According to (Cole, 2000) Terrorism intends to terrify through intimidation that causes fear and causing psychological injury where the behavior of people is controlled. It is important for people to understand the properties of weapons used to cause mass destruction and how to reduced the negative effects caused by them to respond and prevent the occurrence of such events in the future through understanding the psychological impact. Events of terrorism are dangerous because they lack warning, and people are unable to protect themselves in advance. Once there is a disaster with no warning, there is the disruption that affects people both psychologically and socially due to lack of awareness of the risk and uncertainty leading to lack of preparation to attack. People are not familiar with the event and agents involved, and therefore prepared for the response becomes difficult, making the entire community become helpless and in a state of disequilibrium.
(Cole, 2000) argues that, Terrorism attack makes the reality change abruptly and events become horrifying, and people do not report to their normal jobs because many of them are injured and begin to mourn. Personal safety is threatened, and the affected people feel insecure because the attack has immediate psychological symptoms even to the responders and requires people to run for their safety. Destruction causes injuries, deaths, and damage to property depending on the duration it takes and the intensity of the attack where emergency personnel is exposed to deaths and injuries, making the rescue mission difficult.
The weapons used for mass destruction in terrorism attacks are beyond most people’s experience, and they are not prepared emotionally. The reaction of survivors is sudden and severe, which affects the process of decision-making and rescue operations. After the terrorist attack, there are disasters with a high probability of occurring again in the future, causing additional damages and psychological trauma than disasters with a predictable outcome where future occurrence can be controlled. This makes people fear exposure in the future because the generations to come might be at high risk, and therefore improved measures of preventing future attacks need to be put into consideration.
(Cole, 2000) found that the people who survive after terrorism events need medical care for a very long period of time. They need multiple surgeries, get depressed, and lose their self-esteem, making them require rehabilitation so that they can be taken care of until their life returns back to normal. After terrorist events, people are separated from their loved ones, thereby disrupting relationships with people who offer support, and affected people no longer have trust in human beings who make them suffer for the rest of their life.
(Saksena, 1985) found that the immediate reactions after terrorism are that the public is shocked, angered, disoriented, and in disbelief. Rescue activities are started, and people relocate to new places which are safe and secure for them. The responders help to solve the problem by identifying the victims of the attack and supporting those who are not able to walk and communicate with them so that they can know the help and support needed. Psychiatrists help people with mental problems to know whether they got exposed to chemical agents and know the ones who were affected by anxiety by looking at symptoms of rapid heartbeat, tremors, headache, and nausea that occur as a result of fear.
(Saksena, 1985) found that there is the possibility of terrorist attacks by use of chemical, nuclear and biological weapons, which causes high insecurity in any nation because it causes a huge number of casualties. Most attacks by terrorists are through the use of mass destruction weapons by religious groups and terrorist cells of the small splinter. Experts who investigated anthrax attacks say that biotechnical experts are responsible for terrorists’ attacks where they obtain conventional explosives that are dangerous to human beings.
Discussing the Decision Making Processes Applicable To the Threat of Weapons of Mass Destruction
According to (Saksena, 1985) there are efforts put in place in decision-making about threats caused by weapons of mass destruction. The United States has made an effort to combat proliferation even if those who threaten them have capabilities different from the ones used in the cold war. Terrorist organizations are threatening because of getting support from traffickers who use shadow networks and high technology in their weapons. The decision is made on how to protect the attack now and in the future because the terrorist groups have known modern technology of the weapons used.
(Givens, 2005) found that the United States administration has come up with specific initiatives to prepare and attack threat of international networks for availing weapons and technology of weapons by ensuring that all the goods for shipment are interdicted and inspected by security officials to make sure they are not harmful. All containers are inspected, and partnership for custom trade ensures the goods transported are safe in order to prevent the attack and offer homeland security to all people. States have good coordination of actions where weapons for shipment are interdicted to establish their components and equipment used to produce them through the activity of arms control for keeping weapons away from hostile actors so that defense can be offered against preempting attacks.
(Givens, 2005) found that major step is taken to ensure authority is balanced both national and international to ensure the proliferation of weapons is controlled. This helps everyone to make a contribution towards making sure that there is no illegal shipment of weapons that is against the law and policies put in place. In the decision-making process, international treaties make a solid contribution in stemming proliferation. In an effort to reduce proliferation, control of multilateral arms depends on the regime of international bureaucracies, which make the important effort difficult in controlling weapons and their system of delivery, making it not to be flexible and accessible. The sovereign authority is necessary for individual states in their effort to prevent proliferation, and non-proliferation should not be used by international authorities to overcome state sovereignty, but instead, international treaties and national authorities should come together and address proliferation.
(Givens, 2005) argues that financial commitments are necessary to stop proliferation from its origin. During the transportation of weapons and their components, means should be established in order to stop them through the initiative of proliferation security. The United States and close allies such as Poland have made contracts to help search for ships and planes with suspicious cargo and remove missile technologies that are harmful. This partnership will be extended further in order to do away with destructive weapons in the whole world and prevent attacks from common enemies.
According to (Bruno, 2004) There is an initiative by participating states to come up with strategies to help to intercept suspicious cargoes such as the ones with missiles and chemical weapons. Effective modalities are established to be used in interdiction where the conference was held and discussed, sharing information that is useful for effective interdiction. Steps for strengthening laws of non-proliferation are supported where export controls are enhanced. There are principles of proliferation where the step is taken in order to interdict weapons transferred to be used to mass destruction and their systems of delivery. Streamlined procedures are used for information to be exchanged rapidly about any suspected activity. Vessels that are suspected are searched after being stopped in international waters, and aircraft with prohibited cargoes and vehicles used for transport are thoroughly inspected to ensure that the goods transported are not for mass destruction. During the meeting held in Portugal, the decision was made to prevent companies and individual traders of weapons from being used for mass destruction from trading in weapons where participants promised to put more effort into supporting the initiative.
(Bruno, 2004) argues that competition is necessary in a non-proliferation regime without using monopolistic powers so that control of arms in the world can be dominated and remove the weaknesses of monopoly. The bureaucracies for managing the regime should have more interest in ensuring new demands are met rather than self-protection. Initiatives for non-proliferation help in removing monopolistic behavior and represent entrepreneurial powers in the market that control arms. The temptation to have international bureaucracies should be resisted through substantive exercises and operations where members who are involved focus on interdiction activities.
(Bruno, 2004) found that the power of sovereign states needs to be harnessed as a contribution to the control of proliferation which can not be matched with an international treaty. Determination by participating states helps to interdict the shipment of weapons where a selection of membership help to avoid the process of decision making that is associated with a non-proliferation regime based on the treaty. Decisions made by state parties in a conference should be based on consensus where two-thirds of the members should be available to vote, and biasness should be avoided so that cases of cheating are avoided and decisions made are efficient. Competing priorities should be avoided in designing the initiative to avoid diluting the purpose of decisions that are made for them to be more effective. The deals made by states that supply nuclear weapons commit them to support programs for peaceful nuclear and commit themselves not to use nuclear weapons.
According to (Frank, 2004) Problems arise where states such as Iran utilize international commitment in support of peaceful activities to shield themselves and facilitate the development of illegal weapons and programs for the acquisition. Regimes for proliferation need to be handled with care because; the materials they produce are used in the manufacture of bombs where they are covered by programs for civilian nuclear. Domestic laws undermine response of initiative in fulfilling responsibilities that stem proliferation, and instead, individual members give their recommendations in public hearings and private meetings. Penetration into the black market of nuclear weapons helps to know the origin of production components, and operations of suppliers in the borders are stopped immediately.
(Frank, 2004) found that, Declaration is made for participating government to offer manpower to help in activities aimed at eliminating the use of weapons for mass destruction where the individuals become government employees. Companion initiatives are established to dismantle weapons and ensure they are destroyed so that they are not used in the future. There should be a limited mandate to ensure there are appropriate activities aimed at enforcing the law where more expansion distract the main mission and reduce its effectiveness. Security requirements demand international cooperation with a flexible system of the coalition in defense activities and control of arms.
Role of Law Enforcement within the Broader Context of the War on Terrorism
According to (Scheuer 2004), there are proposals that sweep changes in law enforcement affecting immigration, security, and privacy where the emergence of new threats requires new rules to be used. Congress enforces the law in different areas, and electric surveillance is needed to streamline procedures without changing requirements for good surveillance. Immigration law has substantive changes where the court is in a position to issue orders for information to be gathered, and the court should meet the standards for the order to be issued. Individual surveillance is maintained through the capability of law enforcement and the use of new, improved technology. In situations where surveillance is authorized by the court, problems arise because people might change locations or change means of passing information. A great time lag arises due to the lack of improved technology, and the law struggles to ensure it equalizes that.
(Scheuer 2004) found that law enforcement problems are solved using additional measures of security which need to be discussed before implementation and making of judgment that affects liberty and freedom. The proposals made help the attorney general to have more power in detaining and deporting immigrants without listening to them because of a lack of basis for making a review on the procedure for making the decision. Law enforcement should not rush to judgment by considering provisions that cause permanent changes in the immigration law. In situations of security, the threat is unprecedented; the attorney general articulates the need to make terrorism a crime, and the ones who support it be identified in order to prevent organized crime by taking the law seriously.
(Scheuer 2004) argues that technology should help to detect and control terrorism through the use of wire-tapping in communication because most terrorists use e-mail and internet and wireless phones that are disposed of later. When a wiretap is available for use on a single phone, information can be registered about the particular sender of the message and thereafter trace where they are for more investigation to be carried out immediately through tapping phones where the investigation is thwarted for reasons that are technical. Privacy is important in law enforcement is looking at new legislation because the standards used in getting authorization from the court in order to start search and surveillance are carried out using the relevant statutes. The proposed changes in ensuring there is privacy should not ignore what the court has established as the reason for authorizing the surveillance to be carried out. When the internet is put into consideration, legislation plays a major role in providing telephones to help in communication where they put them together with telegraphs and other wire services for use in law enforcement without ignoring the cable providers.
According to (Titus, 2003) the process of detaining people is very important so that the right procedure is applied to ensure individuals and the entire society is protected using constitutional protection. This is invoked by the attorney general at the removal of proceedings, where a process is established to ensure that there is no violation of rules. The standards of detention are important to know whether it is indefinite or not, and a particular branch should not be entrusted making decisions for retaining and releasing detained people, but instead, a checks and balances system should be used for national security to be protected. In case of an emergency, the attorney general requires the emergency authority to act immediately and offer protection to any danger that may occur. The danger depends on the circumstances under which it is evaluated and how the liberty of people is protected using effective enforcement tools depending on the predicate of terrorist acts and ability to obtain an order from the court in the right way.
(Titus, 2003) found that the intelligence community assists in gathering information about terrorism where they ensure that information is gathered at the right time in order to prevent the attack before it occurs. This measure is appropriate in dealing with the people who are involved in terrorism acts so that national security can intervene and ensure safety precautions are established. It is important for law enforcement to be objective and use constitutional protection and take care of the reality of the crime, which may not be stable. People must watch at all places without concentrating in one area because the criminal activity might be carried out using various methods that are difficult to detect. Biometric methods are applied by personnel of the airport in screening security in order to act lax measures of security where the luggage is matched against the owner in the list, and this should include the domestic flights within the country.
According to (Zahra, 2005) International terrorism has a major challenge on international relations, which is involved in understanding conflicts that might arise and the need for cooperation. International terrorism is an international problem that affects international security, causing instability. Instead of focusing on particular ideologies or threats, the best approach to be used is to extend the research on the role played by non-state actors in the environment of international security. There should be a pattern of strategies used by political entrepreneurs in dealing with the violent challenge through transnational mobilization in order to have political exposure in the long run without relying on military instruments in dealing with the broader phenomenon.
(Zahra, 2005) argues that violent strategies should not be used in ensuring there is international security because political groups face a challenge in the status quo by using violence in attaining their goals. For example, the United States in the 19th century had a threat to their security caused by socialist movements. Officials in law enforcement tried to manage the impact of dynamite which was a weapon for radicalized groups. This technology was used in producing suicide bombs that could not be detected by officials of law enforcement. The law had the role of looking for modern martyrs who sacrifice their lives and die to redeem humanity.
(Osvaldo, 2006) found that, Nationalist movements had strategies for terror, but various movements and radical groups have similar transnational dimensions of dealing with violence where comparison is made on the role of non-state actors in ensuring security is available. There is limited research of international security due to path-dependent where discipline was removed by debates about inquiry methods and sociology in production knowledge where research is affected by the interest of foreign policy. Liberal and realist perspectives give measures to be used in eradicating international terrorism and ensuring there are no terrorist attacks in the future.
(Walker, 2003) found that, according to the realist perspective, non-state actors are in existence but play a peripheral role in international security. Threats to security originate from states who also respond to them because the distribution of power is done across actors in the unitary state who give priority to their security interests. The realist suggests a response to terrorism using logical response through refocusing on state threats where terrorism is combated just like security threats using militarized response.
According to (Walker, 2003) Liberal takes power to be distributed across states and other entities such as non-governmental organizations making power to be multidimensional, emphasizing the use of ideas together with military power. Non-state actors are assumed to have a stabilizing role as domestic interest groups and members of civil society who perform work of monitoring violation of human rights and reconstruction after a conflict. Liberals are against the use of force or violence in achieving their objectives, making their role in international security to be flawed. The logical response of liberals is to deal with international terrorism as a global problem just the way a disease spreads and requires cooperative ventures for it to be managed and treated, which makes liberal response become a regulatory response.
(Seymour, 2004) found that the perspective of political mobilization in dealing with terrorism focuses on terrorism being a strategy in the broader context of contention where transnational mobilization is used in the consolidation of dispersed resources and converting them into power projections in order to challenge the status quo in a political manner. Political participation occurs in state institutions, but other organizations which are non-territorial competed for individual loyalties. Social movements and networks organized for terror get involved in violence and provide policing, identity and employment to marginalized constituencies within a certain political order.
(Seymour, 2004) argues that terrorism strategies form the agenda of challenging the status quo. They also cause damage and pain, leading to the weakening of political order and terrorism. Terrorism tries to get leverage and influence but does not affect political change locally and internationally. Groups use terrorism as a way of getting attention from the media in order to be recognized even if terrorism acts are condemned in the whole world. Media coverage requests moderate organizations to use legitimacy as a separate tactic for the cause of terrorism to be established and get observable outcomes after airing the grievances.
According to (Muncie, 2004) Regional channels offer alternatives to be used as strategies for a terrorist attack in articulating the grievances. Political entrepreneurs participate in claims rather than the use of strategies and policing action to help arrest terrorists and prosecute them. Robust institutionalization provides legitimate avenues to solve grievances through research by scholars of international relations to get insights into the formulation of political responses in the long run.
Rapidly Changing Technology Available To Law Enforcement
According to (Kaplan, 2003) the Technology available in law enforcement is changing rapidly due to the emergence of new, improved technology. The progress in technology is very useful to everyone because it has great rewards in social and cultural activities. Artificial intelligence and nanotechnology have tremendous benefits in improving the living standards and prosperity of previous eras. Some of the technologies in use create dangers that are supposed to be addressed because they make people be divided and create tension that results in conflict. Nanotechnology should take place peacefully and ethically so that individual liberty can be maximized and enhance collective security. The police force in the nation helps to create an open and peaceful environment where people socialize and prosper economically through the use of improved technology. When this happens, many challenges are encountered, which creates a boundary between protections of freedom in the constitution and providing defense and domestic security.
(Garland, 2002) found that radically new technologies are advancing, making the entire world experience an increasing rate of change that affect values and beliefs of people, religion, and societies where they belong, making them change the concept of being human and caring for the well-being of one another. The rapid change in technology is embraced by few people while others resist it leading to violence and conflict in divergent groups who try to stop the advancement in technology. The social landscape is changing rapidly, and existing laws are enforced in order to offer assistance in the investigation of crimes committed against property and individuals to ensure there is public safety and security in the community and the entire nation in order to maintain constitutional freedom and improve individual liberties. There is a difficult mission to accomplish this because emerging technologies need to be understood, including their capabilities, advantages and disadvantages, and the involved shortcomings.
(Barry, 2007) found that the event of 11th September 2001 was a great threat to powerful technologies, and police are required to participate in the development of future technology. Bio-terrorism and scenarios of gray-goo caused by terrorists and other criminals cause a social backlash in development where serious government intervention is needed to do research so that every person can benefit from nanotechnology. Departments in the police force do not have resources and qualified personnel who can devote their time to considering emerging technology. This makes them take a long period of time before they adapt to changes and make use of them in operational policing. The rapidly changing technology does not give these technologies adequate time to mature and be put into effective use through understanding their capabilities. Insufficient knowledge and ignorance of new technologies reshape societies making rational operations to be difficult in the future. Police agencies fall behind the technology, making them less relevant in the communities they serve, thereby using alternatives that are not desirable in fulfilling the role of free democracies. There should be continued effort to get an understanding of emerging technology and accept dynamic nature in the social system as a result of accelerating change so that private security in the community can increase and military forces play their domestic role. Uncertainty of the general public and fear of attacks led to the creation of widespread prosperity in all civilized nations.
According to (Robber, 1975) Police officers understand rapidly changing technology because; they need to know how terrorists use it and other criminals in attacking communities and the entire nation. This technology needs to be used in the operations of police in dealing with the impact of culture and social changes that may occur. If the police ignore nanotech, the communities will not have a potential change, and enforcement of the law will be a great problem instead of the solution.
(Buckland, 2004) found that Law enforcement helps to understand how the future will be by ensuring that change in technology is taken seriously for the benefit of every member of society. Futurist international encourage partnership in ensuring the law is enforced for transfer of information to be facilitated about research by police in order to develop and interpret forecasts in the future. Training needs to be offered and education so that all the forecasts can be applied in the day-to-day life, so that use of technology is promoted. Rapidly changing technology enhances good communication of innovative ideas and creativity in order to ensure policing strategies are active and are used according to the law without violations.
(Robber, 1975) found that agencies of law enforcement use geographic information systems in managing resources in the organization. Information system helps in planning and preventing crimes in the neighborhood and carrying out analytical functions. The needs of personnel for law enforcement are responded to in order to support their effort in solving problems in their jurisdiction. Immediate access to information by personnel assists in getting a solution to problems for analysis and planning to be done about safety strategies to be used. The tools used help the groups involved in identifying and solving problems of safety of the public across every region. The justice and law institute helps to provide tools for analysis to the department of the metropolitan police in order for information analysis from various sources to be possible using a single interface. The command staff will integrate strategies for solving problems in order to respond in case of emergency.
(Jablonsky, 2006) argues that, Millennium had various events that were challenging leading to demand for law enforcement to fight terrorism and this required information technology for the fight to be successful. Response by the law and coordination of national events and regional incidents required operations by the law to be enforced daily where community policing need technological support. Government have challenge in procuring technology successfully and implementing it due to the huge budgets, limited supply of funds, few staffs and deadlines set for implementation to be effected. The available information and technologies for identification involves planning and proper management in order to capture analyze how information is exchanged. A session must be available that teaches about how successful technology is planned and the best practices in procurement through contract negotiations and implementation strategies in increasing the chances for success.
(Jablonsky, 2006) argues that sharing of information is important in an effort to ensure security is maintained in the country. Sharing of information is challenging if we consider interoperability, cost of maintenance and security. Continual challenges should be balanced with the limited resources so that the vision and development of new technology in communication is attained. Approach for sharing information is useful in all agencies when shortfall in budget is taken care of because electronic reports have large databases where information is centralized for dissemination purposes. Communication networks in large scale agencies and departments have few resources for information technology where personnel benefit from workshops that help to ensure that the rapidly changing technology is used in ensuring law is enforced all the time.
(Craig, 2005) found that, Mobile videos are useful in law enforcement where all the activities are captured and used later to act as evidence. Cameras are used by police departments in the state so that they can be leading in rapidly changing technology in mobile video. Training is offered on how to operate cameras used for mobile video coverage through institute of law enforcement so that new cameras can be put into effective use. Video training has had tremendous impact where there is collection of evidence and preserving it for future use. This helps to ensure officers are safe and the public can trust them because the presentation is used by professionals in law enforcement to progress in video technology using procedures and development policies to develop public trust and integrity of police. This benefits line officers and policy makers with video technology and encourage them to continue implementing technology for their service to be efficient.
According to (Friedman, 1998) The state and tribal agencies for enforcing the law have used large amount of funds to acquire technologies for fighting crimes and ensure that they are implemented in order to support operations of community policing. Current technology helps the sworn personnel in the entire nation to solve problems in the community and reduce crimes. Departments of the police have advanced from old system to digital investigative technologies making the crime to decrease by fifty eight percent. The development of technology is standardized and open ended where it focuses on organizations needs and effective test of exposure that children may be endangered by laws used across the nation. All levels of enforcing the law are valued in order for technologists to support the functions of law enforcement. Many people say that their privacy should be considered in determining information that is communicated to other people. The global environment with rapid changes tries to balance human right with rights of civil society for government and law enforcement agencies to efficiently achieve their goals and ensure that everyone is protected.
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