The Policy and Practice of Public Administration are not at all same all over the different geographic area of the globe. USA is the most advanced superpower of the planet with its fifty states and Federal Republic form of government, when the Kuwait is an assortment of moderate Muslim people, with representative democratic country relevant to the Muslim monarchism. This paper would keep its effort to differentiate the Policy and Practice of public administration in USA and Gulf countries like Kuwait. To doing so, this paper would argue for some research with theoretical aspects of public administration those are relevant to the practice of the two regions. It would also present resemblance and distinction of their policy and practice and argue to draw a conclusion that would facilitate scope of further research.
Background of GCC Establishment
Historically Gulf Persia is one of the resourceful regions of the world. Continuous practice of feudal culture, religious blindness, educational backwardness, weak public administration and imperialist intervention has remorselessly ragged the most heavenly ecstasies of religious, created political unrest, tranquil relation Islam turned into radicalism and threats of terrorism. The US and Europeans has broken down motley feudal ties among the Muslim brotherhood, chivalrous enthusiasm and has kept no other nexus between the gulf countries without their naked imperialistic self-interest by the icy water of their so called democratisation and reformation.
Lack of unity among the Arab countries has also facilitated the US and Europeans to setup control over their oil fields and exploit the resources of Arabs. Jewish- Muslim conflicts, Iraq Iran war, Iraq’s Kuwait aggression, US intervention in Afghan and Iraq has seriously threaten the sovereignty of this region of Asia. Pioneer leaders of Arab countries have realised that no substantial development would be possible with regional cooperation among the Arabs. This spirit has driven to establish Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The framework of Gulf Cooperation Council1 was founded in May 25, 1981 to extend cooperation, integration and correlation among the six Arab states to achieve substantial development within the region. The member states are Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar and Oman.
Geo-regional modification was influenced by GCC members and championing in Saudi Arabia. In this champion, Saudi Arabia was involved itself as a leader and also contributing a large amount of financial activities with large number of population. Permanent secretariat of the GCC is stayed in Riyadh. Besides United States and the European Union, Saudi Arabia strengthens this community by its high involvement in cost liberalization. In addition, composition of MEFTA (Middle East Free Trade Agreement) there have significant role of Saudi Arabia. Moreover, to be flexible bilateral free trade agreement and reduce the barriers adopted by the WTO (World Trade Organization) was also the outcome of the effort of the Saudi Arabia.
Objectives of GCC
The GCC Charter has been emphasised to strengthening special relations among the member countries with shared visions and common goals based on Islamic dogma. The long socio-cultural heritage of the people of GCC countries has driven the countries to come in a common platform to face the challenge of Americanization rather than globalization. When war, bloodshed and political unrest destabilised the humanity within meddle east region, GCC has a vital role to play to bring peace and prosperity by shaping homogeneous values and uniqueness profound religious, cultural and historical linkage among the six countries strongly prevailed over their citizens From the global view, following are the factors that make coordination among the GCC-
- International force especially by the US to make bilateral trade among the regional countries. US have decided to sponsor in the MEFTA to be a member of GCC within 2010. Moreover, they were determined to announce three countries as member of the GCC and part of their nation. During (2001 – 2008), US government was more emphasize on Middle East countries than any other region. Their concentration more on the oil-produced countries of GCC. In order to political influence and control, US approach work through- global, bilateral and regional at a time. Economic benefit of the GCC is smaller than the interest of the US’s business but there have an enormous prospect of this trade agreement. To enjoy aggregate business advantage with the WTO, MEFTA would get economic liberalization for the Middle East. It also reduces the corporate investment by the Americans and reform their economy and politics.
- Alongside EU or UN, make possible coordination among the regional trading partners. Moreover, EU is a significant trading partner of the GCC and their trade areas are- transaction of petroleum products, capital investment, machinery and high industrial goods. Affiliation between two communities could lower the tax of the products. On the other hand, GCC is the 5th largest export area for the EU. In case of oil markets GCC be a market leader and the WTO mostly accept the negotiation between two organizations- GCC and the EU.
- Be flexible the trade barriers provide by the WTO. In another way, contribute in a greater proportion through the increase of their bargaining and political power in order to a multilateral negotiation. Most of the policy maker thought that since the wealth delay entrance into the WTO it would inflexible for the most of Arab Golf countries. But after the 9/11 necessity of a community of the Arabian countries was proved and GCC gave them the competency to fight against pro-Western regime.
GCC has been structuralised with Supreme Council, Ministerial Council, Secretariat-General and five Directors-general. Supreme Council is the highest forum of GCC where presidencies come in a rotation from the head of states. In this proposal, there have already mentioned that during 1981, May the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) was composed through six Arabian countries- Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar and the UAE (United Arab Emirates). In this time these states was signed the agreement of the council and the charter. Four times within a year foreign minister of the entire stases present annual summit to the Heads of the states situated at Riyadh. Slogans of the council- achieve unity in all aspects of the states through “inter-connection, coordination and integration”. In the area of- finance, legislation, trade and custom, mining, agriculture, scientific research, economy they wish to employ similar rules and regulations, currency as the EU.
Economies of the member states in all view the GCC are enduring their efforts. Their preferable areas are- the Joint Agricultural Policy, the General Framework of the GCC Population Strategy and Unified Industrial Development Strategy. By observation of the EU rules and regulations the GCC now prior to establish a common market, common currency like Euro and a monetary union. All of these tasks are involved in the integration so that they could achieve all of these within 2010. Already in 2007, common market of the GCC was established and at the beginning of the 2008, it has started its journey. Common market of the GCC includes in their syllabus- reduce residential problem, increase education and employment ratios, across the GCC countries encourage investment with the aid of own stock and own property. Another significant issue covers the monitoring of land, investment and stocks owed by the foreigners under a common rules and regulations over the GCC states. In case of monetary union establishment it was announced in 2006 though execution and operation of the union will be started in 2010 as said by Oman.
Field of Cooperation
The GCC accord pointed out the basic objectives of unity and cooperation in all the fields such as administration and legislation, trade and finance, customs and tourism, science and technology, industries and mining including people’s interaction. GCC also urged for research and development to establishing joint venture in private sector of the six countries
Vital issue of the GCC is to cooperate in economical areas as well as partnership. Execution of this, during 1983, among the member states of the GCC encompasses a free trade zone named “MEFTA (Middle East Free Trade Agreement)”. One of the features of this agreement is- among the member states there don’t require any tariff either to sell products or ion case of export and import. In addition, for common external tariff the GCC owed a customs union at the beginning of 2003.
The GCC has also concern on security issues of the six states and the catalyst of their formation derived from the Iraq Iran war. Central issue of the GCC is to invent foreign policy making in order to be united. In 2003, the GCC build a defense force named- “Peninsula Shield” is a part of operation Iraqi freedom. In this time, some complexity invented between the GCC and the USA since invasion of Iraq. They took an initiative approaches against the nuclear program of Iran and the GCC focused on the execution that in a peaceful way. Now this time affiliation among the GCC and the Iran turn into more cordial and regarding this in the states meeting of Iran GCC head was invited by means of their President in 2007.
Profile of the Member Sates
During May 1981, altogether of the six Arab countries- Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, UAE (United Arab Emirates), Qatar and Oman composed the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council). With the purpose of coordinate in foreign trade, investment and policy, security and defense, economic integration the GCC was made. But focus mostly on the economic interest is the key aspect of this council. A free trade zone “MEFTA (Middle East Free Trade Agreement)” was born in 1983 among the GCC states. At the beginning of the 2003, the GCC turn onto a Custom Union since their external tariff was charged at 5 % for all of the six states. Within 2010, their vision is to generate a common currency like Euro in order to draw a common market so that they could enable a powerful economic cooperation.
The Kingdom of Bahrain
In 1971, Bahrain got its independency and has started to continue a constitutional monarchy. 36 islands compose the whole geographic area of the Bahrain that makes them 5 times bigger than the Washington D.C. Within 2007, total population was almost 709,000 and among them percentage of foreigners are 33 and they are from Asia, Iran and other Arab countries. Annual population growth rate is 1.4 %. Most of the people are follower of Shia though elite groups and the royal family are Sunni and it produces phobia for the society and politics. Both English and Arabic is widely spoken language in office.
The state of Kuwait
In 1961, Kuwait got its independency and flat desert plains constructed the land area. With 3.5 % annual population growth rate in 2006, their total population was 3.1 million. More than 67 % of the total population is non-Kuwaiti. Politically they continue a constitutional heredity monarchy. English is the second official language of Kuwait amongst the GCC states. In the whole Arab world, print and electronic media can work most autonomously and dynamically.
The Sultanate of Oman
Amongst the GCC states Oman is the second largest member. Geographical feature diverse Oman from other GCC states. Geographically it made of mountain, arid plateau terrain and plains. Their population growth rate was 3.2 % during 2006 with 3.2 million people. Oman is a mixture of ethic groups and they were instigated from South Asians, East Africa and Baluchi (Iran). Their official language is Arabic but a wide use of Urdu, English and Swahili are all around the nation. In addition, Oman was never under the British colony as other GCC states and their politics govern by a monarch. Sultan Qaboos bin Said al-Said placed at the top of the monarch.
The State of Qatar
As Bahrain Qatar has got its independency in 1971 with a constitutional monarchy, geographically most of the areas are dessert land. Whole area is boundaries by both of Connecticut and Rhode Island. Total population of Qatar is about 9 million and 2.4 % was their growth rate in 2007. 60 % of resident is originated from- Indians, Qatari Arabs and other Arabs and the rest of 40 % came from South and Southeast Asia.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Along with a consultative Council Saudi Government operate their activities through a Council of Ministers as a part of monarchy and during 1952 unified. It’s the most largest and populated country under GCC states. Southwest part of the country is surrounded by some mountains and desert. Up to 2007, population of them is 27.6 million. Among them 79 % were Saudis and rest of them are foreigners. Population growth is 2 % and near to half of the total people are less than 15 ages.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE)
At the end of 1971, seven emirates federation- Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Fujairah, Ajman, Umm al-Qaiwain and Ras al-Khaimah built the UAE. With (15 – 20) % of citizen they have 4.4 million people during 2007. Mostly desert land made the area of the UAE. Annual population growth was only 4 %. Major part of the population originated from the coastal area. After the achievement of the independency in 1971, they built their government as emirates-style. From each emirate one rulers of the Supreme Council was selected to make the executive branch. Among the seven emirates Abu Dhabi is most rich and they contribute 60 % of the UAE’s GDP and second economic strength is Dubai. Chief executive of the UAE’s resignation is President and his task to continue the independency of the country.
Literature of Public Administration
This Chapter would discuss on the contemporary literature of public administration with relevance to relevance with politics, comparative research methods, new public management, legislative approach, judiciary structure and good governance. at the end of this chapter contrast the public governance indicators in USA & Kuwait.
Relevance with Politics
Appleby (1949: 170) stated that- “Policy making is the task of Public administration.” Political context is coordinated each and every aspect of the public administration and process of an administration can not walk alone on its own track. Well declared hierarchy, adopt discipline rather than chaos in an organization required by the study of the public administration.
Nigro, A. Felix & Nigro G. Lloyd, (2006) argued that there have many challenges under imperfect conditions that present the study perfection scenarios and also be termed as political science. Political science more emphasizes on the government’s economic efficiency and from this view the concept is termed as- “New Public Management”. On the other hand, from view point of minority public sectors are treated as private and reflection of good bureaucracy alter the public administration to public management and there should not sovereign being establishing any law.
For instance, there might be arising any proposal to diverse public management from the other fields- sociology, business administration and political science though political management is considered as more philosophical and larger in terms of concept, purpose, power and governance of the government and their morality. This diversification is easily realized through this distinguish between management of public administration (MPA) and management of business administration (MBA). Field of the societies prior mostly on free market enterprise, government coordination between critical infrastructure and monopolies, flexible administrative discretion adopt appropriate laws, fail to overcome organizational defects that act behind policy failure.
Johnson, W., (1995) argued that the oldest and controversial concerns under public administration are the affiliation between administration and politics. During 1887, Woodrow Wilson made a proposal to politics free administration and this diversification focused mostly on policy formulation and policy implementation. Sometimes tasks of the agency level executives and the politicians are almost same in policy development. Policy recommendation is the best position for the lower level bureaucrats and there has no significant difference between expressing and executing policies.
There have an imperative query that is there any accountability of the public managers to the public interest or the political leaders. View point of hierarchical aspect managers’ accountability only to their superior executives. Tend of the bureaucrats is to deal with both of the fluctuation of public opinion and serve qualities products. Hypothetically, this association runs through the chain of command and the supplement little people. Public management has to aware of their working to reach the vision and make transparent accountability in evaluating performance. This could be capable in eliminating conflict between public and superiors.
Another term that play behind in making conflict- maintain of ethical issues in public service. A public servant has the more capability to communicate with the stakeholders and also deliver better service to the customers and clients. They also have the better efficiency to capture the interests of the tax payers. More over, public servants are approve by the media and watch dog groups for higher security purpose and consider their capability for efficient transparent accountability to the people. As well as the democratic governance bureaucratic, this transparent accountability has greatly impact on policy determination and also in public discussion and security aspect.
Consequence of the interest group theory (Chubb 1983), correlation between certain private interests and certain agencies developed through a special relationship in spite of political alteration or if there exist any periphery between administration and politics when public has quite ignored and insulted similar structured government agencies in many times.
Laffont & Tirole, (1991) defined this as- “regulatory capture” and also when a public interest group summarized the agency. During this crisis, democratic participation process requires to introduce citizen surveys, ombudsman programs or administrative hearings. But when the crisis has conquered it call for redecorate the bureaucracy in order to private firms’ protection. In the field of politics, there have abundant scope to study on political scientists and of the influenced interest group. Thus as their requirement politicians could get and enjoy all of the charisma, plausible deniability and spin though this luxuries can not affordable by the public administration. This significantly differ the public administration from the politicians.
Comparative Research Methods
Compare between Western and non-Western systems is the traditional and mostly used research method of the CPA. This research method has originated from the dualistic concepts considering- collective – individualistic, universalistic – particularistic, diffused – specific etc. are the creation of a group. The point is noted that dualistic concepts only prescribed the recommendations of the applied management. Affiliation with the economic growth and living standard of the lesser developed countries (LDCs). Wiarda (1999), categorized the worth listing into four units as bellow and denoted as- “unit of analysis”.
- Individuals: including socializations, habits and backgrounds it studied on the leaders. Officials or elites Groups: study on social movements or the behaviors of work groups, parties or interest groups.
- Organizations: study on functions or the capacities of cities, agencies or regions.
- Bureaucracy: study on the efficacy or the performance of the government’s entire executive branch.
According to March & Simon, 1958 organization is the best place for unit analysis and also offer enrich featured of worthy study. In Simon’s book Administrative Behavior, 1947 and in Waldo’s book The Administrative State, 1947 both of them were evaluated that there have a slam attachment between public administration and the theory and behavior of an organization. Coordination of these two facts involved in studying a set of dependent and independent variables. They are also denoted as- effects and causes of this attachment. Variables are as bellow-
- Dependent variables: organization structure, vision, mission, goals, objectives and goals accomplishment, decision making process, power and influence are the forces under dependent variables. In short, factors exist in the internal environment of an organization.
- Independent variables: another term of these variables is external forces of the organization which includes- culture of a country, political-legal and social features, government rules and policies, market system, economic indicators, and core operating system.
New Public Management
New Public Management (NPM) has mostly encompasses through primary budgeting areas. Attachment private sector with the public would bring financial benefits and gate way to reshape budgeting that invent diverse applied management theories. If hypothetically proved that performance of the private field is more prospect than public then recent idea reformation of the management has been criticized.
Kettl, (2005) refer the concept “Global Public Management (GPM)” as “Globalization” and also clarify the concept- “process that interconnect people of the world through stack of information, product and services, capital, goods, technology.” This reformation passes through “Good Governance” which involved in capacity, roles, diverse mission for versatile project, bilateral relationship etc. in order to placed in a stable and prosperous global placement. In the portrayal of the NPM under comparative public management, there have a significant subfield- “international business.”
Since 1970, major countries of the world- United States, Canada, Australia and United Kingdom have started to practice of NGPM (New Global Public Management). Considering all of aforesaid forces of globalization, government of these countries should to practice of- education, race circumstances, marriage and criminal justice in order to smoother their economic flows. Economists of the major countries suggest denying small government movement since they evaluated that this procedure is just oppose of the Keynesian economic model and that would make hampers their economic growth.
Pressman & Wildavsky, (1984) labeled the public administration subfield as- “implementation”. This course of action mostly evaluated government policy failure. There are seven circumstances those are helpful in minimizing costs and the risks factors are termed as- “pork-barrel spending”. Features of these cost minimizing forces followed by the US government are as follow-
- An individual chamber of Congress has the authority to request.
- In authorization there have no change of specialty.
- There would have no award system.
- President should not influence in making any request.
- Current year’s budget funding must be greater than previous year’s and also larger than the request of President’s budget.
- Congress should not have any influential act in budgeting.
- Focus on the local areas and places that require special interest.
Make the government more efficient, cheaper and smarter within (1993 – 2001) Vice President Al Gore was started a campaign “National Performance Review (NPR)”. Reduce corruption, fraud, unnecessary wastage and other dynamics that would influence government to minimize their volume of bureaucracy. This campaign was also approved official web portal nationwide for the first time. Reformation of the management requires a significant amount of money evaluated by the NPR program. Make the government services transparent, convenient and friendly Internet base technology is quite safe and secure.
In (2001 – 2009), President W. Bush flourished the “e-government” under GPM that was monitored by the “Office of Management and Budget (OMB)”. Under the reformation two facts are act as tonic. They are-
- Integrate functioning in agency restructure that should not require be a component of NPM, just amended the old functions as the era required.
- The DHS employees were paid for the idea of performance under NPM and this payment would exempted from the protection of civil services both in home and abroad including war and harmed by the terror.
US Legislative approach
Land supreme law and the American Government’s major approaches made up the Constitution of USA. Governmental institutions evaluation continues through over 200 years. During 1789, principals of the constitution was proposed as-
- Government is made of three branches and they will work individually an independently. Three major branches are- legislative, executive and judicial.
- In the way of laws president proposed the treaties and the provisions but it will approve only by the Senate. In addition, if regulations, executive acts and the laws make any influential acts that will be regard as bias of the Senators.
- In view point of law all people, state should treat as an individual entity and federal government ought to provide the security to them.
- In terms of constitution all of the individual could change their national governmental identity.
Structure of the Congress has three major parts- the house of representative, the Senate and out of 435 seats 14 % for the women. On the third of the parliament owed by the Senator and after every two years this Senators are changed. The house of representative consists of 435 seats and among them 66 seats are for the women. For 6 years term out of 100 members 2 Senators are elected from the state. There has major political party- the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. The overall recent election procedure was amended in the 17th time during 1913 thorough the constitution. The Senators are diversified into three classes and after every two years a Senator was elected under the new class. Minimum age limit of a Senator is 30 years on the other hand; the house of representative must have at least 25 years. Moreover, a Senator must be US citizen for minimum nine years and minimum seven years citizenship for the house of representative. 4th November, 2008, Mr. Barak Obama was elected as the chief executive of the US government from the Democratic Party for a four year term.
Kuwait’s Legislative approach
Kuwait’s constitution was elected by the constituent assembly during 1962 but they started their journey at the end of January, 1963 after the convention of first Kuwaiti National Assembly. Power diversification has grounded the government system. In cabinet and the head of the state is denoted as Amir and overall legislative power is griped by the Amir and the Assembly. Court is the centre of all judicial power though it is fully monitored by the Amir under the bounder of the constitution. There are 65 seats composed the Majlis al-Umma or the Unicameral National Assembly for four year term. But there have not any scope to participate in the election of the women. Last election was held in 2007. Political parties of the Kuwait are- Government supporters, Islamists, Liberals and the Independent. Ex-officio of the National Assembly has the scope to be a cabinet minister and for them there are 15 seats out of 65.
Arrangement of the parliamentary sessions lasts for minimum eight months. In addition, the Amir invited officials to the Assembly meeting in each third Saturday of October of the year. Quorum of the meeting is at least 10 members and continuation of the meeting requires presentation of 5 members. Base on the majority vote two member of the Assembly elected as- speaker and deputy speaker with power and authority of agenda modification, evaluation of bills and some amendment, and so on. They also work as a consultant of the prime minister, monitoring security and defense issues, foreign affairs and coordinate with the executive branch.
Formal structure of the National Assembly designed as in respective- speaker, deputy speaker, secretary, Legislative chairmen, chairmen of Legal Affairs Committee and chairmen of the finance and economy. At the end of the fiscal year government submit an annual income statement report contain with income and expenditure for the approval of the National Assembly under the article 159. Through a degree Amir has the authority to liquefy the National Assembly. With the aid of executives Prime task of the Chief Minister is to rationalize the whole parliament.
US Judiciary Structure
President of the USA appoints nine justices for life and this procedure is confirmed by the Senator. Judicial structure of the USA has diverse into three sequential phases in terms of- United States Courts of Appeal, United States District Courts and State and County Courts. This structure of the judicial was formed by the Article III of the constitution states. In recent, respective form of the judicial structure with resignation and branches are- the Supreme Court, courts of appeal 13, district courts 94 and special jurisdiction 2. Extension of the judicial power passes through Congress Act, the Constitution cases or the US treaty both for criminal and civil law. Construction of the Supreme Court was held by the Constitution and it placed at the top of the judicial system.
In addition, there has no prospect to appeal against any decision of the Supreme Court. Number and power of the judges have sketch by the Congress. Moreover, all judges either federal or the supreme court must be a member of the bar but there is no requirement that he have to a lawyer. Only lower courts cases can apply for appeal. In the USA there have 12 regional appeals court and it’s the second highest level of judicial phase. In USA, 94 districts each contain two judges of the territories for the 50 states. Based on the district population density and working atmosphere district is edged by the Congress. Another significant part of the US judicial is special trial court and it has make up by two parts- “Court of International Trade” deals with the cases related with customs and international trade and “Court of Federal Claims” deals with the US money damage cases over the federal contracts.
Kuwait’s Judiciary Structure
Kuwait contains a mixed legal system entire it and they are- British common law, Egyptian law and Islamic legal principles. Independent judiciary of the Kuwait was constructed in 1962 under the Law No. 19 of 1959 that was amended in 1990. Under this constitution judicial function and organization is executed. Civil code under Degree Law No. 47 of 1980, the Commercial Code under the Law of Commerce No. 68 of 1980 (amended in 1989), Civil Procedure Code under the Law No.38 of 1980 that was amended in 1994, Penal Code under the Law No. 16 of 1960 and last one is the Criminal Procedure under the Law No. 17 of 1960. By the official Gazette court decisions are made up public. Judicial council consists of the President and the Deputy of the Court of Cassation administered the judicial. Formal structure of the judicial board as in sequence is- the President and the Deputy of the Court Appeal, the Attorney General, the President of the Al- Kulliyya Court and the Deputy of the Ministry of Justice.
Structure of the judicial is divided into three levels. Civil, commercial, penal matters and the personal status individually handled by the court. Three judges from both the intermediate and final courts of appeal placed in the Courts of Appeal. Appeal court is divided into two portion based on their tasks- one is handled civil, commercial and criminal cases and the another handled the cases from the lower courts those mostly refuse for legal bindings. The constitutional service was formed by the Law No. 14 of 1973. Election of the judicial council elected 5 members for the court comparison. For the state security spherical jurisdictions was established by the Law No. 26 of 1969 for both the external and internal security issue. Judges of the special court is appointed by the Minister of Justice through a degree authorization. On the other hand, other division of the judges is appointed by Amiri Degree and that requires not to continuation of the other professions after the appointment. In 65 years old any member of the judicial could apply for retirement and by the Law No. 42 of 1964 the legal profession is governed.
According to Rotberg (2004-05), the term “Good Governance” describes the process that deals with the collective dilemmas and aggregate and ensure required quality for the civic products and services. In another way, process of the good governance has to ensure both quantity and quality at a time.
Policy of the civic goods and services are involved in- human rights, transparency, democracy and democratization, decentralization and participation, legal boundaries, accountability, equal opportunity, healthy public administration, effectiveness, strategy formulation and vision. Human development workers are termed this good governance as- “democratic exigency”. They appraisal that in times of working with civic goods government has highly promoted gender equality, provide the citizen personal freedom, environment flexibility, make use of the approaches minimizing violence, deprivation, poverty and fear.
From view point of UN good governance featured with- transparent, participatory and accountable including both public and private organizations. In an aggregate form these acts are strengthening the democratic institutions. Most helpless peoples are defended by these activities and also these have a great influence on- fair and free elections, print and electronic media’s independence, and decentralization etc. Good corporate governance is the alternative term of good public governance that could ensure a flexible and stable economy; principles are almost same and support all the government operations.
In recent years all major countries have goes though “e-government” though there has some privacy monitoring issues, cyber-warfare among countries, immoral transnational entities and crime occurrence by the organized elements. Another important note, computers magnify overhead costs though reduce production costs. The term governance is not equivalent to the term government. Denhardt & Denhardt (2007), define government–“listen up the peoples who elect them”.
On the other hand, Gilbert & Welytok 2007 says, ideas of legitimacy are the stimulate operation of the governance and through out this process leaders of the government took the responsibility considering the public’s well being. There have a bad impression on the people’s mind besides the issues of government’s- procurement, corruption, public accountability and transparency. If people could not improve their living standard that would be impact on the public management and regarding this they lose the care of the public. Sachs 1992, evaluated that a good governance should ensure following eight criteria-
- Oriented through consensus
- Proper implementation of rules and regulations and
Aforesaid terms of good governance just explain ethical part of the public services. Overcome difficulties of the good governance exercise methods of comparative research. Firstly, there should have a balance between inputs and outputs to estimate actual cost of the government. Second, it is difficult to diverse politics from the managerial tasks since there have high-profile political constraints along with the management reformation.
On the other hand, weakness of the reformation may misguide the survival of the society as well as peace. Reformation pattern would be modest, before walk in action accumulate some critical concerns and prepare so that it would make possible responses in critical phase. Highly concentrate on the facts that would be influence the next generation by technology and globalization and guaranteed cooperation and coordination. During confusion and at loss it is better to guided own self through out the following modes-
- Good governance
- Stimulate approaches of a justice legal regulations
- Stimulate approaches of a financial process
- Stimulate approaches of a social organism
Public Governance Indicators in USA & Kuwait
Institutionalizing reform is the most significant requirement of the good governance in global aspect. Pollitt & Bouckaert, 2004 stated the reformation as- “in order to get better performances a conscious amendment of the public organizations structures and process would consider as reform.” There should prior two categories of reform-
- Structural reform: Tasks of this reformation is to merge or diverse the volume of an organization.
- Process reform: Budget redesign or quality of services of the organization development is under the job of process reform. But in most of the countries reform focus on- customer change in demand, quality of the product and services improvement, enlarge product line, develop delivery channels.
Satisfaction of the consumers varies upon perception of them. Typically, good activities of the government sometimes can not make any impact on the public and contrarily, at times government has failed to catch publics’ view. Public perception and satisfaction management of the government could be succeeding if they get more consciousness in their own development. If perception mostly dominated in the reform phase publics like to diverse them from the official control. This attitude makes questions against accountability and transparency against government task.
Ingraham and Lynn, 2004 defined the public management from the government view and termed as- “public governance”. He composed that concept under the theory of principal agent- description of the ways that preserve the human rights to strengthen democracy. It’s because of the communication gap between the superior and the subordinates vertically. In this case, it could be recommended here that, sketch the organizational culture in such a way that it would be recognized as- “fair day’s work” with the development of democracy promotion as well as public perception.
In working atmosphere collaboration and coordination passes through a decentralization hierarchy and make less criticism against the defects of bureaucracy. Merger of the good reform processes generate good global governance. During execution of goals there should consider- vision, metrics, benchmarking, TQM (Total Quality Management) those could easily evaluate entire requirements. Most US international organizations focus on the following features when they draw their vision.
Entire of the society or all categories of public administration do not fall into the bureaucracy theory though it’s a significant comprehensive analysis portion. Discussion on bureaucracy differs from the definition provided by the scholars. Hill, 1991break down the definition of the bureaucracy into three categories from view of science-
- Bureaucracies are as powerful to dominate the policy process as inevitably.
- On the other hand, bureaucracy stands on the pathological entities either powerful or powerless that capable to influence the policy process.
- Bureaucracy is most significant though that does not make any influential force in all categories of political process.
Sometimes downfall of the civilization is considered as the influence of the bureaucracy. A set of general complains are- inefficient, time consuming, unnecessarily lengthy and sometimes cause of threat to liberty. Major criticism of the bureaucracy is that it is far way from the general people. Moreover, full of complacency, slow movement and arrogance. Working under bureaucracy may not make any outcomes of innovative and off track issues, it just executes the routine works. Considering three level of public administration sketch the picture of the bureaucracy-
- Top civil service: includes all of the executives work under the government like- ministers and their subordinates.
- Higher civil service: involves in elite groups and high-ranking employees.
- Ordinary civil service: public employees who are well educated.
Bureaucracy in USA
Bureaucracy continues it’s performing for a long time in USA. As said in the above definition, some time bureaucracy may be a threat to the liberty of a country. But in case of USA it has no influence on their democratic exercise. Moreover, society and the governmental tasks have adequate independency to perform in their own way. In addition, there require transparency and accountability for each and every view of the government. Another claim against bureaucracy is that it has no direct coordination with the general people. But in USA public opinion is most valuable and base on it recommendations are authorized.
Gulf Approach to Bureaucracy
In the period of early 1990s, political reform makes conscious the GCC government and they move forward to political liberalization. Regarding this they formulate a municipal council that confirms the public engagement and accountability of the government responsibilities and in this way, road to the democracy of the Gulf region significantly move ahead.
Bureaucratic Politics in USA & Kuwait
All of the 50 states of the USA contain a sate government along with three administrative branches- executive, legislative and judicial. The US government is more focus on the local government transparency as well as the national. Local governments are enough dynamic and transparent in their job. A significant feature of the entire city governments are elected through a democratic way as an executive and involved in a central council. Judicial board of the each state is also strict in implementing their regulations in proper manner. In addition, US government is highly decentralized as well as its private sectors
One of the Gulfs sates Kuwait walk through a smooth democratic way since it got its liberation. In 1932, they build their National Municipal Council though their government regulation is highly centralized. Power and authority of all view is grasped by the Amir of the nation. In order to coordinate with the bureaucracy municipal council has taken some initiative such as- reduce housing problem, make awareness against the environment pollution, streamlining etc. services of the local, government includes- urban planning, sanitation, roads, food inspection, garbage and licensing. Member of the national municipal is 16 and 6 of them is appoint by the Amir and the rest of 10 are elected.
Scientific Management in USA & Kuwait
USA: following are the features of scientific management of the USA offices-
- Constitution, charter, ordinance or legislation makes the structure of the office for both private and public.
- Scope to complain and take necessary action against government agencies in any kind of unreasonable.
- Investigation process has the independency to work in its own way.
- Both testimonial and documentary information are available in terms of investigation.
- There have sufficient independency to criticize government in all type of wrong and also has the authority to take action against that.
- In making recommendations public opinions are considered as a significant suggestion.
- It’s a forbidden task that in office there should not allow any kind of conflict and interest among personal, professional and political views. In addition, employees are appointed as an executive along with a decentralization authority power.
Kuwait: feature of the Kuwait’s scientific management is in as bellow-
- Centralization is the key feature of all through the Kuwait.
- Constitutional monarch provides the regulation for the structure of the offices.
- Scope of complain against the government agencies is confidential.
- Investigation process is not so dynamic.
- For all categories of investigation testimonial and documentary data is not available.
- Scope of public opinion is too narrow.
Evolution of Social Equity in Public Administration
The term equal equity or treatment utilize against the discriminatory acts like- race, sex or religion. Discrimination may arise either from the family or from the society. In this proposal, influence of social equity in special education is emphasized. Further more here also be discuss on difference of national and local discrimination. Progress of a nation mostly depends on the high percentage of social equity treatment. Attachment of the social equity in new public administration is that it’s one of the factors of NPA besides practice of democracy and a stable administration. In this case, government agencies have to concentrate on budgeting while equity establishment requires.
In case of human diversity and expression there ought to have the independency both of the NPA and social equity and through this better decision making would be possible. John Rawls states in “A Theory of Justice” that, whole society does not dominate on the individual concept of justice. More over there also have stated that political bargaining or the theory of social interest is not fall under the rights and security provides by the justice. Vision and area of social equity scattered through a number of offices, professional practices and in the government that ground through the general people.
Wicks & Backman, (1994) denoted that, competency of the service allocation is a significant approach to sophisticate the policy evaluation as well as make the public administrator efficient. “The National Academy of Public Administration’s Standing Panel on Social Equity” expressed the term social equity as- “institutions that serves public should practice of equitable, just and fair of the management tasks either directly or by the contract. Not only in service providing but in implementation of policies are also formed and promote by equity, fair and justice.”
Another definition of social equity provide by Shafritz & Russell (2000) as- “political system should provide equal opportunity for the general people besides economical resources and personal traits.”
Considering all of the definition of the social equity, there are a number of modes to distribute products or services equitably. That might be horizontal or vertical equity. Horizontal equity is the system where people placed in the same ranked or resignation. On the other hand, different ranked people are treated under the vertical equity system. Stone and his associates (2002), describe the social equity as sequential steps in terms of special education. This approach of the social equity entire the steps in this respect- create bureaucratic fairness, identify the dilemmas, equal distribution in entrance, ensure quality, process equity and finally outcomes. This research group states this method in another way as- “Skeletal pillar filing.”
Evidence of Social Equity Gap in USA & Kuwait
USA is the most developed country in the world. On the other hand, Kuwait is significantly developing country in the Gulf region as well as in the Middle East. In USA racism is the key constraint in social equity treatment. Discrimination practice between black and white has taken place almost every where in this country. Other than these rules and regulation, transparency and accountability of the government tasks, public opinion etc. is treated under the social equity approach.
In case of Kuwait, they are the follower of constitutional monarch heredity and moderate Muslim country. In their society women have faced constraints to access in everywhere like- high education, compete in job sector, participate in sports event, doing business individually, participate in politics etc. Lower number of women participation in these sector make gap in social equity practice.
Education in the United States
According to US census 2001, 15.3 % of the whole population completed their school life successfully. For poor children, government took special initiative to their education. Annually, government spend more than 500 billion $ for education purposes. Under graduation, bachelor degree and post graduation are the three major level of their educational system. For minor and disable there have special education system.
Education in the Kuwait
8.7 % of the children have completed the school life. Both adult and minor literacy percentage of male is 2.5% greater than the female. Government provides special scholarship for the bright and poor student. Secondary, higher secondary and graduation are the major three levels of the Kuwait’s education structure. For minor and disable children thee have some special education system but those are not widely exercise in practice.
Minorities, Children with Disabilities in USA & Kuwait
Burness, 2001 stated that in order to promote equality for all categories student special education is an off track program. In USA and in the Kuwait some schools represent the real minorities’ picture through special education system. This is a way to concern general people of the minors and also grow the national conscious through the slogan- “all children are under Act”. In this way school districts are make the structure of special education and pre requisitions of the minors. Over presentation of the minor focus mainly on the discrimination between black and white such as African American. Another factors of disabilities are- mild mentally retarded, learning disabled, disturbed by emotionally etc. with in last 30 years US educational research continuers their research and policy making at the issue of special education since some time student for the special education greater than total student of the country. Following table contains percentage of disabilities in USA-
Another significant issuer in the special education system is the socioeconomic status in the society. Special education curriculum is not so easy to understand because of this most of the parents don’t make available the suitable resources for their child. Overrepresentation about the minor in the school district not only describe of the sick student but also of the poor and linguistic or ethnic student. In a research report published that 18 % of the whole US student placed in the education institute with minority’s problem all over the nation. In addition, misinstruction on behalf of race, national origin or color of the African student is a major problem of the special education. Under this constitution, this is an alarming point to the Civil rights. In 1964, Civil Rights Title VI makes prohibition in diversify people based on their race, color or national origin.
Treatment of the disable students depend on the proper training and implementation of the teachers of the both of the countries mentioned as bellow-
- Social reinforcement program that might be tangible or intangible.
- Adult interaction
- A combination of both the social reinforcement and the adult interaction.
- Communicative program for the student who are slow to understand their lesson.
For the disable student most effective tool is that behave with them as regular student. Punishment is the worst way to learn them and positive conduct is preferable rather than negative approach.
Demographic Data by Jurisdiction
Demographic data by jurisdiction is provided in the following table for both the countries-
|Total population |
Per capita GDP
Expenditure in education
Expenditure in health
Expenditure in military
Total government wages
10,416,818 million (US $)
36,123 (US $)
5.4 % of total GDP
1.5 % of GDP
32,791 million (US $)
15,885 (US $)
Above data is represented the key points for both of the countries-USA and Kuwait.
Alternative Assessment & Indicators
Alternative assessment of social equality in USA may indicated with its human rights situation, freedom of press, freedom of speech, freedom of justice, gender equality without discriminating colour, race and sex. Both the organizations of US private and public sectors are much more aware their corporate social responsibility that confirm the indicators of Domestic Workers Bill of Rights, removal of wage gap, health care issues, at the nexus of poverty eradication, ecological balance, energy consumption, climate change and global security in context of raising terrorism have gained significant achievement. At the same time that same indicators in Kuwait has just in initial stage of practice.
Measures of Civic Engagement in USA & Kuwait
The measures of civic engagement in USA have been coordinated with the establishment of ombudsmen within the federal and local governments though there is no national ombudsman as a whole. The federal and local governments have been establishing offices for the ombudsmen ensuring the criteria as follows- ,
- Must be fashioned by legislation, constitution, charter, or even ordinance,
- Should follow the responsibility to examine grievance of the governmental agencies
- Should enjoy independence to investigate with own proposition,
- Work as an authority to exercise complete powers of scrutinise,
- Should enjoy free access to all level of essential information,
- Act as an authority to condemn any state officials under its jurisdiction as well as recommend counteractive action
- Posses the power to issue public reports about its inspection and recommendations;
At the same time the measures of civic engagement in Kuwait, Atangana, Clement (2004) mentioned that the CESCR2 of United Nation has admired the initiates of the State party for their hard work in the field of education with various measures adopted by the them to improve the existing condition of women, independence of judiciary and unfairness with children and women, predominantly with look upon to their contribution in political decision-making both in civil society and in the Parliament to empower the women in socio-economic and cultural rights though at the same time the report has recommended to establishing ombudsmen The political and legal framework of Kuwait lead by the Kuwaiti legislation under Article 24 that ensures the rights to control and monitoring state subsidies and associations should be maintained by the Ministry of Social Affairs that receive.
Human Capital and Social Capital
Becker Gary S (1993) pointed out that Human capital as the accumulation of skills and acquaintance personified within the people as a capability to perform labour to fabricate economic worth. Skills and understanding gained by the working class by means of learning and practice would refer as human capital gain when the economists argue labour as a vital component of production. Adam Smith observed human capital as a productive force with skills and agility involving the psycho-physical, intellectual engagement of the labourers where the national standard of a country’s aptitude to learn by the contemporary researchers and national leaders turn its reserve of human capital which could also be acquired by formal schooling as well as by job training to shape the life cycle of workers. The Social capital is the conceptual framework presented by the economists and widely used in modern business and social science to argue and administer the natural resources management that pass on through the associations of individuals and existing social networks.
In US society the human and social capital has merged with the productive power of US working force that has classified on the division of labour with maximum enhancement in the productive powers of labourer including better part of their skill, dexterity, and social judgments. US working force have been directed with standards human rights that seem to have been the greater effects to manage the complex relationship between the capitalists and labourer. The US society tends to structure the social capital as a creator of civic engagement with an extensive societal measure of social security based on collective norms though the people are turning to individualism.
Human and social capital condition in Kuwait has also been engaged with the skills and knowledge put on its worker from end to end education and experience though the country has excessively dependant on the import of manpower. The early economic activities of the country refers to Kuwaiti labour with considerable production factors those are homogeneous and compatible with natural resources which has been faced to the modern society and tend to share the core inspiration of social networks as well as social capital.
Civic Culture as Alternative Future
The values and approaches that come out with the efforts to sustain a meaningful democratic institutions that speak about the manner of inhabitants within a well-mannered point of views among the individuals to achieve own interests that argue for civic culture. The civic culture has been formed on communication and influence with the consensus and diversity that lead to the evolution to an upper form of society. Political orientations, political system and culture are in the foundation of civic culture with position of wide-ranging values and attitudes communal by the public.
The democratic political system of USA is the country where the mass people participate in political decisions. The democratic political culture of USA has consist of a variety of way of attitudes to their life, norms to communicate, perceptions and like of the US people support partaking role individualism always turn them.
Due to absence of strong political institutions in Kuwait, the civic culture is thus referring to a backward political culture as an inhabitant of previous Islamic monarchy. The contemporary political orientation of Kuwait pursues the reluctant attitudes towards the existing political system but the attitudes towards modernalisation are positive to the political culture of reformation connecting the speedy drive to development.
USA & Kuwaiti imprecision of Civic Culture
Aljenfawi, Khaled (2009) that the people of Kuwait strive for a common norm for civic responsibility where they would be get opportunity devote to duty, enthusiastic to a virtuous civic behavior required to set up on the support of human rights initiative, dependency, reliability and commitment to forming an alternative civic culture. Even though civic schooling is the part of Kuwaiti national curriculum, on the other hand, some pay no attention to in the direction of basic civil responsibilities that creates awareness among the citizen to perform duties with full care that turn people to be hard working..
The matured civic norms of US pursue a unity among the espoused positive ethical values but due to a country of migrants, the people are not routed similar virtues and that should drive for personal happen in daily life rather than collective thinking. Individualism drives them in a point; the responsible people who are appreciative to maintain governing laws and peaceful living in society may not peruses his own duty. In addition, they need to become proactive toward their own community. Anti-working trend self-centered outlook of the individual turned the society in serious threat of civil culture when the development facilitated the nation to overcome such requirements by outsourcing.
Regimes, Elites, and Parties
Regulation and Competition Policy
In case of regulation and competition policy in trade both the countries attach themselves in some trade association due to got some trade advantages. Trade associations of the USA are UN- (United Nations) composed of 191 countries, NATO, NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) composed of USA, Mexico and Canada. On the other hand, Kuwait involves in GCC (Gulf Countries Community) made of six Arab counties, MEFTA (Middle East Free Trade Agreement) and the OPEC made of 12 oil and petroleum producer countries in the world. In addition, both the countries are engage in WTO (World Trade Organization). Common competition policy and regulation for both of the countries focus on following factors-
- Strategic- In order to reduce gap among the foreign countries and establish stability, peace and security.
- Economic- Gain free trade accessibility, proper use of oil and gas, increase FDI (Foreign Direct Investment), establish of new industries, share technological invention and support, tariff free accessibility, improvement of bilateral affiliation etc.
- Political- Establish good governance procedure, take action against terrorism, strengthen the national defense and security system, go forward to globalization, reach in a common strategic ground in different aspect among the foreign countries.
- Commercial- Attachment with the WTO made effective initiative in the area of trade and investment; join venture, franchising, export and import.
- Cultural- the USA is a multicultural nation and on the other hand, culture and society of the Kuwait is confidential. Considering this forces and move forward to the globalization exchange of cultural forces, sharing among the people of the different countries would be reform the cultural design and sketch a scope to share the rich history and culture of a country.
Attractive markets of both the countries are in bellow-
- Flexible and stable economic and political phase.
- Enrich culture and history that motive the tourism area.
- Strong affiliation with EU of both the countries.
- Available of good quality product and services.
- In case of international investment effective from the Federal constitution of the USA and the National Assembly of the Kuwait.
- Most importantly petroleum industry of the Kuwait.
Elites in USA & Kuwait
In both the countries most influential groups, families and association are termed as Elites. Traditionally most of the people are follower of Sia but elites are mostly Sunni. In national level Amir is most powerful in any alteration. Top executive, most rich peoples, judges of the jurisdiction, chief of the business association, cabinet members, politicians, ex-officio of the cabinet are treated as elite in Kuwait.
USA is a multicultural country. Different forms Christian’s like- Protestant, Jewish, Roman Catholic behind other religious affiliates are present here. Elites are in this country- senate member, top politicians, CEO’s of business organization, chief of the different international organization, judges of the judicial etc. Moreover, still now white people are most dominating in any issue rather than the black or from other race though public opinion is considered significantly and most of the official structure is under decentralization approach.
Politics in USA & Kuwait
As a member of the GCC, Kuwait is continuing its walking through democracy since its liberation. Political structure of the Kuwait stands on the constitutional monarch heredity. Under this reformation, Amir is the top of the hierarchy. His duty is to appoint President, chief Justice, monitoring overall constitutional and legislative approaches. All of the political power is centered by the Amir of the Kuwait. Transparency and accountability of the constitutional monarch is confidential rather than open for the general public. Most of the cases they follow common British rules and amendment of the rules and regulations are infrequent here. Political parties of the Kuwait are- Political parties of the Kuwait are- Government supporters, Islamists, Liberals and the Independent. Ex-officio of the National Assembly has the scope to be a cabinet minister and for them there are 15 seats out of 65. Winner in the election build Cabinet body in the National Assembly.
On the other hand, Federal constitution of the USA is flows through a strong democratic tradition. There have two major political parties- the Democratic Parity and the Republic Party. These two parties has well established in both the state level and in the Federal stage. Recent Head of the State is Mr. Barack Obama and he was elected in the last election November 2008. But from January 2009 he has stated his official performance. Present Federal structure is- Vice President Mr. Joe Biden and the foreign affair minister is Ms. Hillary Rodham Clinton. Like any other official discipline of the country Federal constitution is also under decentralization approach. There have adequate scope to take action against any kind of illegitimate task of the top executive. Federal constitution also is under requirement of transparency and accountability.
E-Governance in USA & Kuwait
This paper has considered E-Governance both for the USA and Kuwait –
- E-Government Readiness Index: web measure index, human capital index and the telecommunication infrastructure compose the index of the e-government. These are the effective tool in order to support human development. These approaches are also for providing high quality information in the area of public service.
- Web Measure Index: presenting and sophisticate progressive of the web services are under the web measure index. Through out a numerical diversification availability of the e-service and e-product are served in each state of the country.
- Telecommunications Infrastructure Index: to define the country’s infrastructure capacity basic infrastructure indicator grounded a cumulative form of six primary indices. Primary indices are- PC’s, users of the Internet, cell phones and online population. On the other hand, TV’s and the telephone lines are the secondary indices.
- Human Capital Index: human capital index is composed of two categories of literacy percentage adult literacy and the gross enrolment ratios. In USA, weight of adult literacy and the gross enrolment are two third and one third in respectively.
- E-Participation Index: utilization of ICT in order to serve high quality information so that decision making, public involvement in consultation make possible through an effective communication from view point of the government.
- E-information: available information found in the government websites are- programs and policies, public interest in brief, budget planning, regulations and laws etc. Form of the provided information are- chat rooms, e-mail lists, web forums and news groups.
- E-decision making: make recommendation in specific issues gather information or opinion from the general public.
- E-consultation: along with the audios and videos another government approach is online discussion with real time. In other word it’s an online public meeting in terms of e-consultation with government agencies.
Public Administration refers to what government does the law in action, regulation, the executive function, organizing and managing people and other resources to achieve the goals of government, and the implementation of public policy. Public Administration is the government’s road to administer, manage and regulate the citizens and resources with executive dominance aimed to assemble its strategy implemented for the nexus other resources and public domain. This paper would keep its effort to differentiate the Policy and Practice of public administration in USA and Gulf countries like Kuwait. To doing so, this paper would argue for some research with theoretical aspects of public administration those are relevant to the practice of the two regions. It would also present resemblance and distinction of their policy and practice and argue to draw a conclusion that would facilitate scope of further research.
To make a comparison of public administration policy and practice between USA and one of the Gulf countries- Kuwait, this paper has been instituted here. Based on purchasing power parity (PPP) USA has the most economical strength. On the other hand, Kuwait is one of the significant regions in Middle East for oil and petroleum. Administrative structure of USA follows decentralization approach and the Kuwait follow the centralization. Bilateral affiliation of these two countries are enough warm in trade affairs. Constitutional monarch heredity rules over the Kuwait where as the USA strictly follow the democracy. In USA, two major political parties were playing since its liberation but in Kuwait has multi political entities. Society of Kuwait is confidential and the US society is unfastening. Common interest of bilateral trade of these countries are- mining, petroleum products, residential crisis remove, search off traditional business scope, increase export and import boundaries, alter restricted policies and strategies etc. Though both the countries are oppose in geographical feature and also in culture but both them has make way for the print and Electronic Medias to work independently. Besides EU3, GCC make their vision to establish themselves as a unique identity around the world and also continue a warm affiliation with other trade organizations like- UN, WTO, NAFTA, and NATO etc. Though there are some constitutional diversifications between two countries but this does not carry any weight to make constrain between their bilateral movements.
The first chapter of this paper has enlighten the background of establishing GCC alliance including objectives of GCC, profile of the member sates, organisational structure and fields of cooperation. The second episode of this paper has deliberated on the literature of public administration, relevance with politics, comparative research methods, new public management, legislative approach, judiciary structure, good governance, public governance indicators in USA & Kuwait The third cheaper argued with Bureaucracy, its nature in USA, and gulf region and discuss bureaucratic politics in USA & Kuwait including scientific management in USA & Kuwait. The fourth episode evaluates of social equity in public administration, social equity gap in USA & Kuwait, education in the United States and Kuwait, minorities, children with disabilities in USA & Kuwait and alternative assessment & indicators. The fifth chapter discussed on the measures of civic engagement in USA & Kuwait, their human capital and social capital, civic culture as alternative future. The sixth chapter presented the regulation and competition policies including elites, Politics and e-Governance in USA & Kuwait
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