This report seeks to throw light on the present scenario regarding the impact of terrorism on tourist traffic in the United Kingdom. It is seen that blatant and unprovoked acts of terrorism has reached alarming proportions throughout the world and has detrimentally affected the economies of both developed and developing countries of the world. Terrorists predate ‘soft’ tourist centres since the risks here involved are low, but the impact may be powerful. Further, since tourism is a major revenue earner for most economies, such attacks could seriously undermine the earning capacities of such nations from which it may sometimes be difficult to recover. In the case of the impact of terrorists’ activities on tourism in the UK, it is seen that the literature is not substantial. From the limited sources available on this subject, it has been possible to gather that sociological and security problems have taken precedence over socio-economic and monetary aspects as far as the tourism industry in the UK is concerned. This is primarily because the tourism industry is resilient and strong and could bounce back within in short period, even from major catastrophes, including terrorist attacks and large-scale bombings conducted by IRA since 1916. The study on this subject has reiterated the fact that there need to be major improvements in the internet security management systems that could prevent future terrorist attacks in the UK instead of coping with the aftermath tragedies and economic slowdowns associated with such attacks. This study also advises regarding the prophylactic aspects of terror management and, via simulations of real attacks, seeks to provide succour and assistance to affected people and their families.
This topic discusses the effect of terrorism on tourism in the UK. This topic, which is the effect of terrorism on tourism in the UK, is an important topic. Terrorism and tourism are mutually linked because, firstly, every terrorist activity would adversely affect tourism. Secondly, every terrorist group tried to attack the tourism department firstly. Thirdly, the terrorist group can do their operation very easily and without a doubt in different countries in the name of tourists. Therefore, terrorism and tourism are very closely related topics. Before discussing the effects of terrorism on tourism in the UK, firstly, we discuss what terrorism really is and how it affects people. So, in this part, it is proposed to discuss terrorism, various types of terrorism, diverse terrorist groups and major terrorist bombings in the UK. Which are the main types of terrorist groups, what are their activities and their consequences in the UK? This report shows a list of terrorist groups. This list includes more than forty-three identifiable terrorist groups. Major of these groups operate their activities in the UK. Some of the known groups are the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in Sri Lanka, the HAMAS of Palestine, the Harkat-ul-Mujahidin of Pakistan. The list also includes terrorist groups originating from countries like Algeria, Columbia, Israel, Greece, Japan, Spain, Philippines, Egypt, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Sri Lanka, Iran and Iraq. The group called the Japanese Red Army in Japan, and the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) of Spain are examples of such groups.
Terrorism and Tourism
Terrorism can have a negative effect on the victimised country in many ways. This paper discusses the aftermath of the terrorism industry in the UK. The aftereffects can be felt in any sector of the industry. The first and most obvious one is the reduction in the number of tourist arrivals. This, in turn, causes a fall in the businesses of tour operators, hotels and other related industries, lower ticket sales in places of tourist interest and a fall in the business of the transport industry, which includes air, water and road in the UK. This may also lead to unemployment levels rising in all these sectors, which will further worsen the situation. There is also a view that even though a terrorist attack is perpetrated against the population in general, some attacks are targeted specifically against tourists.
What is the Terrorism?
The Merriam Webster Dictionary defines terrorism as the systematic use of terror, especially as a means of coercion. This definition makes it clear that terrorist activity is committed, not in the act of war, but towards the people at random, which can include government, military and civilian populations. It is clear from this definition why the whole world has been against acts of terror that have been recently unleashed in many parts of the world. In our life, various groups are agitating for their voice to be heard. Various political groups to make clear and further their political objectives have used it. It has been used by various parties, religious groups, revolutionary movements, and even by some governments in power to deter their opposition or other ruling governments. The United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373 makes a clear definition of an act of terror as the actual happening, while at the same time it defines terrorism as the act itself, the perpetrators of that act and the motive behind the act.
Terrorism can be described as an act of violence, a threat to cause violence or any kind of harmful activity that is based on political or ideological grounds. There are many definitions of terrorism, but all bear some basic aspects, which regard terrorism as any act that is committed on political or ideological bases and targets a non-combatant section of the population, which mainly constitute civilians. The US Federal Criminal Code Chapter 113 B of Part I Title 118 has defined terrorism as
“premeditated, politically motivated, violent perpetration against non-combatant targets by sub national groups or clandestine agents.” (Impact of terrorism on tourism Travel & Tourism International: June 2007: definition of terrorism.
In the English context, terrorism is not a newly coined word. It is an old word used since the days of the Irish war of terrorist attritions with British police. The English word terrorism is derived from the regime de la terreur that prevailed in France from 1793 to 1794. People have used the word terrorism since the start of recording history. Terrorism has been described as in different types like this is tactic and strategy, crime and holy duty, justified reaction to oppression and an inexcusable abomination. Terrorism generally happens in the name of political, religious or ideological.
” Terrorism is not new, and even though it has been used since the beginning of recorded history, it can be relatively hard to define” (what is terrorism, terrorism research)
There are three groups in terrorism: they are the terrorist, the victim, and the general public. Terrorists are those who commit unlawful acts. The victims are the sufferers due to terrorist activities, and the public means those they do not know about the terrorist attack. There are many types of definitions of terrorism. The defence department of the United States defines terrorism as the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear, intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological. Actually, terrorism is a systematic form of conflict that is the unlawful use of force or violence or threat against another country, religion or property. There is a famous phrase about terrorism that is one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter. Some people believe as terrorism is morally justifiable to achieve their goals.
Various Terrorist Organisations
There is a list of terrorist groups. This list includes more than forty-three identifiable terrorist groups. Major of these groups operate in the UK. Some of the known groups are the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in Sri Lanka, the HAMAS of Palestine, the Harkat-ul-Mujahidin of Pakistan, Abu Nidal organisation (ANO) led by Sabri al-Banna, IRA(Irish Republican Army), Real IRA (RIRA), Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya this group also known as Islamic Group or IG, Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA). This group is continuity of the IRA formed in 1994. Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALIR), Alex Boncayao Brigade (ABB), Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK or MKO), Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), Al Qaida (1979-1989) founded by Osama bin Laden etc.” The list also includes terrorist groups originating from countries like Algeria, Columbia, Israel, Greece, Japan, Spain, Philippines, Egypt, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Sri Lanka, Iran and Iraq. The group called the Japanese Red Army in Japan, and the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) of Spain are examples of such groups.
Different Types of Terrorism
Terrorism is known in different names like Political terrorism, Psychological terrorism, Coercive terrorism, Dynamic terrorism and deliberate terrorism. Political terrorism means the objective of terrorists is to save or protect their political aims. These groups of terrorists mainly focus on assassinating political leaders or political offices. Psychological terrorism means the terrorist indents to achieve their psychological needs. Coercive terrorism means the terrorist uses their effort in the commission of the act to produce the desired effect. Dynamic terrorism means these types of terrorist groups demand change, revolution, or political movement. Deliberate terrorism is an activity planned and intended to achieve particular goals.
“There is clearly a wide choice of definitions for terrorism. Despite this, there are elements in common among the majority of useful definitions. Common threads of the various definitions identify terrorism as Political, Psychological, Coercive, Dynamic, and Deliberate” (Terrorist Behavior, terrorism research)
The objectives of the terrorist are not only to attack the enemies or assassinate other groups but
Produce widespread fear,
Obtain worldwide, national, or local recognition for their cause by attracting the attention of the media,
Harass, weaken, or embarrass government security forces so that the government overreacts and appears repressive,
Steal or extort money and equipment, especially weapons and ammunition vital to the operation of their group, Destroy facilities or disrupt lines of communication in order to create doubt that the government can provide for and protect its citizens,
Discourage foreign investments, tourism, or assistance programs that can affect the target country’s economy and support of the government in power,
Influence government decisions, legislation, or other critical decisions,
Satisfy vengeance, turn the tide in a guerrilla war by forcing government security forces to concentrate their efforts in urban areas.
This allows the terrorist group to establish itself among the local populace in rural areas. The terrorist attackers select to make their efforts on important dates or anniversary days and particular places like government offices, banks, national airlines, and multinational corporations.
” Another common form of symbolism utilised in terrorist targeting is striking on particular anniversaries or commemorative dates” (goals and motivations of terrorist, terrorism research).
Different types of incidents due to terrorism
There are different types of incidents due to terrorism like bombings, kidnapping and hostage-takings, armed attacks and assassination, arsons and firebombing, hijackings and skyjackings. Bombings are a common type of terrorist activity. This is a very easy and very less expensive process. The attackers select a particular place or particular person to attack through the bombing. Maybe die from general people or others through the bombings. Kidnapping and Hostage-Takings is a very difficult process for terrorists. The terrorists use kidnapping and hostage-taking for bargaining terrorist money, bargaining position and eliciting publicity. It is very difficult, but if the kidnapping is successful, they can gain terrorist money, the release of their jailed comrades, and publicity for an extended period. Armed attacks and assassinations include raids and ambushes. Through armed attacks and assassinations, the terrorists assassinate a selected person, a leader or a special victim.
Terrorists use bombing or small arms to gain their objectives through armed attacks and assassinations. Terrorists are ready to kill themselves through this process. This process is done by a suicide bomber. The drive-by shooting is the common technique by using terrorists. Arsons and firebombing are the terrorists who use this technique against a utility, hotel, government building and offices. This is the easy way to do for well organised, equipped or trained as a major terrorist organisation. Hijackings and skyjackings are the same processes as kidnappings and hostage-takings to bargain terrorists’ wants, but in hijackings and skyjackings, the victim will be the public people. The hijack means kidnapping the vehicles with its passengers or its cargo, and the skyjack mean kidnapping the aircraft with its passengers or travellers. Then the terrorist bargains their needs. This is another type of process of the terrorist. There are numerous other types of a terrorist attacks without these processes. They attack using nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapons. Cyberterrorism is another form of terrorism. Cyberterrorists do their operation by networks and computers.
” The most common types of terrorist incidents include 🙁 Types of terrorist incidents, terrorism research)
Different types of Terrorist Groups
There are different types of terrorist categories of terrorism, and terrorists are differentiated according to their speciality and their process. Mainly there are nine types of terrorist groups. They are separatist, ethnocentric, nationalistic, revolutionary, political, religious, social, domestic, international or transnational. Separatist groups are their goal separated from existing entities through independence, political autonomy, or religious freedom or domination. Nationalist groups of terrorists have loyalty and devotion to a specific nation, and they attack others to achieve their national objectives. These groups try to create a new nation.
“There are many different categories of terrorism and terrorist groups that are currently in use. These categories serve to differentiate terrorist organisations according to specific criteria, which are usually related to the field or speciality of whoever is selecting the categories”(categories of terrorist group, terrorism research).
Terrorism in the UK
The United Kingdom has a history of terrorism spanning many years. It has stood time to fight the terrorist activities of Irish terrorists, but the challenge posed by the present Al Qaeda group is more than it has endured for all those years. The United Kingdom and especially London is not new to terrorism activities. Probable, the first act of terrorism on English soil was with terrorist groups from Ireland dating back to 1867 when the Irish separatist group bombed Clerkenwell Prison and killed 12 people, injuring hundreds of others. The history of the uneasy relationship with Ireland begins as far back as 1846, when a massive potato famine affected millions of people in Ireland. The people of Ireland believed that enough help and support was not given to them. As a result of this famine, there was large scale immigration of Irish families to the United States and Canada. The terrible after effect of the famine prompted actions from the local people for a political and social reformation. Initially, it was mainly through peaceful means with the sporadic incidence of valence. It took more than 50 years for the formation of an organised fighting force, the Ulster Volunteer Group and later the Irish Republican Army in 1916, whose original aim was to unite all the counties of Ireland.
There are various terrorist groups that attacked the UK in different places and at different times. They are Abu Nidal organisation (ANO), an international terrorist organisation led by Sabri al-Banna. This Split from PLO in 1974. This group carried out its activities in 20 countries killing or injuring almost 900 persons. The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is one of the terrorist groups which has attacked UK law enforcement agencies over a long period of time. This group was popular and had indulged in many serious terrorist activities, especially in the UK. Irish Republican Army (IRA) was developed in 1969. It is under the leadership of the army council. Their main activities were bombing, assassination, kidnapping, punishment beating, extortion, smuggling and robberies. This group attacked in different places in the UK like British government officials, British military and police in Northern Ireland and Northern Ireland loyalist paramilitary groups. This group conducted a bombing campaign against train and subway stations and shopping malls in Britain. IRA also conducted a series of attacks in London for many years. Most of these terrorist activities were targeted at the public, and many people were killed. One of the group’s most sensational and publicised acts was the assassination of Lord Louis Mountbatten, the queen’s cousin and the last Viceroy of British India, in 1976, an act that also caused the death of his grandson and a local employee. Former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher had a miraculous life escape when IRA terrorists planted a bomb at the hotel where she was staying. The main targets of this group were the police, government buildings and property, the armed forces both in the UK and abroad.
” Irish republic, the Officials preferred parliamentary tactics and eschewed violence after 1972, whereas the Provisional, or “Provos,” believed that violence— particularly terrorism—was a necessary part of the struggle to rid Ireland of the British.” (Encyclopedia Britannica Online: 2008: Terrorism: history of Ireland.
The IRA group has been observed a cease-fire from first September 1994 to February 1996, and they have been observing the same process since July 1997. Real IRA (RIRA). This group was formed in February _march 1998. This group came from IRA. The leader of this group is Mickey McKevitt. He was the quartermaster general of IRA. Some member of the IRA opposed their cease-fire, and they came to RIRA and their wealth of experience in terrorist tactics and bombmaking. This group’s activities and targets were the same as IRA. This group attacked British military and police in Northern Ireland and Northern Ireland civilian targets by Bombings, assassinations, smuggling, extortion, and robberies. This group has many unsuccessful attacks on the UK mainland. They attacked in early 2000 in Northern Ireland and on the UK mainland by the bombing of Hammersmith Bridge and rocket attack against MI_6 Headquarters in London. Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya this group also known as the Islamic Group or IG. This is Egypt’s largest militant group and their activities since the late 1970s. This group issued many activities against more countries, including the UK. Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA). This group is continuity of the IRA. their main objectives and activities were the same as IRA, The Continuity of IRA was formed in 1994 after the Irish Republican Army announced a cease-fire in September 1994. This group achieved their targets, including British military and Northern Ireland security targets and Northern Ireland Loyalist paramilitary groups by bombings, assassinations, extortion, and robberies, and they did bombing against civilian targets in Northern Ireland. Out of these groups, there are so many other terrorist groups like the Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALIR), Alex Boncayao Brigade (ABB), Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK or MKO), Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), etc.
” The following descriptive list of terrorist groups is presented in two sections. The first section lists the 29 groups that currently are designated by the Secretary of State as Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs) (April 30 2001, Appendix B: Background Information on Terrorist Groups). Al Qaida is another one of the terrorist groups which attack in the UK. Al Qaida is one of a number of extremist groups in the world. This group originated during or immediately after the Soviet-Afghan war (1979-1989). It was founded by Osama bin Laden. This terrorist group attacked the UK through bombs and gun attacks. This group proclaimed many countries, including the UK, as enemies.
” Al Qaida is one of a number of extremist groups that originated during or immediately after the Soviet-Afghan war (1979-1989). It was founded by Usama bin Laden.” (Al Qaida. 2007).
This group is recruiting people from the UK for the purpose of terrorist activities and training them for use against the UK. The main attacks in the UK by Al Qaida were on 7 July 2005, when a suicide bomber attacked the London railway network, which is now entered history as London Bombing. Many people went to Pakistan and Afghanistan from Britain and other states in the UK for terrorist training. Al Qaida uses these persons for a different purpose in the UK. Examples of these people are Richard Reid, also known as shoe bomber. His objective was to attack a transatlantic airliner. Secondly, Dhiren Barot, also known as a dirty bomb, planned to attack UK and US; Omar Khyam is known as a fertiliser bomber, his objective was to attack shopping centres and nightclubs; Mohammed Siddique Khan. was one of the members of London suicide bombers. Many other recruits were trained in Al Qaeda’s terrorist camps.
“A number of British citizens and foreign citizens resident in the UK are known to have travelled to Afghanistan and Pakistan for terrorist training and/or dealings with Al Qaida figures.” (Al Qaida and the UK., 2007).
The other attack by Al Qaida in the UK was in November 2003 when they attacked the British Consulate by use of suicide bombers, killing 27 people. In June 2004, they attacked BBC news reporters and killed a cameraman. In September 2004, one British person who lived in Saudi Arabia was killed by Al Qaida gunmen in a shopping centre. In October 2004, Al Qaida killed a British engineer. In March 2005, a British teacher was killed in a car bombing by Al Qaida, and 24 British people were killed in the Bali bombing during the years 2002 and 2005. These entire terrorist groups attacked the tourism department. The Bali bombing is an example of this; because the Bali bombing was in a nightclub, which was filled with foreign tourists coming from many countries. This kind of action has two aims, the first of which is to gain international publicity. If the causality list includes people from many countries, the news will send shock waves in all those counties, thereby creating international publicity for the terrorists. The second is to cripple the nation’s economy by destroying or destabilising the local tourism industry. Yet another factor is why the tourism department is being attacked by a terrorist group is because there are set timings in the tourism department with regard to tours and visits to places of tourist interest. Therefore, the terrorist group can attack very easily, and they can use different methods for their operations.
“For a terrorist, the tour bus that leaves every hour on the hour between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. five days a week is an ideal target because the target can be researched until an ideal plan is reached.” (Essner 2003).
The London Bombings. This is another attack which is happened in the UK. This is famous bomb blasting in the UK. The London bombings happened on July 7 2005. This is also called the 7/7 bombings. These bombings were planned by Islamist extremists. This happened mainly in transportation like bus and train. The first three bombs exploded in trains, and the fourth bomb exploded on the bus. This bomb blasting killed 52 commuters and four suicide bombers and injured 700 people. (See APPENDIX 3) This bomb blasting destroyed everything in the UK, like transportation and infrastructure.
Protection Process from terrorism in the UK
After different terrorist attacks in the UK, the UK government is prepared to protect the nation from terrorism in all possible ways, and they work hard to protect everyone in the UK. After the London blasts in Britain, all citizens need to be careful about terrorism. The British government has promulgated many laws during the course of many years, like the Terrorism act 2005, Terrorism act 2006, etc.
” Following the terrorist attacks of 7 July 2005 in London, everyone in Britain is acutely aware of the threat of terrorism in our country. One way we’re tackling this threat is by introducing new, stronger laws against terrorism” (Terrorism and the Law. 2005).
Protective measures to curb terrorism in the UK
After the World Trade Centre attacks in the USA, the UK government increased its effort and improved its forward plan to protect the nation from terrorism. As part of this protection process, the Home Secretary made a major counter-terrorism speech. The government announced a new counter-terrorism bill and made robust laws in police and other security services to protect against terrorist attacks in the UK. The government increased the fund to protect terrorism like £85.5m to the NHS to counter bioterrorism, £56m to the Fire Service for decontamination programmers, £132m to the Fire Service for search and rescue equipment, £49m to the Metropolitan Police, £12m to national police forces. They improved their continuing process against terrorism, like tightening security at seaports, airports and borders, and speeded up extradition processes. Freezing assets of international terrorist organisations, increased joint-working and intelligence sharing internationally. It increased the size of the Security Service to analyse and act on information, and continued the exercise programmes to deal with terrorism scenarios, Established chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) resilience programmes.
“We are responsible for protecting the UK from the threat of terrorism, and we work hard to keep everyone safe.” (How we’re Protecting the UK).
The UK government understands that the terrorist attacks might plan an attack through the use of chemical and biological processes. Therefore, the government decided to prevent all types of attacks from terrorism. For this purpose, the government made a new programmer called CBRN Resilience Programmer. This is the short form of the Chemical, Biological, Radiological or Nuclear Resilience Program. The chief objective of this program is to protect their nation by assuring the response to a CBRN incident would be quick and effective – resulting in lives being saved, and any impact on property or the environment minimised, and the emergency services have the best and most appropriate equipment and training to respond to a CBRN incident.
“To protect the UK from terrorism, we must prepare for all of the possible ways that terrorists may strike, including chemical or biological attacks. (Preparing for Emergency Incidents).
As part of the CBRN Resilience Programmes, they made a new training centre named as police national CBRN centre, Emergency planning college and the fire service college. This provides different types of security processes like 360 mobile decontamination units for use around the country by Ambulance and Accident & Emergency Departments 7,250 personal protection suits for key health workers, with an extra 2,500 additional personal protective suits stockpiled, stockpiles of emergency medical equipment, strategically stored around the country and available at 24 hours notice, 7,000 Police Officers with special training to deal with CBRN incidents and 4,400 new high-performance gas-tight suits for firefighters. As part of preventing the UK from terrorism, the government makes a terrorism act. Under this act, if an organisation commits or participates in acts of terrorism, prepares for terrorism, promotes or encourages terrorism, or is concerned about terrorism, that organisation will be branded as a terrorist group. Under this act, the government banned the membership or support for this terrorist group. If found guilty, the constituent members of this group would be punished to ten years’ imprisonment. As part of this act, the government makes a list of terrorist groups. The home secretary can add a group to this list or remove a group from this list. As of September 2006, a total of 46 international groups is included in this group.
“As of September 2006, 46 international terrorist groups are proscribed under the Terrorist Act 2000 and a further two groups are proscribed under the Terrorism Act 2006 for glorifying terrorism” (Other Groups. 2007).
The Home secretary’s counter-terrorism speech
The home secretary of the UK, Mrs Jacqui Smith, made a counter-terrorism speech as part of the nation’s effort to protect against terrorism in London at the first International Conference on Radicalization and Political Violence on 17 January 2008. She called terrorism a crime that does not discriminate. In her speech, she published the government plan to protect the nation. She said about increasing the personnel employed in security services from 1,600 to 2000 during 2007. She said the threat of terrorism is real and very serious, and she said the terrorist is, first and foremost, criminals. She said to police and other security officers to work hard to their maximum capacities. She revealed that half of the people were pleaded guilty were convicted for terrorist offences relating to 16 known operations last year.
She points out the terrorism trial, which is underway in courts around the UK. She spoke about the justice and human rights in the courts would be the same as those other criminals received. The home secretary warned the people to weigh on the force of argument with the force and depend on the authority of the shared values, shared rights and shared responsibilities to protect the nation from terrorism and violent extremism. She explained about the new program about understanding the needs of the power of the police and other security forces to prevent terrorist activities, introduce a counter-terrorism bill including gathering and sharing information about terrorist suspects, post-charge questioning of suspects, tougher sentencing for offences tied into terrorism, the seizure and forfeiture of terrorist cash, property and other assets. The home secretary assured the cooperation of the governmental agencies with Muslim groups, anti-extremism counsellors in prison, schools in at-risk neighbourhoods and with the internet technology industry.
Lastly, she said the threat is real, and the threat is live, and the terrorist activities come from minor people, and major innocent people will die.
” Speaking in London at the first International Conference on Radicalisation and Political Violence, Home Secretary Jacqui Smith called terrorism ‘a crime that doesn’t discriminate.” (Home Secretary gives Major Counter-Terrorism Speech. 2008).
The new power of the government
To prevent terrorism in the UK, the government make a new counter-terrorism bill from 24 January 2008. It is known as the counter-terrorism bill 2008. The Home Secretary, Mrs Jacqui Smith, said the main objective of the counter-terrorism bill 2008 is to protect law-abiding citizens like safe the people and nation and the tourism department from the threat of terrorism. It involves the active participation of different government departments, emergency services, like the fire department, etc., the private sector, service and other voluntary organisations and other governments from around the world.
“The key aim of the counter-terrorism strategy is to reduce the risk we face from international terrorism so that people can go about their business freely and safely.” (Counter-Terrorism Strategy).
The secretary said that the government was determined to make an effort to protect the nation and people through the counter-terrorism bill 2008. This bill is included increasing the time terrorism suspects can be held (in exceptional circumstances) before they are charged, enabling post-charge questioning of terrorist suspects, enhancing sentences for offences tied into terrorist plots, strengthening monitoring of convicted terrorists, expanding the use of DNA in terrorism investigations. The government encourages the police and other security offices to activate the counter-terrorism bill perfectly by allocating money on a large scale. Every year the government increases the money to counter-terrorism bills. In 2007, the police received £472 million. In October, they got £695 million again, and £45million allocated to spend local authority for counter-terrorism work. Now the police offices are working very closely and very cooperatively with the home offices to prove that this money is spending very perfectly and effectively.
” Tough new measures to protect the public from terrorism were introduced in Parliament today, as the Home Office published the Counter-terrorism Bill 2008″ (New Powers to Prevent terrorism. 2008).
Tourism in the UK
In every country, there are many departments to make the country more developed and more progress. Tourism is one of such departments, which represents the progress of any nation. Tourism is the main industry in every country. The tourist places attract foreigners to that country. In every country, there are many tourist spots and destinations. The UK and its states have a lot of tourist places to attract foreigners. Tourism is the second largest industry in the UK. It’s valued at £8billion in GDP, and it gives more job vacancies for more than 275,000 people.
As per the World Bank group world development indicators, the United Kingdoms enjoyed a 5.6% share of the international tourists’ recipients in terms of percentages of exchange earnings during 1998, which has significantly increased over the years.
The capital city of the UK attracts 28 million visitors each year. The UK allocated more money and conducted many programs to attract tourists. The UK offers many both domestic and international tourists. The city of London and places in the UK has many attractive spots of public interest to suit the interest of any traveller. For people interested in history, there are places like the Tower of London, museums like the British Museum, National Maritime Museum, the prehistoric Stonehenge, and the Science Museum. Literature buffs can visit the birthplace of William Shakespeare, trekkers can go to the Lake District, and those interested in shopping can visit the many famous places like Camden Market and Harrods. There are beaches, amusement parks and nightclubs for the younger generation. These places make the UK and London extremely popular tourist destinations for people from across all parts of the world. The UK government is spending a lot of money on the tourism department.
The UK attracts foreigners through their tourism industry. Many tourists come daily to the UK from many countries in large numbers. The UK government is thus able to increase its income and make good profits through the tourism department. The capital city of the UK attracts 28 million visitors each year. The UK government introduces different types of a plan like tax reduction for the tourism department. But then ill effects of different types of terrorism in the UK and its states badly affect the tourism industry on a large scale. The aftermath of terrorism on tourism can be felt in many sectors of the industry. The first and most obvious one is the reduction in the arrival of tourists. This, in turn, causes a fall in the businesses of tour operators, hotels and other related industries, lower ticket sales in places of tourist interest and a slump in the business of the transport industry, which includes air, water, train and road. This may also lead to unemployment levels rising in all these sectors, which will further exacerbate the situation. There is also a view that even though a terrorist attack is perpetrated against the population in general, some attacks are targeted specifically against tourists.
There are two aims to gain by attacking the tourism industry, the first of which is to gain international publicity. If the causality list includes people from many countries, the news will create shock ripples throughout these counties, thereby creating international publicity for the terrorists. The second is to cripple the nation’s economy by destroying or destabilising the local tourism industry.
“Inbound tourism was hit hard by September 11, and terrorism continues to impact the industry with the 2005 London bombings.” (Tourism Overview: Terrorism. 2008).
But terrorism affects very badly tourism in the UK. After the 2001 December, London’s tourism industry lost approximately £1.75 billion.
”Tourism is the capital’s second-largest and fastest-growing industry” (Terrorism V Tourism, Government Office for London Annual Review 2001-2002, go London).
To get genuine information about the effects of terrorism on tourism in the UK, there are many methods. The methodology involved conducting interviews with competent authorities who could provide valuable information about the impact of terrorism on tourism in the country, conducting a campaign, and conducting the survey. Besides these methods, there were also other methods that were used for collating data on this research work. These included:
- Searching of websites, including government websites
- Interacting with the local population and MP’s where major terrorist attacks have taken place.
In this report to get proper information about this matter, different methods are adopted. They are questionnaires, interviews, campaigns, surveys and web searches. In this report, we conduct interviews with different departments like government authority, tourism department, police officers and transport department in the UK. The interviews were very successful because all the departments have cooperated with the interviewer. The total result of the interviews is that terrorism affects tourism on a large scale. Every department opined different terrorism affects tourism in different ways.
To get authentic information about terrorism’s effects on tourism in the UK, there are so many techniques like a direct interview, questionnaire, research method, etc. In this paper make a questionnaire to the airport authority, hotels and important shops in the UK. Firstly, they rejected the questionnaire, but 90% of the people cooperated with the questionnaire, and 10% of the people did not answer the question. In 90% of the people, 70% answered the question as terrorism affects the tourism big size in the UK. The people from the airport authority argued that terrorism destroyed everything like transportation and infrastructure. They said after the London bomb blasting, the tourist could not come to the UK, and they couldn’t contact people in the UK. They answered there are not many travellers in plain. Before the London bomb blast, there was much crowed any time airport and every time the plane was full of passengers. But after the London bombing, there was no crowd and every time the airport was very calm. Some people from hotel lodges and shops reported that every ware is very low income after the bomb blasting. Some people reported that many people lost their jobs. 15% of the people answered that terrorism affects tourism in very law size and remaining people answered not affect anything, and government authorities protect the main places and people. In this questionnaire, one thing is sure that terrorism affects tourism in big size in the UK because the airport, hotel, lodge and shops are most related institutions to make progress the tourism department. The questionnaire is shown in Appendix I.
To get information deeply about the affection of the terrorism on tourism firstly we conduct an interview with government authority, tourism department, police officers and transport department in the UK. The results of these interviews are
The Result of the Interview with Government Administrators
The main source is the government administrator to know is terrorism affects the tourism department. When the interview was conducted with government authorities, they said terrorism affects tourism on a large scale. They said the profit of the government through tourism department was very high. The government can increase its income on a very large scale. They said after the London bombing, world trade centre attack, and IRA attack, there happened very lost in the tourism department. Because after this, the foreigners are not ready to come to the UK. They said that the London bombing made a big change in important sectors like tourism which is the driving force of the UK economy. It was estimated that the effects on the tourist sector would cost the UK more than £300 million to restore the industry back. Key tourist sites like London tower started recording the declining number of visitors as fear for another attack raged on. That is why they said terrorism affects tourism. Then the government authority said about their new plan and programs like counter-terrorism bill to prevent terrorism and safe tourism and other departments. They revealed the allocation of more funding to prevent terrorism as part of this program.
The result of the interview with the Police Department
This department pointed mainly to the IRA attacks affecting tourism because this group attacks mainly the police department. They prove their opinion by saying the uneasy relationship between Ireland and the UK is more than two hundred years old. But they lost this relationship following this attack. They said that tourism was not a factor worth considering during such early days. It was from the early nineteen sixties that tourist acts by the IRA became common in the UK. But the IRA was confined to the UK and was not international in nature, and its activities did not occur because of too much disruption in the country. This group does not intend to attack the tourism industry directly. But their targets were the police, particularly in Ireland called the Irish Constabulary, the military and its installations. So they attack this department. But the relationship between this department and the tourism department is very close. So the attacks on our department are effect on the tourism.
The result of the interview with the transport authority
The result of the interview with the transport authority was regarding the world trade centre attacks and London bombings which affects tourism. They said that the world trade centre attacks and the London bombing are not directed against the tourism department directly but indirectly. Their objective is mainly airline and other public transportation, including underground train systems. The transport authority said that the airline industry is most related to the tourism industry because they said major tourists travelled by air. They said that after this attack, the tourists were cancelled their flights due to fear of other attacks or by the fear of the plane being hijacked by suicide bombers, and many airline companies went bankrupt as a result. Due to this, foreigners are not ready to travel by air. The airlines are the main transportation to the UK. They said it was also found out that 39% of all tourism industry, central London had been affected by terrorism. The transportation authority said that the London bombing destroyed the public transport system, and it is affected the tourism department. They also said due to these attacks. The hotel industry was also badly hit. They prove their argument by showing the figure, which shows a conspicuous decrease in the number of foreigners into tourism department in the UK after these attacks.
The result of the interview with the tourism department
The result of discussions revealed that in the tourism department, a different type of terrorism was affecting tourism in the UK. They said major terrorism like the London bombing, IRA attack, World trade centre attack affect tourism indirectly. They said the London tower, which is a major tourist attraction site, recorded a decrease of 15% in visits due to the London bombing. They said the Bali bombing effect tourism directly because they said this bombing was in a nightclub. This club was filled with foreigners from many countries. This nightclub was an attractive centre. In Bali, the bombing destroyed this club. They said before these terrorist attacks, the income of tourism was very high, but after these attacks, that was very low. So they said these attacks affect tourism on a large scale.
The Result of the Interview with Public People
To get information about the affection of terrorism on tourism in the UK from public people, this report interviewed the public people like tour operators, taxi drivers. This interview was very successful because the tour operators and the taxi drivers were cooperative with us. So the result of this interview is the perfect and very clear opinion of the public people. The major part of tour operators said that terrorism affects tourism. They said before the terrorist attacks, every day, their tour program was very successful. There was more customer as tourists from many foreign countries. They said terrorism decreased the number of customers. When we conducted interviews with taxi drivers, 80 per cent of the taxi drivers said that terrorism affects tourism on a large scale, 10 per cent of the taxi drivers said the effect of terrorism in tourism is very small size and 10 per cent of them said there is not any affection on tourism by terrorism. They said in central London increased business activity during this period of transport disruption as many people avoided public transport, which could be seen as a possible target for another attack. One hundred per cent of the other local people opined that terrorism affects tourism. The total result of the interview with public people is the affection of the terrorism on tourism is very large scale.
To get more information about the affection of terrorism on tourism, this report adopts another method named a survey. This survey report says that the affection of terrorism on tourism is very true. To collect the data from people as part of this survey, we collect 1000 people from different states in the UK. We select 100 people within each country and collect data from these people. These people include gents, ladies and educated people etc. 70percent of these people opined that terrorism affects tourism on a large scale, and 25 per cent of these people opined that the affection of terrorism is very small size and other people said that terrorism can’t do anything in the tourism industry. They said that the tourism industry is growing as last years.
Report from Campaign and Seminar
As part of this study, we conduct seminars and campaigns in different schools and colleges in different states in the UK. In this seminar participate many students from many countries. Eighty per cent of these students opined that terrorism affects the tourism industry in many states. Last, every campaign and seminar reached the opinion that terrorism affects tourism on a large scale.
Result From Web search
As part of this study, to clarify is the terrorism affect tourism, this report searched the different official web. This includes government web, tourism department web and another office web. The total result of these web researches is the different types of terrorism affecting all the departments in the entire world, particularly tourism in the UK. We can see through all department’s websites that the September 11 attack on the World Trade Centre in the United States also had great effects in the UK. It also proved two major points to the UK and the world at large. The first one is that the geographical distance of the US from counties where terrorist groups existed was not a deterrent in carrying out acts of terrorism on the soil of the United States. The second was that even a country as powerful as the US with all its security equipment could not prevent such an attack from taking place. This was considered a threat to the world, not only to the USA but the United Kingdom. Being a great ally of the United States was also directly or indirectly affected by this act. Even with what has been seen as a fight for the republican movement in the country, the effects of IRA terrorism activities cannot be dismissed. First of all, the government of the United Kingdom felt that all its interest was threatened. As such, it had to move fast in order to make necessary legislation that would safeguard its interest. The result of the web search is the effect of these terrorist activities takes different dimensions in society and also in the government. But most notable had been tourism effects in the United Kingdom and all its allies. The result of the web search says the affection of terrorism on tourism in the UK is very large scale.
The effects of terrorism on tourism in the United Kingdom
The travel and tourism market by far is considered to be the mainstay of foreign exchange revenue earnings by a country in terms of inbound tourists visiting the UK for business or leisure activities. It is estimated that it is currently worth about £75.9 billion and employs about 2.1 million people – 7% of all people in employment in Britain.
Before an analysis of the impact of terrorism on travel, trade is undertaken. First of all, it is necessary to understand why tourist destinations are a major attraction for terrorists. The first could be seen in terms of the fact that world tourism is seen as the indicator of enhanced economic activities, and tourism is ushered by economic changes. The world is growing through a period of intense global economic activities, and the travel and tourism industry has also been an active participant in economic growth over the years. It has been a provider of economic benefits in terms of foreign exchange earnings, which benefits host countries and improves the local economy. By attacking tourist destinations, terrorists seek to destabilise the root of economic activities and the symbols of trade and commerce of the country. Global dislocations through attacks are their chief motives since local tourism definitely impacts the totality of tourism. Terrorism aims to destabilise foreign visits, foreign direct investments (FDI’s) and the valuations of companies that subsist on the travel trade.
Moreover, it is believed that attacking tourist destinations are easiest for terrorists since the level of security systems may be lowered, and the impact of the attack could be very intense. For instance, planting a bomb in a crowded beach resort, which is packed with tourists in the holiday mood, would not be very difficult for a terrorist group, and its aftermath could have disastrous consequences, not only for local trade but even for other tourists destinations in that country. It could affect in the following ways:
- The number of tourists could drastically reduce, and the occupancy rates of hotels could fall
- Domestic businesses, like banks, moneychangers, pubs, bars and restaurants and eateries could be affected since these are dependent on tourists for livelihood and could have a dampening effect on the local economy. The lack of sustenance could perforce local people to resort to thefts and crimes to earn livelihoods.
- Tourists and travellers would be reluctant to travel by air due not only to the risks involved but also predominately due to the fear of inconveniences caused by the usage of high-security measures to ensure travel security in airports. At one time, it was possible for air travellers to enter planes carrying weapons in certain airports due to the laxity of security systems. Although currently, this may not be feasible in international airports, air travellers would not be fully convinced about the levels and standards of their personal security and thus would not be willing to take risks on air flying, especially to unknown tourist destinations.
- The chasm between fundamentalism and democracy is ever-widening, and in the absence of strong security measures, it would be possible for terrorists to strike again, with greater ferocity and intensity.
It is seen that locations in the USA could become future targets for terrorist attacks, as a fresh wave of terrorism could be unleashed by terrorists again on US soil. They are well aware of the vulnerabilities in our defence systems and could fully exploit it to their advantage to unleash their criminal designs on the innocent civilian population in order to create abject fear psychosis and disturb the peace of the denizens of the country. They choose their targets accurately are often successful due to the speed, ferocity and total surprise elements in their attacks, leaving no reaction time for the victims. It is not known which method or weapons would be used by terrorists in later attacks.
The element of surprise is intrinsic in terrorist attacks and is their main weapon upfront. This is because sudden and unexpected attacks could immobilise and disrupt the process of human judgments and reactions.
“Their activities are developed in loose networks of multiple contacts in many countries, difficult to penetrate, presenting severe challenges to the security authorities who seek to discover and disrupt them at an early stage of their planning. (Counter-Terrorism Powers: Reconciling security and liberty in an open society: 2004 : P 2:)
Thus, they are successful in their attempts to disrupt life and cause colossal damages to lives and properties. The targets locations chosen by terrorists are carefully planned and meticulously executed, leaving nothing to chance, and are thus able to circumvent even the most robust and well-knit defence mechanism and law enforcement authorities.
“Terrorism is a strategy designed to further a political agenda by a system of violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets, thereby instilling fear and intimidation among a wider audience.” (Allacademia research: The organisation of terror: Patterns of recruitment, allegiance and support networks in transnational terrorist groups).
After the London blasts in July 2005, the Head of Global head of Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure at Deloitte said that while it was too early to determine the impacts of the blasts on traffic, it is believed that London would be able to get over the disaster and reestablish its position as a favoured tourist destination in the world The impact of the attacks will not detract from the planned success of London’s 2012 games.
“We are likely to see a short-term effect on international visitors. Inbound travel from Europe is unlikely to be affected other than in the very short term, but US inbound tourist numbers may take longer to recover.” (Hospitalitynet : Deloitte: Terrorist Attacks Will Not Cause Long Term Damage To UK Tourism ).
In the recent past, the World Tourism Organization had released a report called ‘Tourism: 2020 Vision.” According to this report, the predicted annual growth rate for tourist arrivals was 4.3 per cent, and the anticipated annual growth rate for international tourism receipts was 6.7 per cent. It is believed that around 1.5 billion tourists will tour foreign countries yearly by the year 2020, shelling out around the US $2 trillion yearly — or the US $5 billion per day. (Ronald W. Schuelke The Global Economics Game (C) 2000).
Soon after the mournful drama of September 11, the WTO issued a “Report of the Secretary-General: Terrorist Attacks in the United States of America.” The proclamation acknowledged that the “unprecedented and brutal act of terrorism is likely to have profoundly negative consequences for domestic and international tourism.” It strongly condemned “heinous acts of terrorism,” characterised terrorism as “an enemy of peace and tourism,” expressed compassion to the people of the United States and victims of the tragic event, and proffered a firm conviction that “tourism is a resilient sector which has repeatedly demonstrated its ability to overcome problems and weather crises.”
(Ronald W. Schuelke The Global Economics Game (C) 2000: World Economic News: Terrorism v. Tourism)
The results of the study proved that international terrorism and organised translational crime have a close nexus in terms of money laundering, arms dealing and drug mafias. Therefore, the first port of call in the elimination of crime and terrorism is the elimination of such illegal outfits and to continue the fight against translational crime syndicates who are hell-bent on destroying the civilised western world. Terrorist activities always denigrated human rights and denied them. This has been the crux of their existence for many years. It is no surprise to know that it is mostly areas where human rights are absent or stifled that terrorist outfits breed and grow. (Such as the consolidation of political power, elimination of political opponents, and inhibition of legitimate dissent and/or suppression of resistance to military occupation. Labelling opponents or adversaries as terrorists offers a time-tested technique to de-legitimise and demonise them. The United Nations should beware of offering,
“The phenomenon of terrorism is complex. This does not, however, imply that it is impossible to adopt moral clarity regarding attacks on civilians. Terrorism deserves universal condemnation, and the struggle against terrorism requires intellectual and moral clarity and a carefully differentiated implementation plan.” (globalsecurity.org: Homeland security: 2008: Report of the Policy Working Group on the United Nations and Terrorism.
Around two-thirds of international visitors opined that safety was their single most Critical factor. In choosing a hotel, 62 per cent of domestic visitors and two-thirds of international travellers places maximum priority on safety and security Under the circumstances, it seems necessary to weigh the industry’s vulnerabilities And figure out what can be done in order to increase tourist traffic in areas susceptible to or victimised by terrorist attacks.
Interpretations and recommendations of the study
It has been seen that the impact of terrorism is not restrictive, only to the continuing trend of the arrival of tourists and stay. It is also necessary to gauge the reactions of the administration and how the tourists would tolerate the restrictions placed on their freedom in terms of hand baggage use in airports and the need for biometric passports.
The opportunity costs in terms of changed arrival and departure schedules need to be compared among countries offering tourist destinations and also what gains or losses could have occurred had the terrorist acts not taken place, or in other words, the situation prior to the actions.
The results of the survey have shown that immediately following the London bombings on July 7, 2005. There was a marked fall in the revenue per available room. But this fall was short-lived since, by September 2005, things were normalised, and there was a marked increase in revenue per available room (RevPAR) as compared to the repair in the corresponding period last year. Thus, it is seen that, as far as the UK is concerned, the terrorist attacks may not have been a commercial success in that the economic effects on tourism were not as significant as it was made out to be, and the hype surrounding terrorist attacks was more imagined than real, although the number of tourists and flights had come down, they fall in revenue generation has been marginal and has improved over the years post terrorist attacks in subway train network systems.
Again, the results of the survey showed that a lot would depend upon the future tactics and strategies that would be adopted by the terrorists in later years, the locations of their strategies, intensity and deployment of strategic weapons and suicide bombers.
It is seen that the main motivation for such dastardly acts have been the fact that certain minority faction communities may have allegedly been marginalised, and the bombers wanted to become martyrs for a cause, although its justification and validity are not recognised nor encouraged.
The control and monitoring of future terrorist attacks need to consider which segments and areas would be potential areas for terrorist attacks, based on intelligence reports. It is necessary that the security systems need to be highly alert always and prevent disasters as much as could be possible. For this, it is also necessary to take the public into confidence and appraise them regarding the possible fallouts of terrorist attacks and how they could be defended against. The surprise element plays an important role in terrorist attacks, and therefore, it is necessary that the administration should leave no aspect of public security to chance but should make effective and efficient inroads for maintenance of law and order and maximum safety and security while commuting on public thoroughfares and transit railway systems.
It is necessary that terrorism need not take the upper hand in the legal systems, and it is left to the administrative powers and the Chief Secretary to decide the course of actions to be instituted to counter terrorism on a major footing. This is necessary because should the laws be rigid and inflexible, they would become advantageous and expeditious for smugglers and other citizens.
The conceptualisation and execution of plans, procedures and programs aimed at ensuring maximum safety to all classes of travellers and commuters need to be provided, and robust measures for the trial and incarceration of proven wrongdoers could make terrorism a difficult proposition indeed.
The total result of these interviews, surveys, seminars, questionnaires and campaigns is the affection of terrorism on tourism is very clear. So after this study, we can say one thing surely terrorism affects tourism on a very large scale. Therefore, the need of the hour is to formulate a set of policies within the system to enforce safety measures against terrorist attacks. These sets of policies could serve as guidelines for the future and could also channel the resource needed for anti-terrorists strategies along the desired lines. It is believed that with the necessary training guidelines and its implementations, there could be effective pre-emptive controls over terrorists’ activities in future, and the necessary technology and enforcement available with security forces could be utilised for guarding human lives and properties for the common good of the citizens. Thus, the very purpose of anti-terrorist management systems could be devised and operationalised for the common good of the citizens of the UK.
The study has laid stress on the prophylactic and preventive measures that could e used for solving the problem of violent terrorist activities. It is necessary that the present laws need to be amended or robust laws effectuated that could effectively address the threats and challenges posed by hardliner terrorists in whichever environment they may be operating. It is also necessary that the joint assistance of the European Commission (EC) needs to be enlisted in order to make available and utilise the latest technologic advancements in the field of criminal laws and terrorist activities and in the provision of intelligence reports regarding international terrorist networks, their promoters, cadres and their modus operandi of operations.
The UK Government needs to possess documented evidence and strong legal support from the homeland security department in these matters in order to make significant inroads in the prevention and containment of terrorism and its impact on tourist traffic movements and behaviour on British soil.
Questionnaire (For Respondents)
- What, in your opinion, is the underlying cause for the presence of such large scale terrorism and terrorist activities in the present world scenario?
- How does terrorism affect nations and people residing in terrorist-prone nations?
- In your opinion, is it possible to absolutely safeguard people and properties from the adverse effects of terrorist attacks?
- What are the main constituents of terrorism in the world in terms of psyche, the pattern of attack and degree of success? Is it disregard for terrorists’ own lives, the surprise aspect in attack and the appalling scale on which it is launched and effected?
- Do you think that the present laws in the UK address the problem in its right perspective and would be an effective deterrent in terror activities?
- Do you think that terrorism in the UK significantly affects tourism in the country?
- In your opinion, what are the measures that could thwart or mitigate the effects of global or regional terrorism?
- What specific steps has the European Union taken to address the problem of Terrorism on tourist traffic in the EU? How far have they been successful in their efforts to contain terrorism?
- There have been different statutes introduced in the UK that are designed to circumvent terrorist activities and monitor such behaviours on British soil. In your opinion, to what extent have these been effective and impacted terrorism in the UK?
- Do you contemplate the introduction of several other robust measures that could address the problem of terrorism in tourist destinations in the country today?
- Do you contemplate that in the wake of an unthwarted terrorist attack, the Head of State needs to accept moral responsibility for the State’s failures or should it be handed over to internal security?
- What are the main thrust areas that anti-terrorist strategies need to focus on to achieve their aims and objectives in future?
- Do you think the war against terrorism needs to be on a local, national or international level?
- If implemented on a global scale, what is the role that UK Govt needs to play in this area?
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