Peer-reviewed articles are scholarly sources that contain information examined by experts of the given subject before publication. The reviewers of topics discussed are called peers or referees (Tourish, 2008). These experts examine the sources of a discipline, identify mistakes, and issue recommendation for changes. The main aim of peer review is to ensure that only quality articles are published. The process of peer review ensures that unacceptable claims, personal views and irrelevant findings are not disseminated.
It is necessary to distinguish between peer reviewed sources and popular press (Tourish, 2008). The later offers opinions of the editors, and contains insufficient background research. They are unreliable. Popular press reports on firsthand account of events. The table below shows a distinction between peer reviewed articles and popular press
|Peer reviewed articles||Popular press|
|They are written by researchers and scholars||They are mostly written by journalists for a general audience|
|The language used by the researchers is technical. It can only be understood by a group of users with the knowledge of that subject.||The writers use general language that can be understood by all readers.|
|They include full citation for sources of information||They rarely give the full citation|
|They have detailed information, which makes them long||The content is not detailed making them short.|
Power refers to the ability of individuals or groups to influence the beliefs and actions of others (Northouse, 2001). It can also be defined as the ability to mobilize political, economical and social resources to achieve a commendable result. A leader must understand these sources, and develop them to gain and maintain support of followers. The sources of power include:
- Reward power refers to the ability to reward followers
- Coercive power refers to the ability of a leader to manipulate the achievement by another.
- Legitimate power-it arises from internalized values in a person that dictate that another person has the legitimate right to influence.
- Referent powers-it is based on the fact that one person identifies with and is highly attracted to another
- Expert power-it is power because one person is an expert in some area and other must depend on him for counsel or advice
All leaders have power over their followers. Leadership is the way of influencing people’s behavior. The definition shows that a correlation exists between power and leadership. Effective leaders must exercise proper authority (Hesselbein & Paul 1999). The use of power alone cannot be termed good leadership. Power helps leaders to come with various ways of implementing change. Power also enables leaders to carry out their duties without supervision.
Despite the different disciplines, doctoral learners are students enrolled for a PhD program. All doctoral learners are expected to be creative researchers and honest students. The students are expected to pursue and firmly defend new ideas (Tourish, 2008). Students show this through the projects that they write. The students are expected to carry out proposal presentations and oral defenses. It is necessary for doctoral students to be competent and skilled. They are also expected to implement their coursework when they start working. Doctoral learners expect their teachers to equip them with knowledge needed in real time jobs.
A transformational leader is one who can increase other people’s confidence, performance and inspiration. This includes facilitating individuals to identify their strengths and match them to an organization (Northouse, 2001). Walton Sam the founder of Wal-Mart is an example of a transformational leader. Sam often visited all his branches and met his employees to show his appreciation for the effort they put in achieving the firm’s objective. Sam talked about the “rules of success” in his memoirs. One of the essential rules is appreciating associates. According to Sam, this form of leadership was successful in ensuring that employees were motivated. Motivated employees work harder than others to help the organization achieve its goals (Walton & John, 1996).
There are several definitions of innovation. However, all the definitions are based on three principles. These are idea generation, evaluation and implementation (Jackson, 2010). Exploitative and exploratory innovations are the types that exist. Exploratory innovation focus on generation of new ideas, while exploitative involves modification of existing ideas (Hesselbein & Paul 1999). Innovation leadership is a concept that links innovation to leadership. Innovation leadership entails using diverse leadership styles in the organization to guarantee the creation of new ideas by employees. The mission and vision statements of an organization help in effective implementation of innovative leadership.
Technological has increasingly become part of the business world. Businesses are expected to change when technology changes to remain competitive. Change requires generations of new ideas, and their implementation. Technology offers a faster means of developing and generating new ideas (Hesselbein & Paul 1999). Firms that have adopted high technology are more innovative than mature firms are. This is because technology is linked to innovation.
Modern businesses apply technology in their decision-making process. Mature firms have undergone all the stages in the business cycle apart from the decline stage. At the maturity stage, a business has achieved most of its goals (Tourish, 2008). Managers of mature firms must identify new ways of ensuring that it does not enter the decline stage. The ways of ensuring a business remain at maturity stage includes advertising, re-branding, diversification of products, and innovation. In the technology business, managers must ensure they are up to date with the new trends.
Most individuals are risk averse. On a scale of one to ten, I would prefer eight implying that I am a risk taker. Risk taking involves investment in new ideas without considerations of whether the investment outcome will be negative. The greatest risk, I have taken was to set up an online business. The business involved buying of goods at low prices, and applying a margin of profit before selling them. Most of the products I sold were imported. There is risk associated with foreign exchange because one can either make an exchange gain or exchange loss (Jackson, 2010). Due to the fluctuations of exchange rates, I had to device a method of ensuring I sold goods at the right price. When the exchange rates were unfavorable, I sold goods in bulk to reduce the loss I would have made.
One of the most common types of stress experienced by individuals at their workplace is time stress. Time stress is experienced when individuals are worried about their world load, and the limited time (Walton & John, 1996). The ABCDE model of managing stress can be used to manage time stress. The model involves five steps of managing stress (Hesselbein & Paul, 1999). These are
- Activating event
- In this stage, the individuals experiencing time stress are expected to identify what makes them worried. For example, the workload and time given could make individuals anxious.
- The employee is expected to evaluate their experiences with time. People identify what events in the past make them anxious. For example, “if I do not finish the work in time, my boss might get angry and fire me”
- In this case, individuals identify what they feel with their beliefs. For example, tension, anxiety and having negative thoughts
- Individuals should challenge the thoughts identified. For example, time is equal to everyone. If the other individuals complete their work, it is possible to complete yours too.
- People should identify the feeling after they challenge their thoughts. For example, individuals experiencing stress due to time should learn to manage their affairs well.
There are shortfalls in research carried out regarding leadership. For example, the trait theory of leadership does not identify its general characteristics of effectiveness. Trait theories have not been clear because they do not span the whole leadership environment (Hesselbein & Paul, 1999). The Michigan studies proved that effective leadership led to increased production. These studies have also been criticized. For example, the studies concentrated on behavioral leadership while overlooking the traits. The studies suggest that there are only two types of leadership styles; employee and task orientated (Hesselbein & Paul, 1999). However, most leaders do not just follow one leadership style.
Leadership used in most countries is similar. In the United States, leaderships styles used include authoritarian, charismatic, team oriented and participative (Jackson, 2010). Self-protective leadership involves ensuring the security of team members is maintained. This leadership styles is common in Asia, but not used in the United States.
Hesselbein, F. & Paul M. (1999). Leader to Leader. Jossey-Bass Publishers: San Francisco, CA.
Jackson B. (2010). “Leadership and innovation”. Sage Publishers, 7(1), 43-84.
Northouse, P. (2001). Leadership Theory and Practice, second edition. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.
Tourish, D. (2008). “Masters in Business Management and Leadership”. Oxford University Press, 4 (2), 1-12.
Walton, S. & John H. (1996). Sam Walton: Made in America: My Story. Bantam Book: Canada.