educators visit often to track the progress. At this level, clients can work, prepare their meals, and dress appropriately.
Problem Behaviors, Function of Behaviors, Intervention, Alternative Behavior, and Gathering Behavioral Data to Assess the Intervention’s Effectiveness
Tracey has stereotyped and repetitive behavior. This behavior may be a result of the absence of imagination ability. Moreover, the young lady is friendly, which is an area that interests her. Tracey has the ability to read since she has a deep desire to work in an office as her father does. Because of the absence of imaginative ability, Tracey has difficult transitions, predictable routines, and requires reminders in regard to changing clothes and appropriate clothing. In addition, she requires pictures when dealing with completed tasks (Caronna, Milunsky & Tager-Flusberg, 2008).
It is worth pointing out that these repetitive behaviors might make Tracey show problem behaviors. Consequently, Tracey may be unable to express her preferences, desires, and needs. In this connection, there is a need to assess the biological and environmental factors that may lead to continued traits. In order to handle repetitive behaviors successfully, the caregiver’s reactions influence whether the problem behavior is reduced or strengthened. For instance, it is important to give a child with autism some time to rest whenever they get disruptive or upset. This helps the child reinforce the behavior in relation to work.
Being impulsive, grabbing, and pushing the peers are excessive behaviors, which might make Tracey unable to take part in group work and play. These severe behaviors may lead to the injury of other people, therefore being hindered from participating in family and school activities. This can be remedied through seeking treatment from a professional, who can offer medication and treatments for the behavior.
There are several methods through which a clients’ behavior can be assessed, which ensures appropriate corrective measures. Applied Behavior Analysis involves using the basic principles to solve the challenges associated with Autism. There is also a need to assess the factors, which lead to the maintenance of the behaviors. Functional Behavioral Assessment involves identifying the factors that are responsible for behavior maintenance. These criteria are used to gather data in regard to factors that make people with autism maintain the behaviors.
Caronna, E.B., Milunsky, J.M., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2008). Autism spectrum disorders: clinical and research frontiers. Arch Dis Child, 93(6):518–23.
Dosreis, S., Weiner, C.L., Johnson, L., & Newschaffer, C.J. (2006). Autism spectrum disorder screening and management practices among general paediatric providers. J Dev Behav Pediatr, 27(2): 88– 94.
Hamilton, C. (2008). Emulation and mimicry for social interaction: a theoretical approach to imitation in autism. Q J Exp Psychol, 61(1):101–115.
Howlin, P. (2007). Outcomes in autism spectrum disorders. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.