This study may not be achievable without the cooperation, guidance, support and without the assistance of a few person and organisation. University adopted Supervisor PQR1 Lecturer, Department of —–, University of —-, was the source of the inspiration and motivation for making this dissertation effort on this particular topic of-the impact of effective advertising on consumers decision making and buying intention. He has provided me a great assistance along all the way. His help is really immeasurable and unforgettable.
Department of —-, University of —-, is another source to gaining this study. It has provided valuable modulation, books, Journals, sample Researches and too many efforts for this study. Teachers and staffs of the Department and the Faculty Dean were extremely helpful for to me so that I can conduct the writing properly. Devoid of their assistance this study could not have reached its ultimate conclusion.
Many big companies who are dependent on advertising for market their product and other divisions of IT under the Hear office cooperated entirely to collect data for this study. Company employees helped with their openness, dedication and sincere desire to serve.
Encouragement, love and caring of my family ensured a working environment for such a project without disturbing the normal family routine. All the optimistic attributes of this dissertation have driven from those mentioned above. The conclusions or any other errors, omissions and mistakes within this dissertation are attributable just to the author.
Abstract/ Executive Summary
We have set foot on the era of Information technology. The effects of advertising on Consumer Decision, in marketing and Buying Intention have gain momentum in the era of information technology. The counterparts in marketing sector have developed their interactive advertising to coup with the changes of time. The ongoing dissertation “The Impact of Effectiveness Advertising on Consumer Decision Making and Buying Intention” has incorporated on the current issues with the objective of investigating the implications of Effectiveness Advertising and it’s outcome It will foster the ethics of sustainable development of a business plan and the proposal for Advertising effect and effectiveness on consumers. With this objective in mind, the author has highlighted literatures reviews regarding consumer’s decision making process and identified transparent sphere of consideration in this regards. A clear justification has provided effectiveness of advertising and devises a logical business case address to the customer and stakeholders.
The Impact of Effectiveness Advertising on Consumer Decision Making and Buying Intention is not a new phenomenon. The advantage and proximity has improved substantially with the development of new expertise & technologies through the Internet. The modification of effective advertising seriously influences Consumer Decision Making and Buying Intention. Traditional assumptions about how advertising works on consumer decision shaping and buying integration has a greater role of the effects and effectiveness. The effective role of the consumer decision-making and buying intention in assessing the advertising mechanism has vital propositions for how the effects and effectiveness of advertising are analyzed elaborately. This research highlights a conversation of these issues and diverse traditional accepted wisdom regarding the extents of advertising effects with concepts that assess the effective function of the consumer in integrating with advertising and the advertiser.
The author also incorporated the buyer’s decision-making process and Buying Decision Psyche. The Consumers performs complex buying behavior when they are highly connected in a purchase. This buyer will move ahead through a learning process, first realizing beliefs about the product, then attitudes, and then making thoughtful purchase choice. The Marketers of high-involvement products must comprehend the process and conduct Advertising to help buyers learn about the product-class attitudes and their relative potentiality, and about what company’s brand offers on the important attitudes.
In this paper the author highlights glamour model of Internet advertising incorporating the functional and structural academic ideology. The author also integrated a structural potentiality, which identify and classify Internet ads. The paper prioritizes a massive scheme in which to classify advertisement, as well as a number of common characteristics influencing the consumers buying decision.
This dissertation highlights the perceptions and opinions of effectiveness advertising on consumer decision-making and buying Intention factors affecting their motivation and exploration. The dissertation has the six main sections described below.
I. Problem Statement: The dissertation’s union with a study in general highlights the fundamental principle and hypothetical outline for the research; put the research questions and outline the limitations and scope of the study and specifies the terms used in this dissertation.
II. Literature Review: It will launch with a chronological overview of consumers decision-making psyche and motivation theory; then, narrates too more up to date. The literature review depicts the modern theories and reflection on advertising effectiveness; clarify what the research work will add the new dimension of knowledge in the field of marketing study.
III. Research Methodology: It will give clarification on how the research work has been performed, explain sites and population selection, data gathering, and explain the process and states limitations.
IV. Result: Analyze the methodological hypothetic and summaries the process.
V. Findings: states the collected data in relation to the research questions; concrete findings with business proposal; provides key recommendations and inform practical and hypothetical uses and offers idea generation for the research.
VI. Conclusions: put up the findings promotes conclusions and implications of this study.
Advertising effectiveness indicates different belongings to the different groups responsible for its diverse effects. For media buyer, effective advertising means to reaches potential buyers an adequate number of times. At the same time for the writer or artist, effective advertising means to communicate the desired message. In the direction of the advertising or marketing manager, effective advertising points towards the sells of his brand or product including with other marketing forces. To the management or general manager, effective advertising generates a return on his firm’s spending for advertising.
Being a part of corporate planning effective advertising aimed to accomplish goals as to deliver messages to the true audience and generating sales at a profit in increasing rate. The majorities of the advertisers have embarked on to set goals in all areas and measure advancement toward them. A number of advertisers have set communications and audience goals relate to measured copy and also media effects. But little advertisers have set dollar goals towards measured sales and profit effects.
In 2004 Kotler, P and Armstrong, G. refuted that the Consumer buying decision indicate to the buying psyche of final consumers essentials and households who buy goods and services for individual consumption. The annexation all of these final consumers build up the consumer market. The Consumers vary tremendously in age, income, education level, and tastes globally. They also purchase an innumerable variety of goods and services. This diversity makes their choices among various products embraces a fascinating array of factors. The Consumers make numerous buying decisions every day. According to the leading companies’ research indicate that the consumer’s buying decisions in great detail to discover what consumers buy where they buy, how and how much they buy, when they buy, and why they buy. The market researchers can study actual consumer purchases, but learning about the whys consumer’s buying psyche is not so easy. The answers are often locked deep within the consumer’s psyche
Rationale for the Research
Because of the launch of Internet the Glob has become a smaller one. It has provided enormous impacts on business sectors. Remarkable development in ICT has introduced a global revolution in Advertising sectors. The global trend in business arena set some challenges that cannot be fulfilled with the help of the traditional advertising system. The survey of current marketing worldwide reveals the fact that it requires rapid modification and adaptation to keep harmony with the world economy business. It becomes more obvious by observing the increased number of customers in some modern advertising industries while others are losing them. In the context of any country of maximum service users and Business people realized that there is no other alternative for marketers than to join the current trend of Advertising. Otherwise it is almost impossible to bring any sort of fruitful achievement for Financial Globalisation. At present, markers are very often scared of doing any Advertising function with most of the traditional paper-based print media but fascinated to the Broadcast Media and Internet. It, then, becomes cumbersome to perform even a simple assessment of the Impact of effectiveness advertising on consumer’s decision making and buying intention. Therefore, the existing marketing system is embarrassed and seriously driven to upgrade their advertising efforts it causes some important losses both for the advertising authority and traders.
Simultaneously there are methods to assessment every feature of marketing endorsement, sales sustain and media mix, and evaluate an analytical tool to set up a direct relationship to sales for absolute accountability. This requires contribution of both advertising promotions supplier and marketing management and coordinating their joint efforts with the researcher. It is a venture that may elucidate why so many client and agency sides remain of the opinion that it can’t be done. The fact is that a full prospectus can be implemented which is integral to almost every brand leader.
On the other hand Internet Advertising opens the new window of Customer service by solving the limitation of traditional marketing and kept a positive gaining such as increased foreign trade and provides high yield of sales and profits. It is attributed that the failure to persevere on specific objectives and its confidence that it is hard or impossible to measure advertising effectiveness should drive to have a research on this topic.
Research Question and Objectives
This dissertation is masterminded to answer the following research question. What attributes influence the advertising effectiveness on Consumers buying decision-making strategy, what was the strategy in implementation and productivity among the Marketing Managers? The answer to this question will assist the marketing managers to arrange the Advertising effectiveness toward greater motivation and increased productive output. Five research objectives are listed below.
- How does Theoretical Framework for Advertising Effectiveness works?
- How Consumer Response to Advertising Using different Media?
- What extent do the Effectiveness of Advertising assessed on customers buying decision?
- How Advertising should respond to the technological development in Multiple Media and Consumer’s Integration to associate changes?
- To what degree the implementations of effect and effectiveness of advertising support customers buying decision?
Scope and Limitations of the Study
A massive research on advertising effectiveness has launched on the effectiveness of advertising upon consumers buying decision-making. , The scholars like Lekakos, G., and George M. G. (2004), Bucy et al. (1998), Frazer & McMillan (1999), Lee & Lee (2000) have chalked out distinctiveness of the message. With the objective of examining the structural potentiality of advertising effectiveness and Consumer’s leading decision making models have been highlighted
The overall hypothesis of those models is that information collection in an interactive environment is depending on both function and structure. Due to the reason, the researchers classify effectiveness to determine what effect conflicting features will have on consumer’s memory, attitude and behavior. Van, D. Broeck, W. (2005) and Rodgers (2000) has observed how the association between consumers’ buying decision make and effective advertising relate to information processing effectiveness.
The advertising effectiveness on consumer’s decision making, the researchers have begun the task of recognising structural characteristic of advertising effect and effectiveness some that are unique. Some are not–and defaulting these features in a turn processing framework. This paper highlights this research by taking a methodical outlook at what research on traditional advertising features has educated within the last half century of advertising research. It should provide an exceptional starting point for this paper.
The WFA and EACA has developed and implemented a communication strategy to strengthen the linking of brands to sustainability. The increased acumen about environmental and social accountability within the advertising sector would be invigorated. A variety of possible roles for advertising have been examined and developed clear conclusions on what advertising can educate consumers which necessarily to change psyche.
Promoting sustainability of advertising effectiveness is weighed down by vicious circles. In anticipation of consumer’s value and desire sustainable products, there is slight incentive for manufacturers to devote the often- massive sums of money required for research and development (R&D). Until and unless there is product-related advertising support there is modest to stimulate consumers and so on.
The ambiguous nature of survey questions and the resulting free-form responses introduces opportunity for misinterpretation of the answers. It will create the possibility of broad grouping of the responses into factor categories. The collection of data from the surveys is particularly subject to these problems. The Care has prioritize in analysis of surveys to keep as much of the empirical data as possible for review by anyone interested in replicating this study. The outcomes were aggregated into standard factors as reported in the Findings section.
The time was also a limitation for this study. A greater response rate from the supervisory survey would have been accepted. It would be a more systematic random sampling plan for the work force surveys. From the authentic nature of the results, this researcher doubts that a more up-to-date sampling plan or more comprehensive research design would lead to produce fruitful outcome.
Relevant literature review
Overview of the Topic
This literature review inducts writings, research and erudite opinion concerning the description, measurement and evaluation of Marketing strategy, “The Impact of Effectiveness Advertising on Consumer Decision Making and Buying Intention”. It emphasized on the needed for evaluation of what E-marketing characteristic having most significantly influential ingredient in the organisational success.
The views of contemporary Financial & Marketing researchers concerning advertising effectiveness, consumer’s motivation, buying decision-making process in the organisational strategies and productivity of advertising have been discussed. The historical theories and modern approaches form a solid basis upon which to chalk out a research study to strengthen the causal relationships, which affects the marketing productivity.
Scope and Limitations of this Review
The analysis has been inducted in this review reflect researcher’s description, measurement and evaluation of Advertising trend and its resultant effects on the consumer in the organisation. This analysis also highlight on studies of the dimensions of E-marketing leadership, customer’s behaviors, how effectiveness of advertising is measured and attributed by others. The effects of advertising upon marketing organisational effectiveness and productivities have been analyzed. The emphasis is laid upon the effect of consumer’s behaviors on sales generation and quality initiatives in the organizational mechanism. The improved quantities of literature concerning advertising effectiveness and decision-making are available. This analysis is confide to the most substantiated theories and accepted principles. It is a recognised sampling in the mass of marketing literature. The wide range of analysis related to marketing, organisational success, management and productivity necessitated limiting. This review is mostly mainstream writings of accepted authors.
Organisation of the Literature Review
The analytical segment of this review is segregated into four sections. The first section depicts historical and contemporary studies of advertising effectiveness and the attribution of measuring effectiveness in management and supervisory positions. It emphasized on how advertising actions are classified and how the higher-level advertising attributes character with the charge.
The second section describes the thoughts of more contemporary writers on Consumer Response to Advertising using different Media and its impact within organisations. The writer’s analytical descriptions represent a cross-section of management gurus, past and present organisational leaders and other mainstream management thinkers. The induction in this section is a presentation of the prescriptions of popular marketing writers concerning strategically actions leading to overall success.
The third section portrays what extent is the effectiveness of advertising, assessed on customers buying decision and how marketing actions have been evaluated. How those factors are related to organisational performance. It plays the role of leaders in attaining fruitful results within their organisations. The descriptions for effective marketing are presented. These methods used to evaluate the marketing’s overall influence on the organisation. A connection is established to make effective in managerial actions and organisational success.
The Fourth section analyzed how advertising should respond to the technological development in multiple media and consumer’s Integration to these changes.
The Fifth section depicts the philosophies, concepts, evidence, theories and practices discussed in this review. This section highlights how the existing theories account for causal relationships between Traditional Marketing and E-Marketing performs overall productivity and organisational success.
The Classic Models of Consumer’s Decision Making Process should helps to analyse impact and structural objectives of advertising and demonstrate how it works on consumer’s decision making as a steps of ladder know as a hierarchy of effects. The AIDA model is one of the classic moves toward the impact on consumers starting with attention and gradually movies to interest. The discrepancy of this model is called the DAGMAR model. Some other variant of classic model is the think-feel-do model with message effects. All this models assume that customers move toward a purchase situation by means of a sequence of responds. In other words customers evaluates something than they form an outlook about it and finally they take action to buy it. This model identifies three types of effects called cognition, affection and behaviour.
In addition Think-Feel-Do Model is another high contribution model because it represents a sequence of standard responses characteristically originates from consumers. These customers are active thinkers who are vigorous contributor in the process of getting information and making a decision. This customary hierarchy is expected to be establishing with the product categories and circumstances where there is a need for information. Such as expensive or major purchases of them where there is a batch of product discrimination among manufacturing goods and consumer durables. This category of advertising frequently gives many product details which is much more informative.
In distinction the small contribution model modifies the order of responds to Think-Do-Feel. This Model implies with the thought that consumers first learn regarding a product and then try it. Decision-making is required in the situation where there is little preliminary attention on the product or when there is a least distinction between the products. This is called impulse or whim purchasing. An additional variant of the model is Do-Feel- Think model. This variation explains how consumers try a product and learn from the familiarity. It is called a validation model for the reason that consumers classically select from more than a few alternatives and then rationalise their decision by budding strapping positive manner concerning the product.
Classic models of the consumer decision-making process go ahead with the essential perceptive of the connection between the advertising objectives and how advertising mechanism works.
For the assortment of promising advertising objectives as discussed in above, it is too difficult to construct one single model to be relevant for each product in every market. It is assumable that the conventional objective of advertising is to influence consumers to purchase products or services for which the advertising campaign leads on. Whereas the hierarchy of effects model describes that consumer psyche was pedestal on continuing transitions among each step. Classic models put more influence on steps in the hierarchy effects model. In the conventional hierarchy of effects model, the consumers were determined the logical subjects in the market. It is also supposed that the customers all the time purchase through every of the step as awareness, conviction, knowledge, liking, preference and purchase.
This conventional hierarchy of effects model was successful in recounting the impact of decision-making process. In exacting it was triumphant in explanation of decision-making process for costly products. However consumers in the practical world are not always confidence enough to sensibly buy their products and services. Additionally consumers do not usually go throughout all stepladder of traditional hierarchy of effects model. As ‘Do-Feel-Think’ model has recognised as low involvement model every so often consumers bounce some steps or alter the order of stepping in their individual process of purchase.
Further problem associated with the traditional model is the changed advertising environment. The hierarchy of effects model is an effectual tool for exemplifying the complex consumer behavior on the road to both low and high involvement products. The arrival of new media that are based on contemporary technological expansion has speedily altered the advertising environment for consumers. These new media are exemplified by greater than before interactivity, convenience, and customisation of information. The swiftly changing media environment the traditional hierarchy effects model can’t adequately explain consumer’s buying behavior.
In consideration of the effects of product message there is another threat of inhabiting one medium monopolistically. In other word there is a clutter of messages in any medium and all communication are made to get the consumer’s attention and, eventually to influence consumers to do somewhat to buy products or to get services. The frequency of message clutter is growing and the media are more spirited 154than at any time in the past. Effectiveness and the efficiency, the two significant aims of media planning may not be guaranteed in this media environment. Even media planning is systematically set up with suitable reach and frequency in order to competently approach consumers with the product message; it is required to have a new theoretical examination and adjustment of the product message alongside with an admiration of new market environment.
Measures of Advertising Effectiveness
Yates and Orlikowski, (2003) and Stewart (2007) referred such measures as the ‘market-back’ approach to advertising in context of design and alteration of advertising messages. The theory implies two wider sets of assessements are to compute advertising effects and effectiveness. These two sets of assessments are set apart by dissimilar but corresponding views concerning the role of interactive advertising are similar. The first one set of measures spotlight on attention to, media selection, and information seek and mechanism of information. These measures prioritize for interactive media as a dependable variable and simultaneously hub on the factors that persuade the exercise of media and advertising. Construction of this measure keeps focal point consumer’s values, goals and purposes.
Bagozzi, R. P. (2007) and Powers (2006) emphasised on these measures as maturity of an accepting of the means by which consumers erect and run their individual environments. Consequently these measures should be ideal as sparkly the procedures through which consumers look for control of their environments to achieve their goals. These measures should be tagged as control process measures.
The second set of assessments has organised on the interactive media using effects of consumers. These assessments take advertising as an independent variable and also mediating variable that pressure exacting results in the midst of message addressees. This set of variables consists of such conventional measures of advertising retort as awareness, recollect, manner, and product choice. Stewart (2006) argued that the standard which gives increase to these measures become visible in the conventional advertising research. Punj and Stewart (2004) mentioned that the deliberate interactive circumstance assessments such as attentiveness, attitude, product preference, among others. These are not basically the outcome of exposure to advertising. They are the outcome of selection made by the consumers that are conducted by the consumer’s goals and purposes. The assessments may look similar but the explanation of these measures is quite different. These outcome measures are the joint product and communication of the consumer and the advertising.
Pavlou, P.A., & Stewart, D. W. (2000) refuted that the structural theory recommends that consumer cannot organise the measurement individually. The objectives of the marketer, responses of the customer to the interactions and behaviours of consumers are also significant. The traditional advertising research has long attention to stating advertising objectives to fortitude of the effectiveness of advertising. The structural theory emphasized the needs for investigative how marketer’s goals and objectives go ahead over time in reply to consumer’s actions in the marketplace. The structural analysis of interactive advertising recommends that there is a mutual and recursive forum among interactive media and advertising effectiveness. This approach is constructive for appraising the growth of advertising and advertising responds in excess of time. This was the result of frequent communications among marketers and consumers.
Advertising Effectiveness Control Process
Huffman and Houston (2003) and Daft and Lengel (2006) indicate that the Control process measures focal point is under what circumstances consumers and advertisers prefer to use interactive advertising media and advertising context. The hallmarks of such measurement in interactive advertising framework is concerned with consumer’s use of different media. The aspiration for particular classes of information is just before the end of suitability of different interactive media for diverse nature of advertising under various conditions. Daft et al (2000) highlighted that the media richness theory where media may be graded on a variety according to their aptitude. It will provide instant feedback to transmit multiple nods, support personalisation and corresponds complex messages.
Short et al (2006) analysed that Media corroborated the instantaneous exchange of a wider assortment of message cues are frequently visualized as rich media. The rich media permit the swaps over of a limited array of such cues over a longer phase are determined through lean media. The e-mail does not provide instant feedback and is limited to written statement through Video- conferencing. It allows consumers and advertisers to observe and pay attention to each other and replies instantaneously to messages. The individuality of media and the prosperity of media may be monitored as placing restraints on how consumers might response. The responds is still beneath the control of consumer.
Rodgers, S. & Qimei, C. (2002) and Daft and Lengel (2003) indicated that the response of consumers to any specific message have to be inferred within the situation of the limitations forced by a particular medium. The consumers avail any exacting media and seek out advertising. The additional information of those media is for accurately reasoning that they wish for greater or lesser richness. The major concern for advertisers is classifying which advertisements are additionally appropriate for interactive media and which advertisements are superior matched to traditional media. From that point of view, the richer media would be liable to impress superior cognitive and other expenses on consumers. Another questions of what nature of information consumers’ want and the degree to which an advertising message would be appropriate for a particular measure of media richness.
Barsalou (2001) indicated that the control process determines and it would be significant for evaluating advertising effectiveness. These are the goals of the consumer where consumer’s extracted information and the know-how and previous values of the consumer. Holyoak and Thagard (2000) corroborated that the objectives provide a framework for consumer psyche. It will settle the product features that benefit consumers finding relevant information, which they seek for. Huffman and Houston (2003) indicated that objectives decide those pieces of information, which are the most important and reachable to consumers within a specific situation. Fazio (2003) refuted that the specific goal giving rise to a consumers look for information and preference process. It will be major to the search process and find out how consumer interacts with a marketer. Rodgers, S. & Qimei, C. (2002) and Herr et al (1996); Rodgers, Shelly and Qimei Chen (2002) demonstrated that it would ascertain a cost-benefit equation, which will settle how much initiative a consumer will allocate to gaining and responding to information.
Barsalou (2005) demonstrated that the specific function of measurement is goal derived from categorisation theory. It is linked with quite a few specific measures The Goodness-of-fit is a significant measure that involves to the grade to which information seems to be appropriate for achieving an exacting goal. The additional morals submit to the critical characteristics that consumers correlate with the perfect product or service for attaining an exacting goal. These kinds of information consumers will be most interested. In spite of the fact that these two initiatives are specifically grave in guiding the mode consumer’s pact with interactive advertising. There are additional initiatives of process outcome that offer insight keen on the effectiveness of interactive advertising.
Process of Consumers Respond
Consumers Utilities Process
This paper would like to use utility theory to explain consumer demand and to understand the nature of demands curves. It is assume that each consumer maximises his or her utility, which means that the consumer chooses the most preferred bundle of goods from what is available. What are the implications of utility maximisation? Certainly it would not except that the last egg consumer buying brings exactly the same marginal utility as the last pare of shoes Consumer is buying, for shoes cost much more per unit than eggs. A more sensible rule would be: if good ‘A’ costs twice as much as good B, then buy good ‘A’ only when its marginal utility is at least twice as great as good B’s marginal utility.
This lead to the equimarginal theory that should arrange consumption, so that the last dollar is spent on each good will bring the same marginal utility. In such a situation, consumer is attaining maximum satisfaction or utility from his purchases.
The fundamental condition of maximum satisfaction or utility is the equimarginal theory. It states that a consumer having a fixed income and facing given market prices of goods. It will achieve maximum satisfaction or utility when the marginal utility of the last dollar is spent on each good and exactly the same as the marginal utility of the last Dollar spent on other good.
If any one good gave more marginal utility per Dollar, Consumer would increase his utility by taking money away from other goods and spending more on that good-until the law of diminishing marginal utility drove its marginal utility per Dollar down to equality with that of other goods. If any good gave less marginal utility per Dollar than the common level, the consumer would buy less of it until the marginal utility of the last Dollar spent. It had risen back to the common level. The common marginal utility per Dollar of all commodities in consumer equilibrium is called the marginal utility of income. It measures the additional utility that would be gained if the consumer could enjoy an extra dollar’s worth of consumption. This fundamental condition of consumer equilibrium can be written in terms of the marginal utilities (MUs) and prices (Ps) of the different goods in the following compact way.
MUs good1/P1=MU good2/P2
= MU good3/P3 = MU per $ of income
Categories of Buying Decision behavior
The buying behaviour varies greatly for each product. The intricate decisions usually involve more buying participants and more Consumer deliberation. The Figure 2 indicates types of consumer buying behaviour based on the degree of buyer involvement and the degree of difference among brands.
Four Types of Buying Behaviour
In such cases, the consumer psyche does not pass through usual belief, attitude- behaviour sequence. The consumers do not extract information about the brands. It evaluates brand characteristics, and make weighty decisions about which brands to buy. They passively receive information as they watch television or read magazine. The advertisement repetition creates brand familiarity rather than brand conviction. The consumers do not form strong attitudes towards a brand. They select the brand because it is familiar. They are not highly involved with the product. The consumers may not evaluate the choice even after purchase. The buying mechanism involves brand beliefs formed by passive learning. It was followed by purchase behaviour, which may or may not be followed by evaluation.
The consumers of low involvement products are not highly committed to any brands; the marketers of such products often use price and sales promotions to stimulate product trial. In advertisement for low involvement product, the ad copy should stress only few key points. The visual symbols and imagery are important because they can be remembered easily & connected with the brand. The Ad campaigns should include high repetition of short duration messages. Television is usually more effective than print media because it is a low involvement medium suitable for passive leaning. Advertising planning should be based on classical conditioning theory, in which consumers learn to identify a certain product by a symbol repeatedly attached to it.
Complex Buying Behaviour
The consumers perform complex buying behaviour when they are involved in a purchase and perceive significant differences among brands. The consumers may be involved when the product is expensive, risky, purchased infrequently, and highly self-expressive. The consumer has to gain knowledge about the product category.
This buyer will lead himself or herself along the path through a learning process. The first developing beliefs about the product, then attitudes, and then making thoughtful purchase choice. The marketers of high-involvement products must comprehend the information- gathering and evolution behaviour of high-involvement consumers. They need to assist the consumers learn about the product-class attitudes and their relative importance, and about what company’s brand offers on the important attitudes.
Marketers should differentiate their brand’s features, perhaps by describing the brand’s benefits using print media with long copy. They should motivate store sales people and buyer’s acquaintances to exercise influence over the final brand choice.
Dissonance-Reducing Buying Behaviour
The dissonance-reducing buying behaviour happens when consumers are highly involved with an expensive, infrequent, or risky purchase. It sees little difference among brands.
On completion of purchase, the consumers might gain experience in post purchase dissonance (after-sale discomfort). They notice specific disadvantages of the purchased carpet brand or hear favourable things about brands not purchased. To interrupt such dissonance, the marketer’s massive communications should provide evidence and support to help consumers quality good about their brand choices.
Habitual Buying Behaviour
The habitual buying behaviour embedded under the conditions of low consumer involvement and little significant brand difference. As instance, take salt. The consumers have little involvement in this product category. They simply go to the store and reach for a brand. If they keep reaching for the same brand, it is out of habit rather than strong brand loyalty. The consumers appear to have low involvement with most low cost, frequently purchased products.
Variety-Seeking Buying Behaviour
Consumes performs different categories aptitude buying behaviour in situations characterised by low consumer involvement but significant perceived brand differences. As instance, when buying cookies, a consumer may hold some beliefs, choose a cookie brand without much evaluation, then evaluate that brand during consumption. In the next time, the consumer might pick another brand out of boredom or simply to try something different. The brand switching performs for the sake of variety rather than because of dissatisfaction.
The Buyer Decision Process
Now that Marketers have looked at the influences that affect consumers, Marketers are ready to look to how consumers make buying decisions. The Figure 5 shows that the buyer decision mechanism consists of five stages: need recognition, information search, and evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, and post purchase behaviour. The buying process starts long before actual purchase and continues long after. The marketers need to highlight on the entire buying process rather than the purchase decision.
The figure portrays those consumers across through all five phase with every purchase. In more routine purchases, the consumers often skip or reverse some of these stages. A woman purchase her regular brand of toothpaste, it would recognise the need and go right to the purchase decision, through skipping information search and evaluation. The marketers use the model in Figure 5 because it shows all the potentiality that arises when a consumer faces a new and complex purchase situation. (Figure 5 Buyer Decision Process)
- Accorded Recognition: The buying mechanism begins with needed recognition. The buyer recognises a problem or need. The buyer differentiates between this actual state and some desired state. The need can be triggered by internal stimulation. The customer’s one of the normal needs-hunger, thirst by the external stimulation. A person might feel the need for a new hobby when her busy season at work slowed down.
The marketer conduct research to find out what kinds of needs or problems arises for consumers. What brought them about, and how they led the consumer to this specific product. The marketer can identify the factors by collecting information. It would often trigger interest in the product and can develop a marketing strategy that involves these factors.
- Quest of Information: It would arise consumer for more information. If the consumer’s derive it’s potentiality and expected product is within touch.. The consumer is likely to buy it then. If not, the consumer may discard the need in memory or extracted an information search related to the need. At one level, the consumer may simply enter heightened attention.
The consumer can obtain information from any of several sources. These include:
- Personal sources: family, friends, neighbour and acquaintances. Commercial sources: advertising, salespeople, dealers, packaging, and displays. Public sources: mass media, consumer-rating organisation. Experiential sources: handing, examining, and using the product.
The relative influence of these information sources varies with the product and the buyer. Generally the consumer receives the most information about the product from commercial sources-those controlled by the marketer. The most effective sources tend to be personal. Personal sources seem to be even more important in influencing the purchase of services. The Commercial sources normally inform the buyer, but personal sources legitimise or evaluate products for the buyer. As instance, the doctors normally learn of new drugs from commercial sources, but turn to other doctors for evaluates information.
The information is obtained consumer’s awareness and knowledge of the available brands and features increases. A company chalks out its marketing strategy to make prospects aware of and knowledgeable about its brand. It should identify consumers’ sources of information and the importance of each source. The consumers should ask how they first heard about the brand, what information they received. What importance they placed an on different information sources?
Evaluation of Alternatives
The marketers can evaluate how consumer uses information to arrive at a set of final brand choices. The marketer needs to know about evaluation of alternatives. How the consumer information mechanism is to arrive at brand choices. The consumers do not use simple and single evaluation process in all buying situation. The number of evaluation processes are introduce in the strategy.
Certain basic concept help explain consumer evaluation processes. First, Marketers surmise that each consumer considers a product as a bundle of product attributes. Second, the consumer will emphasize on different attributes according to his or her unique needs and wants. Third, the consumer is likely to develop a set of brand beliefs about where each brand stands on each attribute. The set of beliefs prioritize about a particular brand is known as the brand image. Depending on his or her experience and the effects of selective perception, distortion, and retention, the consumer’s beliefs differ from true attributes.
Fourth, the consumer’s expected total product satisfaction will vary with levels of different attributes. Fifth, the consumer prefers toward the different brands through some evaluation procedure. The consumers have been found to use one or more evaluation procedure depending on the consumer and the buying decision.
How consumers go about evaluating purchase alternatives depends on the individual consumer and the specific buying situation. In some cases, the consumers use accurate calculations and logical thinking. The same consumers do little or no evaluating; instead they buy on impulse and rely on intuition. Sometimes consumers make buying decisions on their own. Sometimes they turn to friends, consumer guides, or salespeople for buying advice.
Purchase Decision: In the appraisal stage, the consumer prioritizes ranks brands and forms purchase intentions. The consumer’s purchase decision will be the most glamour brand to buy. The two factors can come between the purchase intention and the purchase decision. The first factor is the attitudes of others. The second factor is unexpected situational. The consumer may constitute a purchase intention based factors such as expected income, expected price, and expected product benefits. The unexpected events may change the purchase intention.
The marketer’s networks do not put an end when the product is bought. On competition of purchasing the product, the consumer will be satisfied or dissatisfied in post-purchase behaviour of interest to the marketer. The relationship between the consumer’s expectations and product’s perceived performances are strengthened. If the product falls short of expectations, the consumer is disappointed. If it meets expectations, the consumer is satisfied.
The consumers are dependent on the information; they receive from sellers, friends and other sources. If the seller distorted the product’s performance, the consumer expectations will not be met, and dissatisfaction will create. The larger hiatus between expectations & performance are the greater consumer dissatisfaction. This advised that the seller should make product claims that represent the product’s performance so that the consumers are satisfied.
Some seller might even understate performance levels to boost consumer satisfaction with the product. For example, Boeing sells aircraft worth tens of millions of Dollars each, and the consumer satisfaction is important for repeat purchases & the company’s reputation. Boeing’s salespeople tend to be conservative when they estimate their product’s potential benefits. They almost always underestimate fuel efficiency-they promise a 5% savings that turns out to be 8%. Customers are delighted with better-than-expected performance; they buy again & tell other potential customers that Boeing lives up to its promises.
The major purchases result in cognitive dissonance, or discomfort caused by post purchase conflict. After the purchase, consumers are satisfied with the benefits of the chosen brand. They are glad to avoid the drawbacks of the brands not bought. Every purchase involves compromise. The consumers realise uneasy about acquiring the drawbacks of the chosen brand & about losing the benefits of the brands not purchased. The consumers feel some post-purchase dissonance for every purchase.
CRM (Customer Relationship Management) and the Supply Chain
The CRM is an concept holding a huge number of tools that assist corporations by providing customers with a service through a variety of mechanism. The characterisation of CRM is: “iterative processes has designed to turn customer data into customer relations through vigorous use of, and learning from, the information collected” (Brohman et al, 2003). Usually, the CRM involves actions, which aim to acquire new clientele and then strengthen a relationship with them as well as promoting actions to sustain and deepen the connection with their already existing customers (Moorman et al, 2001). The authentic indicator of what the CRM mechanism is measured with three indicators: augmented profit enhanced customer satisfaction and improved customer loyalty. Due to the discrimination between the indicators and the exact objectives of the CRM scheme, three different interpretations of CRM can be recognized (Brohman et al, 2003):
The profit-centric orientation is to highlight on collecting and analysing historic transaction data. It should identify patterns of the most profitable customer types. The customer understanding orientation is to highlights on understanding the needs and preferences of each individual customer in order to offer him or her better service. The customer relationship orientation is to prioritize on maintaining individualized customer relationships in order to enhance customer loyalty. In practice, when talk about CRM; one or many software mechanism with the objective of assisting in performing the above mentioned tasks are meant.
There are three different types of software can be identified (Moorman et al 2001):
Operational CRM: The solutions for Sales Force Automation, marketing Automation and Call Centers are basically management of customer information and data. The analytical CRM Solutions is to analyze data retrieved from the operational part of CRM.. The collaborative CRM Solutions is to provide a direct interaction between the company and customers such as e-marketing.
The analytical CRM highlights on the reporting of all customer data. Which is being inserted into the other two parts of the total CRM system? Its main objective is to make the marketing strategy for each customer in order to raise the possibility of the marketing effort being successful. Additionally, analytical CRM can be used for (Moorman et al, 2001):
The forecasting is in the behavior of existing and potential customers. The analysis of customer profitability, development of marketing strategies and activities have been prioritized.
The analytical CRM is in many cases dependent on data collection. The data collection, applications, which analyze the customer’s behavior all through the customer lifecycle, can be designed. The data collection methods assist companies. The new customers by analyzing the profile of their current profitable customers have been discussed. The profiling is used for cross selling purposes and by profiling the customers who have left, precautious measures can be developed in order to retain customers.
Media System Dependency Theory
Ball-Rokeach and DeFleur (2005) had placed MSD theory, as a media dependency relationship that describes the accomplishment of goals by individuals is reliant upon the resources of the party. Loges and Ball-Rokeach (2001) advocates the theory that in order to attain their various goals, now a days society individual have to rely on media information resources. The information resources comprise all media products including commercial & advertising information. The potentiality of media dependency relations depends on the apparent neighborliness of the media in achieving goals. Loges (1994) argue that the objective, scope and dimensions of these relatives (Figure 1) cover a wide range of individual goals understanding (social & self). The orientation (action and interaction) play such as social and solitary which may be fulfilled through media resources.
Morton and Duck (2000) had refuted that the expected goals deal with people’s needs is to understand the world and themselves. The goals deal with the need for amusement and escapism orientation goals. This will focus on the need to behave effectively in interactions with others and in personal behavioral decisions. DeFleur and Ball-Rokeach (1989) had analysed while these goal dimensions are extensive. They are not mutually exclusive and more than single kind of goal can be activated & satisfied by the same medium. The both intensity and goal scope may be determined by how exclusive media resources are perceived to be in attaining these goals. It will vary for different individuals and for the same individual over time [Ball- Rokeach (2005), & (2003), Ball-Rokeach and DeFleur (2006), DeFleur and Ball- Rokeach (1989)].
The objective of this research is to identify how the chosen research methodology will adjust the main objective of the dissertation question and how it will be achieved. Fisher et al., (2004) indicate that there are two kinds of research philosophy those are positivism and phenomenology. There are two types of research methodology. They are qualitative and quantitative research. Saunders et al., (2003) refuted that the quantitative research is carried out through obtaining primary data such as questionnaire. The qualitative research is a research that is conducted through interviews and observations. Therefore, this method enables a researcher to explore the details of individual perceptions over phenomena. The topic of this dissertation is The Impact of Effectiveness Advertising on Consumer Decision Making and Buying Intention. This paper will conduct a qualitative research through interview of marketing executive as well as relevant customers. This method is capable to explore authentic information of advertising effectiveness.
Research Philosophies and Approach
The research approach develops the methodology. It explained below with inductive reasoning. This is important to develop the foundation by which the research will be designed, conducted and analysed.
Fortin, D. R., and Ruby R. D., (2005) and Maylor and Blackmon (2005, p.155) proposed that research philosophy explains a “theory” of research in an exacting field and explicates the assumptions that lie beneath the research approaches. In addition, Saunders et al. (2000) collaborated that the research philosophy is the method that an individuals think about the enhancement of knowledge.
Firstly, it is important to establish the research approach in order to generate a significant qualitative methodology. The research approach performs an explicit design that is “the overall strategy chosen to obtain the information required answering the research question” (Ghauri and GrOnhaug p 47, 2002). The research approach will evaluate the types of research design and data collection methods. The research approach has strengthened logical relations and not just values (Maylor and Blackmon, 2005).
Aaker & Day (1990) agreed that the explanatory research approach have to be used when it is necessary to demonstrate that one variable causes or settle on the value of the other variables. The descriptive research is used when the research question has understood (Ghauri and GrOnhaug 2002). In the research approach, the data assessments are reliant on the required information and the quality of the information. The outcomes of the research are dependent on the measurement procedures used in the collection of the data, and this in turn is dependent on the types of data collection (Ghauri and GrOnhaug p 47 2002). The inductive research begins with a question and seeks to describe it. The deductive research begins with the problem by working backwards to the answers (Ghauri and GrOnhaug, 2005). This research uses the inductive approach to construct the theory from the data collection to explore possible conclusions towards advertising effect and effectiveness on consumer’s buying decision making.
The authors believe that the interviewer will obtain all the required information. It is necessary to construct an entire “picture” of the impact that the introduction of effect and effectiveness of advertising. The secondary research is to evaluate published materials such as: articles of previous researched etc. This would be analysed to expand a broader perspective of the issue.
This raises the question of research strategy. The joint approach is an inductive, qualitative description with a well-established research strategy. It will allow for a better data analysis. In relation to research methodology, the field of strategic management is built on several different schools, including perspective and emergent approaches (Lynch 2002). The planning school clarifies the objective in advance by determining the current strategic position. Subsequently, it is using a prescriptive approach that exemplifies the strategic analysis, development and implementation. This is a foundation of the research as the perspective approach is a systematic method that follows in sequence. The emergent strategy would constitute the strategy from trial and error, experimentation and discussion. This is used as a cyclic approach to a series of rationales instead of being sequential. This is most often seen in organisations where environment and strategy are constantly analyzed. The strategy in this research is the rational perspective. The data analysis and the final recommendations follow the sequential gathering of information (Ibid).
Data Collection Methods
Chisnall (2005) suggested that data collection is the spirit of research activities. Which have got to be dependable and valid. In this research, the author exercise secondary data and primary data in the data compilation methods. That is called multi-methods.
The secondary data are not merely useful source of information to resolve the research dilemma. It is used to illuminate and better understand the research concern (Ghauri & GrOnhang, 2005). Zikmund (2003, p.63) proposed that Secondary data are data formerly collected and assembled for some project other than the present.
It is reputable that there is some investigator who confuses term between secondary data and market intelligence. Which appears that they have likeness in each other? The marketing intelligence is also pedestal upon earlier data. It could be collected for purposes other than the problem at hand (Malthota & Birks, 2003). Numerous researchers use secondary data since there are several compensations such as easily reachable, economical, and timesaving (Malthotra & Birks, 2003; Ghauri & GrOnhaug, 2005; Zikmund, 2003).
According to Ghauri and GrOnhaug (2005), there are more than a few types of secondary data that use in research. Which alienated into two main sources? They are internal and external sources. The internal resources are mentioned about the sources within the organisation such as customer information, suppliers, and others stakeholders. For external resources, they induct publications or marketable sources such as books and articles, research report, and others.
Therefore, the secondary data that the author mainly uses in this research are library and electronic source; besides, Google and Yahoo search is also utilized in this research. In this section secondary source published materials such as Magazines, books. The previously executed researches will be used to gain perspective at the internal and external difficulties that advertising affected. The effectiveness on Consumers buying decision had to overcome with the introduction of the marketing service. The answer is a question what were the sort-term and the long-term advantages and disadvantages of the choices. They made when incorporating Advertising service.
Limitation of secondary data
The secondary data have some boundaries. Chisnall (2005) indicated that secondary data possibly will not relevant to research dilemma. Which lead to inadequate for decision- making; in addition, secondary data may be outmoded (Zikmund, 2003). The, secondary data may be inaccuracy or may not reliable. The collect methods of secondary data may be unsuitable to the present time (Malthotra & Birks, 2003). Therefore, the author used primary data in order to cover all area of research concern. The secondary data are not exposure.
As Ghauri and GrOnhaug (2005) indicated that it is found that primary data is used when secondary data is inappropriate or unable to answer the research question. The author requests primary data that are relevant to research predicament in data collecting method. The primary data may be both qualitative and quantitative (Malthotra & Birks, 2003). The qualitative study is the search for knowledge that aspires to examine, interpret, and thoughtfully phenomena by the resources of an inside perception (Patton, 2002). The author prioritized with qualitative research. The qualitative data can offer a clear representation of the market, and give an explanation of consumer buying rational (Chisnall, 2002). The primary data could collect in several ways such as explanations, experiments, surveys and interrogations (Ghauri and GrOnhaug, 2005; Chisnall, 2005).
Saunders et al. (2003) regimented that there are three categories for collecting primary data. These are collecting through observation, semi-structured and in-depth interviews, and opinion poll. The vital benefit of primary data is that it fulfills researcher’s need and is state-of-the-art. Its disadvantage is that it involves more money and time (Zikmund, 1997).
Questionnaires: Two questionnaires will be constructed and forwarded to the Consumers and marketer. This will give a broader insight as to a reaction from the general public. The objective of this questionnaire is to gain an insight to customer reaction and participation in the online marketing activities, which would determine their level of trust, and in the security provision of their Marketing. The main issued that would be raised are:
Modification in security issues is necessary or not. The level of trust is in the marketing security systems with the future trends and expectations. Advantages and disadvantages of the services provided.
Saunders et al (2003) clarifies an interview as “a fruitful discussion between two or more people,” and can collect data, which is both reliable and valid. Besides, interview also has advantages which is allows further questions. Saunders et all (2003) explain a structured interview is to use questionnaires based on predetermined and identical sets of questions. The semi-structured interview having a list of concept and questions have to be covered. The unstructured interview as informal but used to explore in depth a common area of interest. In this research, a semi- structured interview is used. The semi-structured interview is chosen because it allows for specific data to be discovered based on the manager’s perceptions. This is useful explanatory research approach. The semi- structured interview is useful in situations where the respondents’ range of replies may be estimated. There is a need to clarify details, opinions or ideas.
The interview will develop based on the following decisive criteria:
(1) What data should be drawing out from the interviewees, (2) Who are going to be interviewed and why; (3) How to elucidate the aims of the interview, (4) Where the interview should take place, (5) Whether to conduct the interview, (6) How to analyse and trail up the interview.
In an interview, the questions should be clear and non-threatening. The interviewee should speak more than the interviewer. The interview avoids complex, double-barreled, dichotomous and leading questions (Cohen and Manion 1994). According to Zikmund (2000), some ethical implications could arise when collecting data during interviews. The interview should not intrude into the sales staff’s personal life. It assures that the analysis maintains confidentiality and anonymity if required. It would receive a beneficial description of interior difficulties and accomplishments that have arisen because (or in spite of) the management strategies being utilised in the subjects:
Marketing: Consumers behaviour Analysis and Advertising Effectiveness Models. This will provide recommendations and possible modeling of advertising for overcoming future complications. The participants selected are Managers and marketing staffs of Unilever Plc at Blackfriars in London. The interview data will be collected through scheduled discussions with the managers selected. The managers were selected based on their schedule and willingness to participate.
The main issues are going to be raised during the interviews, are the following:
- Consumers Buying Decision: The author takes into account the discussion of CBD. It is basically change or Media development of e- marketing in multinational marketers like the evidence of CBD implementation. In this deliberation, the author take several sources including world trade magazine, CPA Journal, VISA, official website etc. The base is to a construction of relevant questions, which are to be addressed to the interviewer.
- Advertising Effectiveness: In this deliberation, the author will take primary resources from the company official website of World Federation of Advertisers (WFA) and another source taken from one of European Association of Communications Agencies (EACA) vendor of effective advertising system. There was awarded marketers to provide authentication system for the effective advertising. It is well-known marketers of authentication products for the financial world, e- business and e-commerce. The appropriate enquiries will be forwarded to the interviewer. It is gain an internal perspective of how, to the best knowledge of the interviewer. The company implements the systems and what were the short term and long term change to which both the employees and the customers of the bank had to adapt.
- Advertising Media Development: In this section, the author will take all the arguments from recent development of Online Advertising in interactive media. The relevant from Government Legislations sources and General Public opinion is towards the web based advertising. All potential users of the service have great concerns over the online customers. All the material will be integrated in order to assemble a cohesive argument, which would be forwarded to the interviewer.
Sample Size and Sampling Method
Reliability, Validity of Interviews
The main objective of taking an interview with front line managers is to bring sustainability. It has been chosen among other probable methods is that a discussion which intends to take place with one of the representatives of the organisation. In context of these marketers in London, it would be more fruitful than any other possible strategy. Because these employees would be at the top awareness of relative to the research questions such as: what are the internal difficulties that the organization had to overcome, and how do they plan to face future complications.
All the data will be collected during the course of an interview. The authentic analysis will take place. The data will be pre-approved by the interviewer and a senior manager of the same Marketer. Once the approved been established. Every irrelevant data, which has been collected throughout the course of the interviews, will be eliminated in order not to create any bias (Silvermann, 2000).
The data analysis turns to ways in which qualitative information can be analysed from the viewpoint of historical document research and interview. This methodological analysis, termed “laddering” (Reynolds and Gutman, 1984), for unearthing means-end hierarchies distinct by these key elements and connective relationships. The laddering entangles a tailored interviewing arrangement using primarily a sequence of directed probes with the stated goal. The determining sets of linkages between the key mechanism across the assortment of attributes (A), values (V) and consequences (C). The theory of linkages is potential work for the interview development.
Consequently, the categorisation of the interviews pursues as previously noted, where each has a phenomenology approach of describing situation and reactions. These are categorised by attribute, consequence, and value. The attributes are the description of the environment and occurrences that will be explored using the inductive approach with a goal for a holistic explanation of the changes in management strategy. The values are the empirical evidence of why these changes occurred. What organisational goals created the changes in management strategy as related to the subject matter and sequences are the results. This gives a description of what happened later than the environment. The occurrences changed ever since the organisation goals and values changed. By maintaining liaison with these three groupings together, this research can give a holistic view of advertising effect and effectiveness and modifications in consumers buying decision-making.
In the incident that the collected data from the interview would not be satisfactory enough for analysis and for of a conclusion (or for any other unforeseeable reason), the research method would be changed and as previously mentioned a qualitative method of a data collection for the analysis will take place.
The main reason for that option is the fact that this method will allow the author to carry out the research in shorter time. The reason of observation in this research is, it enables researchers with an understanding about the perceptions. This kind of a research would integrate various acceptable resources mainly such as questionnaire and in addition magazines, journals and books. That is written by well-known authors and researchers.
Once the data has been collected once more all the irrelevant information and data will be excluded not to encounter a bias. The remaining data will be scrutinize, compared and contrasted with previous research, in order to determine the scale of time. How consumers’ perspective concerning advertising activities shapes and what are the future trends of the correlation between the society (customers) and their marketers.
Zikmund (2003) mentioned that it is found that there are numerous ethical issues apply to the study such as the use of fraud, the respondent’s right to retreat and right to be reliable about the intention of the research.
For ethical apprehension, the author will acknowledge the respondent about the reason of research. It will ask the enthusiasm of the interviewees before opening to do the questionnaire and interview. In the segment of the private information, the authors will not ask concerning personal question. The encroach privacy such as questions about credit card numbers. This questionnaire’s data and personal dialogues will be kept for education only. If a third party desires the data, the author will not deal out the data without consent from respondents.
Limitation of Methodology
There were some boundaries while moving out the primary research. Firstly, there is the limitation of the investigate methods. Qualitative research provides low dependability and, for this investigates, the number of respondent was small, which limited the results of the analysis. Besides, qualitative data is much more vulnerable to partisanship and researcher bias whilst quantitative data can be analysed more objectively.
Secondly, there was not sufficient time available to interview a bigger number of public, because consumer behaviour is a most complex subject. Sometimes the consumers’ motivation is difficult to classify depending on internal and external manipulation in this research.
- Sampling method: the author confirms Convenience sampling methods, which this method may grounds of bias in the research. This sample may not representative.
- Sample size: The sample prototype may be too small to signify the whole population due to time constraint in carrying out research.
- Secondary data: There are some parts of literature that might not enough to cover the area of this research. The existing literature is too broad to indicate about this research topic.
- Questionnaire design: The author did pilot testing, but it is hard to get the perfect questionnaire for gathering the data. Which may lead to bias in this research.
Advertising Effectiveness on Consumers in UK
Ipsos (2007) reported in his Chartered Institute of Marketing’s ‘Marketing Trends Survey’ that the UK traditional advertising impact is falling recent days. Marketers surveyed addressed that advertising cost has accounted for just fewer than 15% of their marketing budgets in 2007. At the same time lead generation; direct mail, customer relationship management (CRM), and ground marketing cost have projected to 11%-12% of marketing budgets.
While correspondents supposed that they planned to boost expenses for online marketing in the existing sales year up to 3.6%. They also added that the average spending on traditional advertising would fall by 0.2%. The study coved that only one of 12 companies uses any of the five types of digital communications. Almost all respondents argued that technological development is the major catalysts for change. Changes in consumer attitudes has been reported by about two-thirds of respondents, at the same time as 45% addressed to the global competition and 36% argued for the development of CRM.
Hurst, G. (2007) addressed in the Chartered Institute of Marketing that a greater part of marketers are still not using of the full spectrum of technologies available to communicate with their customers like corporate blogs, podcasts and mobile marketing. The drive of such advertising has actually increased while the survey was last carry out in Autumn 2006.
UK marketers who are using online advertising will decant more money than ever. In 2006, Paid search advertising is the fastest-shining segment of online advertising in UK, which jumped 58% to L531 million ($1.04 billion) within the first half of 2006, according to data from Internet Advertising Bureau of UK, World Advertising Research Center in addition to Opera Media. The UK search market will carry on to grow as search gains and marketers would be capable to understand better how to optimize customer paths to buying decision (Ipsos, 2007).
Consumer Integration to Advertising
The most important ways to think about how folks route advertisements is in an interactive. The environment is to differentiate among aspects of the Internet that are consumer-controlled and print and broadcast media. Which are advertiser-controlled. The dialogues on advertisers have controlled which ads consumers observe, what time and how. The consumers all the time have the alternative of not paying attention or ignoring the ad. In case of the Internet for the most part, the control has jumped from advertiser to consumer.
Roehm et al., (2004) refuted that a number of researchers argued that consumers contain additional control on the Internet than advertisers. Some researchers argued that interactive marketing and advertising method might not work until and unless practitioners may switch on. Cross & Smith, (2007) has supported this approach of the Internet from the consumer’s vantage position. Cannon, Richardson, & Yaprak, (1998) added that it makes sense if the marketers take into account. The fact is most Internet users usually log onto the Internet with some goal in mind. Therefore, launch of Internet use is totally under the consumer’s manage.
Technological development Impact
To send email, get news, buy a product, surf for fun, or a discussion forum, or chat in a chat room among other things. The Internet users have surveyed in their recent study. They said that the Internet had improved their connection to family and friends, their ability to learn new things, and the way they pursue hobbies. Howard, Rainie, and Jones (2001), found that the Internet is helpful in doing jobs such as shopping, getting information on health care, and managing personal finances.
Flanagin and Metzger (2001) discussed about recent models of media selection. These use have recommended that the media attributes, and demographics. The factors are such as assessment of desires fulfillment, social norms, appropriateness, and peer evaluations. These are most important to determining the nature of media use. As a result, from an MSD perspective, the individual might argue that individual goals and the Internet’s capability to meet the goal. These may exert some influence on consumer activities in the online environment.
Katz and Aspden (2007) and Poindexter (2003) demonstrated that the traditional shopping was rated among the least productive uses of the Web. The marketers believe that it is a matter of time before the greater part of consumers shop in their virtual storefronts. Nielsen Netratings/Harris Interactive (2001) found in March 2001 alone, there are more than $3.5 billion was spent online, and jump of 35.6% from $2.7 billion in April 2000.
Despite the enhancement in commercial activities on the Internet, the buying online still does not emerge to be one of the primary reasons to visit web sites. In Forrester Research Report (2000), Poindexter’s (1999) study demonstrates this to be true of both Generations. Baby Boomers Xers said that the youngsters spent more than 11% of their disposable income on purchasing diverse products throughout the Web. Korgaonkar and Wolin (1999) found that the transaction anxiety and, security concerns appeared to be the most prevalent causes for not buying on the Web. The GVU’s 10th WWW User Survey (1998) surveyed that quality information, easy ordering, and reliability were more important to respondents than security.
Forrester Research (2005) & Pastore (1999) analysis show that it is an easy way to get instant answers to messages and continue conversations with friends, strangers around the globe, and colleagues. On the Internet, online chatting is one of the rapid growing activities.
Li, Shu-Chu Sarrina (2004) and Pastore (2001), in A Net Value survey in (2001) demonstrated that online chatters as groups were among the users of the Internet. They generated twice as numerous online sessions as non-chatters. In his research he also found that women were more likely to chat online than men. The women spent three more days per month on online chatting than did males.
The research on this fast is proliferating industry-reported evidence of its growing popularity and online consumer activity among Internet users. It leads us to investigate the connection between time spent chatting on the Internet and Internet Dependency Relations. It is considering that demographics provided some better understanding of online chatting. There is a drawing upon the goal scope of MSD theory. We propose the following predictive relationship:
Fortin, D. R., and Ruby R. D., (2005) and Deci & Ryan, (1985), Papacharissi & Rubin, (2000) defines that a motive is an inner desire to actively fulfill a need. The definition of motive focus the importance of an active audience is an essential supposition of the functional approach. The Internet motive can be clarified as an inner drive to perform several online activities. The term “drive” is used to indicate effort on the user’s part. According to Hoffman & Novak, (1996) scholars surmise that the Internet needs at least a minimal amount of exertion, or involvement. The term “any” in the definition above comprise motives already identified in the literature. The future motives that might be identified, the Internet as well as its uses have been solidified.
Many researchers have attempted to identify uses of the internet such Ball- Rokeach and DeFleur (2005), Eighmey (1997), Eighmey & McCord, (1998), Katz & Aspden, (1997), Isabelle & Lukas, (1997), Korgaonkar & Wolin, (1999), Rodgers & Sheldon, (1999), Rodgers & Cannon, (2000), Stafford & Stafford, (1998), and Stafford & Stafford, (2000). Rodgers and Sheldon (1999) refute that there are more than 100 web motives have been identified across these studies, The bulk of these motives fall into four primary categories, including: communicating, researching, surfing (i.e., entertaining) and shopping.
These motives were highlighted, not to defend nor define taxonomy of Internet motives. The relatively is to orient the reader to the range as well as possibility of reasons for going online. There are no other medium provides consumers with such an assortment of opportunities to fulfill motives. However, according to Cannon, Richardson, & Yaprak, (1998), the most important point here is that, the Internet use is initiated with some specific aim in mind. The information-processing model has to begin with these motives. These motives are antecedents to any advertisement processing that takes place. The motive is pursued. We expect to find that Internet motives control consumer responses to Internet advertisement.
In fact, Papacharissi and Rubin (2000), demonstrated in their research of five primary motives of Internet use. It establishes that Internet motives were the most important predictor of consumer responses. As example, the “entertainment” and “information seeking” motives predicted whether individuals used e- mail. Similarly, Rodgers and Sheldon (1999) assess through regression analysis that Internet motives predict how consumers responded to online advertisements. Surfers, for example, there were more positive toward online advertisements than researchers.
Functions Eighmey (1997), Eighmey & McCord (1998), Cannon, Richardson, & Yaprak (1998) Rodgers & Cannon (2000) showed that the Internet have used a functionalist viewpoint to classify primary objects of the Internet. The central to this approach is the disagreement that, earlier that how marketers process web-based ads and understand why individuals visit web in first place.
Lu, K. J. (2005) and Snyder & Cantor, (1998) and Rayburn (1996) have presented functionalist theory about Consumers motivation. It has a long and illustrious literature in the psychological and mass communication. With mass communication, the argument of functionalism derives from the findings of Lasswell’s (1948). The specific reasons people actively attend to the media. (Rayburn, 1996) introduced as the uses and gratifications approach. The functions of mass communication–such as observation and activity (Wright, 1960) have served as the foundation for empirical studies that have examined in detection of information found in a diversity of mediated contexts of Media.
Rodgers & Sheldon, (2000) found that though this exact hypothesis, which has not been tested, online. It seems likely that it would apply there as well. As instance, it has been shown that people who are driven to use the Internet for a particular reason. It is more likely to express favorable attitudes toward banner ads that “promote” that motive.
This is an essential element of our model that is neither straightforwardly understood nor conceptualised. It is demonstrate the complex character of an interactive environment. I mention this switching process. An individual enters in the web with a shopping motive. Sometimes a search engine does not produce the required results. Consequently, they become discouraged. They might get a shopping- oriented advertisement, the interesting one moment rather then the next. The broader concept of user mode is the way to conceptualise this motive- switching process.
Mode: A model is represented in the second component of our prototype. It can be clarified as the extent to which Internet activities are mainly goal- directed. Lu, K. J. (2005) and Walters, Apter and Svebak (1982) have conceptualised goal-directedness along a variety ranging from “telic” to “paratelic”. The paratelic indicate to low goal-directedness (i.e., “playfulness”) and telic refers to high goal directedness. The authors were purported that individuals in a telic model lean to be more serious-minded and focus more on the future than the present. On the other hand, individual in a paratelic mode tends to be more playful and lighthearted, the orienting to the present rather than the future.
Therefore, the researchers are more naturally inclined than surfers to enter cyberspace with a highly goal-directed agenda. This goal-directed state would create the online experience less “playful” and more “serious”. The goal-oriented mode might translate into more cognitive effort. It is being placed on reaching the goal such as a “futuristic” outlook. The cognitive effort is being devoted to other tasks, like attending to online advertisements (i.e., a “present” orientation).
Information Processes: The information processing is that developed in psychology and with the roots in functionalism. This approach presumes that from humans. There are inputs to and outputs. Between the two lies “information processing.” it create information processing approaches and “cognitive” psychology. Three are areas of research in psychology came together. Three areas of research in psychology came jointly. It creates information processing approaches in addition to “cognitive” psychology. The first area is artificial intelligence. Which implicated efforts is to create computer programs that mimicked human activities like game playing.
The third area was linguistics, which contributed by Chomsky, (1957) and holding the idea that rule-governed processes are helpful in understanding the complexities of language use and acquisition. McGuire, (1978); Preston, (1982) found that out of this rich tradition that the empirical research with the idea of psychological processing came the modern “stage models” of advertising processing.
Critical Analysis and reflection Problems in Assessing the Effectiveness of Advertising
There are problems related with measuring advertising effects in an interactive setting. There are many potential measures of advertising outcomes and effectiveness. Some of these troubles are similar to problems connected with measuring the effectiveness of more traditional advertising. The reciprocal control of consumer on marketer and marketer on consumer has been discussed. It makes more complicated to identify effects and primary causes. There are some vexing matters connected with measurement in an interactive perspective. The research on these subjects could be especially useful.
Advertising Does Not Work Alone
The advertising is only a part of a total marketing effort. A product that is overpriced, poorly positioned, badly packaged, inadequately distributed. It is inferior to suffer sales declines despite the fact that the advertising itself is professionally executed and well conceived. The specific contribution of advertising to sales has been difficult to ascertain. The impact of any definite advertising campaign may be less important than the increasing reciprocal communication between consumer and advertiser. The interactive advertising can well make the determination of exactly what marketing actions produced a particular effect. Several scholars [Glazer (1991), & Ray (1985)] have refuted that the increasing accessibility of information, and the sophistication of the technology for finding. It is analyzing and processing this information, are blurring the boundaries of the numerous elements of the marketing mix.
Fortunato, J. A., and Daniel, M. W. (2005) and Glazer (1991), Webster (1989) argued that there have been calls for modification in the organisation of both the marketing function. The firm itself is to accommodate this blurring of traditional functional lines within marketing. The marketing and other functional disciplines is available within and external to the firm. This blurring of boundaries has been partially recognised by calls for “integrated communications,”.The blurring extends is beyond communication activities.
The communication and distribution are becoming inextricably linked. The decisions about the one are increasingly tricky to make in isolation from the other. In fact, it may be difficult to distinguish some marketing activities. It is clearly serving an advertising or distribution function. It will be impossible to divide the effects of communication from product design. The interactive advertising is used to superior design products. The models of consumer response should focuses on the effects of advertising. The effort is to divide advertising effects from further effects of the marketing mix. These are likely to be less than helpful.. It may be more useful to measure the results of integrated marketing programs. The other consumers and other resources of information may play a role as significant It is ascertaining consumers’ use of these resources. How they mix such information into decision-making will be a challenging research question.
The insight is to be gained are empirical-behaviours in usage such observational. What advertising effectiveness work functional. How consumers buying decision work; recommendations based on benefits and limitations. These theories can be used throughout the Media’s lifecycle in a continuous and flexible manner. It is optimist to maintain sustainable, accurate and proactive marking strategies. The considerations of the methods, benefits and limitations will remove the assumptions in techniques. This can lead to inaccurate or inefficient methods. The data has been collected by the above procedures. It will be assembled in the final research project to formulate a conclusive recommendation for marketing management strategy.
This research proposal is to create an all-inclusive recommendation towards marketing management strategic methods. It is based on the participants’ responses, suggestions and concerns. It will complete case study through historical document analysis. The advertising faces novel and intricate challenges concerning to measurement of its effects and effectiveness. The reciprocal interaction between marketer and consumer will be formulated. It is difficult to separate the influence of any single advertising disclosure. These imply that the focal point of advertising evaluation will require shifting from a single outcome to both process and outcome. The responsibilities of the consumer are to decide on advertising in choosing at what time and how to interact. The objective of consumers concerned in the communication will be particularly significant extent of advertising. It will necessitate new procedures and new conceptualisations of how advertising works. It is expected that as the marketing mix turn into more and more integrated. The same drive take for granted multiple functions such as communication and distribution. It will develop into gradually more complex to conduct correlated research on advertising devoid of deliberation of the better framework of marketing mix.
It may not indicate that research on advertising is segregated from other essentials of the marketing mix. It must mean that the research of advertising in the perspective of the superior mix will require balancing such study. On the other hand the consumer’s use of other information resources, especially the consumer to customer interaction, will be most significant for considerate how and why consumers act in response to interactive advertising. Despite the challenges created by advertising, it will afford new scopes for research and improve the perceptive of advertising effects. The advertising has for all time been interactive at various levels. The consumer has by no means really been reactive recipient of advertising. The advertising should simply formulate the potentiality to be the focal point for accepting the effectiveness of advertising.
- Due to enormous factors influence to measure the Advertise Effectiveness measurement, the author would like provide a recommendation to establish a Harmonious System Recommended for world wide recognised Measurement process to justify the Advertisement effectiveness.
- The most important advertising model design feature identified in this research. It was “quick access to information you are looking for”. The high frequency of consumers needs for basic information. It is recommended that accountability and balances should be immediately accessible in Marketers end. This recommendation is suggested by Pavlou, P.A., & Stewart, D. W. (2000), who is recognised by the largest World Federation of Advertisers (WFA) is providing benchmarking information on Internet marketing service
- The clear and simple terminology was related as a very important design element for marketing. The failure to achieve can dissuade potential marketing customers. A usability study of an online marketing site by SURL found users are to be confused by the term “Payee” (i.e., users wondered “Is that me or the company I am paying?”). Consequently, it is recommended to use more meaningful terminology when setting up an individual or company. As example, “Account number for whom you are paying:” may be more meaningful than “Payee account”.
- The results from this study demonstrated that “feedback on acceptance or rejection of information”, “indicating a function has been completed”, and “identifying/fixing mistakes”. These were rated as very important design features for a marketing site. These features may avoid confusion related to online forms in the transaction process. Other recommendations for formation include clearly indicating required fields, placing legible error messages in a highly visible area. It is providing feedback on how to proceed when completing a transaction (Diemen, 2000).
- There are several activities were reported to be done in person rather than AD Agencies. These inducted opening an account, purchasing insurance, CDs or securities, administering brokerage or retirement accounts, and applying for a credit card or loan. The important factors are those contributed to conducting activities in person instead of online. There were preferences for dealing with people face-to- face, sites not offering enough information, perceived risk, and confusing terminology. A number of banks have attempted to assess these issues by implementing interactive capabilities such as secure chat and e-mail help (Ramsaran, 2003).
- One of the main repercussions of the war on terror has been the imposition of added legislative and regulatory burdens on Advertisers. The government has reached beyond financial institution policies and procedures to impose requirements on the advertising policy. It is used to comply with the detection regulations concerned with social responsibility.
- There was determination to prevent suspected pornography from online advertising. It created tremendous harm for human civilisation, breaking traditional marketing. The regulators have become much more vigilant about enforcing regulatory requirements concerning due diligence. That’s the functionality and reliability of the advertising. It is essential to the success of globalisation. Matrimonial segment is the most fascinating. A lot of parents hear about online matchmak
- Why do customers get online in the first place? The author is not talking of the way. Their user behaviour changes once they start exploring the nooks and corner of the net, but the fundamental pull factor. How does it make life easier or fill a demand gap?
- The primary reasons for which the author thinks of are job-hunting, matrimonial services, pornography and financial services (marketing and trading). The author supposed students get online for research and in the hope of chatting up some girl. The job-hunting segment is probably aged between 24 and 40. The author finding in the and how widespread the “catch” is. So even if their kids are not all that keen, they go online and create a profile anyway. It is noticed that there at least 20% to 30% of the people are in the age group of 55 to 70 (based on appearance) and uploading their progeny’s profiles. No wonder one finds so many boys of good character and girls of homely disposition at the matrimonial sites. Advertising effectiveness must bring the Marketers and consumers in a common point of interest where the behave like matchmaking sites
PDA = personal digital assistant
ATM = automated teller machine
ICT = Information and Communication Technology
AIDA Model = Attention – Interest – Desire – Action Model
PPM = Personal Relevance Model
DAGMAR model =Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results Model
ICT = Information and Communication Technology
WFA = World Federation of Advertisers
EACA = European Association of Communications Agencies
CBD = Consumers Buying Decision
WFA = World Federation of Advertisers
EACA = European Association of Communications Agencies
- Bagozzi, R. P. (2007), Goal-Directed Behaviors in Marketing: Cognitive and Emotional Perspective, Psychology and Marketing: 87 (5), 573-594.
- Bagozzi, R. P. and Dholakia, U. (2003), Goal Setting and Goal Striving in Consumer Behavior, Journal of Marketing, 126: 34-53.
- Bargh, J. A. (1990), Auto-Motives: Preconscious Determinants of Thought and Behavior, In Handbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundations of Social Behavior, Vol. 2., E. T. Higgins and R. M. Sorrentino, eds. New York: Guilford: 93-130.
- Bellman, & Steve (2004), The Impact of Adding Additional Information to Television Advertising on Elaboration, Recall, Persuasion, Paper presented at the ANZMAC Conference, Wellingthon.
- Bettman, J. R. et al (1998), Constructive Consumer Choice Processes, Journal of Consumer Research, 25: 187-217.
- Boddy, W. (2004), New Media and Popular Imagination, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Briggs, R. and Hollis, N. (1997), Advertising on the web: Is there Response before Click-through? Journal of Advertising Research: 37 (2), 33-45.
- Brown, S. P. and Stayman, D. M. (1992), Antecedents and Consequences of Attitude toward the Ad: A Meta-Analysis, Journal of Consumer Research, 19 , 34-51.
- Bush, A. J., Victoria, B., and Sharon, H. (1998), Advertiser Perceptions of the Internet as a Marketing Communications Tool, Journal of Advertising Research: 38 (2), 17-28.
- Cannon, H., T., Richardson, and A. Yaprak (1998), Toward a Framework for Evaluating Internet Advertising Affectiveness, Paper presented at the American Academy of Advertising, Lexington, KY.
- Carey, J. (1997), Interactive Television Trials and Marketplace Experiences, Multimedia Tools and Applications: 5 (2), 207-216.
- Cho, C. H. (1998), How Advertising works, Modified Elaboration Likelihood Model, Paper presented at the American Academy of Advertising, Lexington, KY.
- Chorianopoulos, et al (2001), Metrics for Advertisement Effectiveness Measurement in the Interactive TV Environment: The iMedia Case, Paper presented at the 14th Bled Electronic Commerce Conference.
- Clary, E. G., et al (1998), Understanding and Assessing the Motivations of Volunteers: A Functional Approach, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: 74 (6), 1516-1530.
- Coffey, S., and Stipp, H., (1997), The Interactions between Computer and Television Usage, Journal of Advertising Research: 37 (2), 61-67.
- Cooper, M. L., C. M. Shapiro, and A. M. Powers (1998), Motivations for Sex and Risky Sexual Behavior among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Functional Perspective, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75 (6), 1528-1558.
- Connor, O. et al (2001), Marketing in the Digital Age, London, New York: Prentice Hall.
- Dijk, V. et al (2003), Interactive Television or Enhanced Television?, The Dutch Users Interest in Applications of ITV Via Set-top boxes, Annual Conference of the International Communication Association, The Netherlands, Amsterdam.
- Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M., (1985), The General Causality Orientations Scale: Self-Determination in Personality, Journal of Research in Personality: 19, 109-134.
- Deighton, J. A. and Robert C. B., (1991), Interactive Marketing: Exploiting the Age of Addressability, Sloan Management Review: 33, 5-14.
- Deighton J. A. and John A. B. (2000), Digital Marketing Communication, (Working Paper), UK, London Business School, Future Media Center.
- Dennis, E. E. (2002), Prospects of Big Idea – Is there a Future for Convergence? International Journal of Media Management: 5 (1), 7-11.
- Dimmick, & John (1997), The Theory of The Niche and Spending on Mass Media: The Case of the Video Revolution, Journal of Media Economics: 10 (3), 33-43.
- Ducoffe et al (1996), A Survey of Senior Agency, Advertiser, and Media Executives on the Future of Advertising, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising: 18 (1), 1-19.
- Dutch Council of Advertisers (2005), Shocking News for Broadcasters, Registration of Actual Viewing Behavior of Advertisement by Consumer, Research Study.
- Eighmey, J. (1997), Profiling User Responses to Commercial Web Sites, Journal of Advertising Research: 59-66.
- Ferguson, D. A. and Elizabeth, M. P. (2000), The World Wide Web as a Functional Alternative to Television, Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media: 44 (2), 155-174.
- Fletcher, & Darren, (2005), ITV And The Future, Presentation At The ITV Congress, UK, London.
- Forrester Research (2005), Consumer Technografics, North American Study, US.
- Fortin, D. R., and Ruby R. D., (2005), Interactivity and Vividness Effects on Social Presence and Involvement with Website-based Advertisement, Journal of Business Research: 58 (3), 387-396.
- Fortunato, J. A., and Daniel, M. W. (2005), Adoption of Digital Video Recorders and Advertising: Threats and Opportunities, Journal of Interactive Advertising.
- Galbi, D. (2001), The New Business Significance of Branding, International Journal on Media Management: 3 (4), 192-198.
- Gal-Or, E. and Mordechai G. (2005), Customized Advertising via a Common Media Distributor, Marketing Science: 24 (2), 241-253.
- Ghose, S. and W. Dou (1998), Interactive Functions and their Impacts on the Appeal of Internet Presence Sites, Journal of Advertising Research: 29-43.
- Godin, S. (1999), Permission Marketing: Turning Strangers into Friends, and Friends into Customers, UK: Simon & Schuster.
- Gutman, J. (1997), Means-end Chains and Hierarchies, Psychology and Marketing: 14 (6), 545-560.
- Gutman, J. (1982), A Means-end Chain Model based on Consumer Categorization Processes, Journal of Marketing: 46 (2), 60-72.
- Holbrook, M. B. and R. Batra (1987), Assessing the Role of Emotions as Mediators of Consumer Responses to Advertising, Journal of Consumer Research: 14, 404-420.
- Hoffman, D. L. and T. P. Novak (1996), Marketing in Hypermedia Computer-Mediated Environments: Conceptual Foundations, Journal of Marketing, 60: 50-68.
- Hsu, et al (2001), Australian and Taiwanese Advertiser’s Perceptions of Internet Marketing, Australian Marketing Journal: 9 (1), 33-45.
- Huffman, C. and M. J. Houston (1993), Goal-oriented Experiences and the Development of Knowledge, Journal of Consumer Research: 190-207.
- Hunger, J. E. (2001), The Desperate Need for Replications, Journal of Consumer Research: 149-158.
- IDS (2005), Interactive Advertising, Web.
- Ipsos, M. (2004), “News“
- Ipsos, M. (2007), UK Marketers Shifting Focus from Ads: Marketing Trends Survey.
- Jensen, F. Jens and Cathy Toscan (1999), Interactive Television: TV of the Future or the Future of TV?, Denmark: Aalborg University Press, 1.
- Journal of Interactive Advertising (2007), A Media System Dependency Theory Perspective on Why People Shop, Chat, and Read News Online, ISSN: 1525-2019.
- Kang, M. H. (2002), Interactivity in TV: Use and Impact of an Interactive Program Guide, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media: 46 (3), 330-345.
- Katz, Barbara (2004), Interactive TV Survey 2004, IDS, UK.
- Katz, J. E. and P. Aspden (1997), Motivations for and Barriers to Internet Usage: Results of a National Public Opinion Survey, Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications Policy: 7 (3), 170-188.
- Kim, et al (2004), Understanding the Diffusion of Integrated Marketing Communications, Journal of Advertising Research: 44 (1), 31-45.
- Kim, P. et al (2002), Machine-like New Medium – Theoretical Examination of ITV, New Media & Society: 47 (2), 217-233.
- Kinnear, T. C. and J. R. Taylor (1991), Marketing Research: An Applied Approach, (4th edition), New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
- Korgaonkar, et al (1997), Direct Marketing Advertising: The Assents, the Dissents, and the Ambivalents, Journal of Advertising Research: 37 (5), 41-55.
- Korgaonkar, P. K. and Wolin, L. D. (1999), A Multivariate Analysis of Web Usage, Journal of Advertising Research: 53-68.
- Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G.(2004), Principal of Marketing, 10th edition, Prentice Hall, London, UK.
- Lace, Jonathan M. (2004), At the Cross Road of Marketing Communications and the Internet: Experiences of UK Advertisers, Internet Research: 14 (3), 236-244.
- Lawson, R. (1997), Consumer Decision Making within a Goal-Driven Framework, Psychology and Marketing: 14 (5), 427-449.
- Lawson-Borders, Gracie (2003), Integrating New Media and Old Media, International Journal on Media Management: 5 (2), 91-99.
- Leckenby, J. D. (2003), The Interaction of Traditional and New Media (Working Paper), University of Texas at Austin.
- Lee, B. and Robert S. L., (1995), How and Why People Watch TV: Implications for the Future of Interactive Television, Journal of Advertising Research: 35 (6), 9-18.
- Lekakos, G., and George M. G. (2004), Lifestyle-based Approach for Delivering Personalized Advertisements in Digital Interactive TV, Journal of Computer Mediated Communication.
- Lekakos, et al (2001), “An Integrated Approach to Interactive and Personalized TV Advertising,” Workshop on Personalization in Future TV.
- Li, H. and Bukovac, J. L. (1999), Cognitive Impact of Banner Ad Characteristics: An Experimental Study, Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly: 76 (2), 341-353.
- Li, Shu-Chu Sarrina (2004), Exploring the Factors Influencing the Adoption of Interactive Cable Television in Taiwan, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media: 48 (3), 466- 483.
- Livaditi, et al (2003), Needs and Gratifications for Interactive TV Applications: Implications for Designers, Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii.
- Lowrey, T. M et al (2007), The Future of Television Advertising in Marketing Communication: Emerging Trends and Developments, Allen Kimmel, ed., New York, Oxford University Press, 123-133.
- Lomax, R. G. (2001), An Introduction to Statistical Concepts for Educational and Behavioral Sciences, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- Lutz, R. J. (1985), Affective and Cognitive Antecedents of Attitude toward the Ad: A Conceptual Framework, In Psychological Processes and Advertising Effects, L. F. Alwitt and A. A. Mitchell, eds, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: 45-64.
- Lu, K. J. (2005), Interaction Design Principles for Interactive Television, Unpublished Masters Thesis, Georgia Institute of technology.
- Maddox, L. W. and Mehta, D. (1997), The Role and Effect of Web Addresses in Advertising, Journal of Advertising Research: 37 (2), 47-60.
- Maignan, I. and Lukas, B. A. (1997), The Nature and Social Uses of the Internet: A Qualitative Investigation, Journal of Consumer Affairs: 31 (2), 346-371.
- Martin, I. M. and Stewart, D. W. (2001), The Differential Impact of Goal Congruency on Attitudes, Intentions, and the Transfer of Brand Equity, Journal of Marketing Research, 38: 471-484.
- Marcus, Larry (2002), Presentation at the Deutsche Bank Alex Brown Enhanced TV & Broadband event, San Francisco.
- Markus, Lynn M. (1990), Toward a Critical Mass Theory of Interactive Media: Universal Access, Interdependence and Diffusion, in Organizations and Communication Technology, Janet Fulk and Charles Steinfeld, eds., Newbury Park: Sage: 194-218.
- McMillan, Sally J. and Hwang, J. S., (2002), Measures of Perceived Interactivity: An Exploration of the Role of Direction of Communication, User Control, and Time in Shaping Perceptions of Interactivity, Journal of Advertising: 31 (3), 29-42.
- McClelland, D. C. (1987), Human Motivation, Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
- Media Center at the American press (2004), Branded Entertainment.
- Mitchell, A. A. and J. C. Olson (1981), Are Product Attribute Beliefs the only Mediator of Advertising Effects on Brand Attitude? Journal of Marketing Research, 18: 318-332.
- Morrison, M., and Krugman, D. (2001), A Look at Mass and Computer Mediated Technologies: Understanding the Roles of Television and Computers in the Home, Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media: 45 (2), 135-161.
- Napoli, Phillip M. (2001), The Audience Product and the New Media Environment: Implications for the Economics of Media Industries, International Journal on Media Management: 3 (1), 66-73.
- Negroponte, N. (1995), Being Digital, London: Coronet Books.
- OFCOM (2005), Digital TV UK Update.
- Pagani, M. (2000), Interactive Television: A Model of Analysis of Business Economic Dynamics, International Journal on Media Management: 2 (1), 25-36.
- Pavlou, P. A. and D. W. Stewart (2000), “Measuring the Effects and Effectiveness of Interactive Advertising: A Research Agenda,” Journal of Interactive Advertising.
- Peltier, et al (2003), Interactive Integrated Marketing Communication: Combining the Power of IMC, the New Media and Database Marketing, International Journal of Advertising: 22 (1), 93-115.
- Pavlou, P.A., & Stewart, D. W.(2000), Measuring the Effects and Effectiveness of Interactive Advertising:
- A Research Agenda, Journal of Interactive Advertising, ISSN: 1525-2019.
- Patwardhan, P., & Yang, J. (2003), Internet Dependency Relations and Online Consumer Behavior.
- Reeve, J. (1997), Understanding Motivation and Emotion, (2nd ed.), Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace and Company.
- Rodgers, S. and H. M. Cannon (2000), The Many Faces of Web Users: An Exploratory Study of Functionally-Based Web-Usage Groups, Paper presented at the American Academy of Advertising conference.
- Rodgers, S. and K. M. Sheldon (2002), The Web Motivation Inventory: An Improved way to Characterize Internet Users, Journal of Advertising Research (forthcoming).
- Rodgers, S. & Thorson, E. (2000), The Interactive Advertising Model: How Users Perceive and Process Online Ads, Journal of Interactive Advertising, ISSN: 1525-2019.
- Rodgers, S. (2002), The Interactive Advertising Model Tested: The Role of Internet Motives in Ad Processing, Journal of Interactive Advertising, ISSN: 1525-2019.
- Rodgers, Shelly and Qimei Chen (2002), Post-Adoption Attitudes to Advertising on the Web, Journal of Advertising Research: 45 (3), 95-104.
- Roehm, et al (2004), Plugs versus Placements: A Comparison of Alternatives for Within-program Brand Exposure, Psychology & Marketing: 21 (1), 17-28.
- Saatchi & Saatchi Q. (2005), What’s new? IDTV for Advertisers. Web.
- Sheehan, Kim B. (2002), Online Research Methodology: Reflections and Speculations, Journal of Interactive Advertising.
- Simon, H. A. (1955), A Behavioral Model of Rational Choice, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 69: 99-118.
- Simon, H. A. (1990), Invariants of Human Behavior, Annual Review of Psychology: 41, 1-19.
- Sheehan, Kim B. (2002), Online Research Methodology: Reflections and Speculations, Journal of Interactive Advertising.
- Stafford, T. F. and M. R. Stafford (1998), Uses and Gratifications of the World Wide Web: A Preliminary Study, In The Proceedings of the 1998 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising, D. D. Muehling, ed., Washington State University, Pullman, Washington: 174-181.
- Steuer, J. (1992), Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence, Journal of communication: 42 (4), 23-72.
- Stewart, D. W. (2004), The New Face of Interactive Advertising: It’s Time to Rethink Traditional Ad Research Strategy, Marketing Research: 16 (1), 10-15.
- Stewart, J. (1999), Interactive TV at Home: TV Meets the Internet, in Interactive Television, TV of the Future or the Future of TV?, F. Jens Jensen and Cathy Toscan, eds., Denmark: Aalborg University Press, 2-22.
- Swedlow, Tracy (2000), Interactive Enhanced Television: A Historical and Critical Perspective.
- Thawani, et al (2004), Context Aware Personalized Ad Insertion in an Interactive TV Environment, Paper presented at the workshop of Personalization in Future TV, The Netherlands, Eindhoven.
- Unspecified, (2004), Audience Satisfaction among TiVo and Replay Users, Journal of Interactive Advertising, 4 (2).
- Van D. & Broeck, W. (2005), New Media, New Audiences, New Practices: Is iDTV indeed a Paradigm Shift? Paper presented at the IAMCR Conference, Taiwan, Taipei.
- Van S., Naombi (2004). In the Land of the Blinds, TV is King, E-view, 2.
- Van, D., Jan and Loes D. V. (2001), Searching for the Holy Grail, New Media & Society, 3 (4), 443-465.
- Wimmer, R. D. and J. R. Dominick (1997), Mass Media Research: An Introduction, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
- Wirtz, B. W. and Schwartz, J. (2001), Strategic Implications of the Segment of One TV, International Journal on Media Management: 3 (1), 15-25.
- Wendy, J. P., et al (2004), Does Interactive TV Imply New Uses? Flemish Case study, Paper presented at the IDTV Conference, UK, Brighton.
Appendix 1- Proposed Plan
|Implementation of Adverting||***||***||***|
As A marketer it has taken Unilever Plc. Blackfriars, London
Questionnaire to interview marketers
The rationale of this survey is to congregate data relating to the nature of the Advertising and its effectiveness. All data gathered would be analysed and integrated in the project entitled, “The Impact of Effectiveness Advertising on Consumer Decision Making and Buying Intention.” Moreover, all data congregated must kept confidential.
- How longtime have you been in employment at the company?
Less than 1-year 1 – 3 years Over 3 years
- What is your job function? ____________________________
- What responsibilities do you execute in carrying out your job function? (Please choose all that is relevant)
Re-ordering Advertising Budget Allocation Advertising Planning Media Relation Administration of staff Customer’s queries Record keeping of sales Preparing reports
How many customers do you interact with per day?
Less then 10 10 – 20 21-30 31 – 40 More than 40
- What type of Advertising do customers usually demand the most throughout the year?
Print Media Broadcast Media Internet Telemarketing Video conferencing
- What section of the Advertising is effective on customers buying decision throughout the year?
Print Media Broadcast Media Internet Telemarketing Video conferencing
- What information is shared by customers through Adverting? (Please select all that apply)
Sales records Stock item information Reports
- What problems do you come across when sharing information? (Please choose all that appropriate)
Difficulty in viewing entries by other Customers Delays while waiting on other Customers Layout of material is difficult to understand
- How many increases of sales transactions do you record on average per day for each advertising?
Less then 10 10 – 20 21-30 31 – 40 More than 40
- How long do you usually take to advertising efforts?
Daily less than 5 Times More than 5 Times 10 times and above Weekly less than 7 Times More than 7 Times 15 times and above Monthly less than 10 Times More than 10 Times 30 times and above
- How long do you take to convey sales information onto Marketing Department?
1 – 10 minutes 11 – 20 minutes 21 – 30 minutes More than 30 minutes
- How do you measure the effectiveness of advertising?
With direct increase in sales Consumer’s respond Increase in revenue Advertising cost & Revenue increase ratio There are many calculations to be performed
- Do you face any problems in measuring the effectiveness of advertising?
- Do you encounter any troubles in retrieving information from Customers?
(ii) If yes, please indicate the nature problems by choosing all that apply.
Consumers entry Communication Consumer’s entries being omitted Incorrect stock inventory calculations
- How long does it normally take to prepare Consumers reports?
Less than 1 week 1 – 2 weeks More than 2 weeks
- What type of communication do you use to respond Customers?
Teleconferencing Video conferencing Call-centre Direct Phone calls Web base E-mail
- Which of the following would assist you in viewing the Advertising effects on customer’s motivation? (Please choose all that apply)
Software Automated Options on screen Easy navigation features Manual system Grand chart displays
- What features of customers would you like to have in the Consumers database? (Please select all that apply)
Automatic update of Consumers A detailed Consumer list Automatic generation of reports Sales recording Automatic calculations Auto monitoring of Consumer levels Passwords
- What ultimate benefits would you gain from using the advertising? (Please select all that apply)
Faster growing of consumers Faster growth of sales More accurate Interaction Easier Brand development Faster motivation of customer
- Do you have any suggestions for improving customer service in your organisation? __________________________________________________________________
The purpose of this questionnaire is to gather data relating to customer views and opinions Advertising effectiveness. All data gathered would be analysed and integrated in the project entitled, “The Impact of Effectiveness Advertising on Consumer Decision Making and Buying Intention.” Moreover, all data congregated must kept confidential.
- How long have you been a customer at Unilever, UK?
Less than 1 year 1 – 3 years More than 3 years
- Why do you like better to purchase your items from the company? (Please choose all that apply)
Convenient location Quality products Good customer service Low prices Available goods
- How often do you purchase goods from Unilever Plc.?
Daily Weekly Monthly Yearly
- What type of products do you usually purchase? (Please select all that apply)
Janitorial Chemical Industrial Chemicals Lab Items Services
- What type of products do you demand the most?
Healthcare Foodstuff Cosmetics Hygienists Products
- How many products do you buy in one visit to the company?
1 2 – 5 6 – 10 More than 10
- How long it takes for you to purchase items?
Less than 1 minute 1 – 5 minutes 6 – 10 minutes More than 10 minutes
- Why you involve so long to purchasing the items? (Please select all that apply)
You purchase more than one item There are shortage of sales clerks Goods are not available in times There is a long queues of customers
- Do you think that a computerised system in Unilever would be beneficial to you?
- Do you think Unilever ‘s adverting is effective is good.
- Do you think Unilever ‘s adverting have something learning for you.
- Does advertising impact on your buying decision?
- Do you face any problem to interaction with Unilever?
- What type of interaction with Unilever you like more?
Teleconferencing Video conferencing Call-centre Direct Phone calls Web base E-mail
- Does Unilever care for your opinion?
- Do you have any suggestion on the advertising of Unilever, please specify –
The existing literature does not provide with a suitable instrument to asses the impact of Advertising Effectiveness on the functional model of Consumers Buying decision making. Therefore a suitable instrument has been developed to quantify this assessment. The questionnaire has been developed in a manner that has preserved its internal cohesiveness; care has been taken to ensure that each question focuses on one particular issue. Likert Scales (1-7) provide the evaluation mechanism for the various “
|1||How user friendly is the Advertising Effectiveness?||1||1||2||0||3||0||1|
|2||How secure is the Advertising Effectiveness?||1||1||2||0||3||0||1|
|3||How much support did the top management provide during the implementation of the Advertising solution?||1||1||2||0||3||0||1|
|4||What is the improvement in the level of customer service after the introduction of E Marketing?||1||1||2||0||3||0||1|
|5||What is the level of integration of Advertising Effectiveness with Customers Buying Decision Making?||1||1||2||0||3||0||1|
|6||What is the level of integration of Advertising Effectiveness with associated business processes like Marketing Strategy etc?||1||1||2||0||3||0||1|
|7||Please quantify the increase in the customer base after the introduction of E-commerce?||1||1||2||0||3||0||1|
|8||Please quantify the increase in the revenues of the Marketer after the introduction of Advertising Effectiveness on Consumers buying decision making?||1||1||2||0||3||0||1|
|9||Please rate the flexibility of the workforce in adopting to the Advertising Effectiveness solution [1,2,3,4,5,6,7]||1||1||2||0||3||0||1|
|10||Please rate the flexibility of the organisation in adopting to the Marketing solution||1||1||2||0||3||0||1|
|11||How personalized is the Advertising system (Does it address the individual problems of the customer)?||2||0||2||0||3||0||1|
|12||What is the level of integration of the different Information systems to the marketer?||2||0||2||0||3||0||1|
|13||Please rate the availability of the Consumer’s integration.||0||1||2||0||2||0||2|
|14||What is the rapidity or speed of the delivery of service in the Advertising Effectiveness context (especially when a physical action is required)?||1||1||1||0||5||0||1|
|15||Please quantify the incentives available with the customer to use the Online Advertising solution?||0||2||1||0||3||0||1|
|16||Don’t trust giving contact information online||2||1||3||0||2||0||1|
|17||Extensive functionality and information to answer questions||0||3||0||3||0||1|
|18||Don’t trust accuracy of information||1||1||2||0||3||0||1|
|19||Which media considered more effective||0||1||2||0||3||0||1|
|20||How freedom do consumers enjoy to avoid advertising?||1||1||3||0||1||0||1|
Attributes, which are being quantified through this questionnaire, this scale quantifies the importance of the various qualities, which are being quantified through this questionnaire, with 1 being the least important and 7 being the most important. This scale is regularly used for quantifying the opinions of the respondents.
All answers have to be given on a scale of 1 to 7 with 1 being the least important and 7 being the most important37.
Source: Ipsos, M. (2007), Chartered Institute of Marketing’s
1 University adopted Supervisor 3737 Han and Noh, (1999-2000) and Usoro, 1999