Nature and Types of Theory
As regards several substantive themes, the scholarly writing on what is a theory presents a superfluity of explanations, views, and decisive factors. Despite the numerous responses to this problem, perspectives are contradictory and there is diminutive harmony and a lack of consent on its meaning, its archetypal nature the measure for ascertaining a good theory (Gelso, 2006), the ultimate purpose of theory (Harlow, 2009) and the most excellent method for theory construction. In fact, according to Sutton and Staw (1995), the need for agreement on precisely what theory is may perhaps give details of why it is so complex to build up a burly theory in the behavioral sciences. One of the main causes of this situation is that scholars and researchers perceive academic activities from diverse perspectives and paradigms (Torraco, 2002). Hall (2000) hypothesized that every normative theory is festooned with a metaphysical principle. Therefore, matters related to meaning, measure, and use depend on a priori binder to certain assumptions about what comprises facts (epistemology), truth (metaphysics), the nature of being or subsistence (ontology), standards (axiology), and other basic theoretical questions.
Henderikus (2007) classifies this idea as theory loaded study. Other scholars refer to this analysis of epistemology as perceptional presupposition. Tarraco (2002) affirmed that these conjectural viewpoints are elemental to the philosopher‘s selection of research principle, topic, and method. Other scholars note in their studies that comment that one‘s point of view would definitely influence and determine the categories of issues that are to be answered. Henderikus (2007) confirmed this viewpoint when he observed that one should not be necessarily inexperienced to view the humanity as it is. However, he or she should always perceive the world with some fixed ideas, which would perhaps be decorated by the hypotheses or ideas that were utilized to structure the observations. This idea is based on the idea that seeing is believing meaning that an individual applies the theory that has been proven. Others note that believing is seeing implying that a theory that an individual believes in is more applicable to him or her rather than the one that is simply suggested. Other scholars observe that people apply their own ideas and experiences when conducting research because what they expect is what exactly they see. In this regard, it is noted that theories are usually self-sealing implying that they block individuals from seeing their own errors. In fact, others would go against reality to protect their own beliefs and principles. Scholars strive to be objective in their analysis of events and behavior but their worldview interferes with their judgment.
From the perspective of presupposition scholars, researchers can never be objective and unbiased. This is because of the existence of prior knowledge, which interferes with objective analysis. Some scholars observe that some researchers go a notch higher to defend ideas that are fictional simply to defend their worldviews. This idea was clearly captured by Lewontin (1997), when he noted that:
We take the side of science in spite of the patent absurdity of some of its constructs… because we have a prior commitment, a commitment to materialism. It is not that the methods and institutions of science somehow compel us to accept a material explanation of the phenomenal world. However, on the contrary, we are forced by our a priori adherence to material causes to create an apparatus of investigation and a set of concepts that produce material explanations, no matter how counterintuitive, no matter how mystifying to the uninitiated… for we cannot allow a Divine Foot in the door.
On the other hand, empiricists, evidence-based scholars, and positivists note that presupposition is invalid because it poses that theories are usually underdetermined by collected data. In other words, presupposition concludes that there is no need for data collection. Empiricists warn that if data is not collected, verification or falsification cannot take place. To empiricists, falsification is the main feature of a theory meaning that a theory cannot exist if falsification cannot be applied. To empiricists, presupposition is simply a personal belief that does constitute a theory. In fact, the presupposition is compared to religious conviction, false notion, sixth sense, and astrology because it lacks the certitude of practical certification.
From the above analysis, it is clear that the meaning and the nature of theory vary from one scholar to the other. Gelso (2006) concisely acknowledged that a theory is a testimonial of the supposed correlation between and amongst variables. To him, a theory is made up of variables with interrelated meanings. On the other hand, Heinen (1985) affirmed that a theory could be described as a collection of rationally structured laws or correlates that comprise elucidation in a certain field. This implies that a theory should comprise logically ordered concepts. Correspondingly, Sutton and Staw (1995) observed that a theory should respond to the question of why. It illustrates underlying relationships and clarifies the categorization and timing of procedures in that relationship. Moreover, it gives the reasons why a correlation exists. Wacker (1998) illustrated that a theory ought to have four main parts. These parts include a comprehensible description, subject matter, interrelationships, and extrapolative assertion. These components aim to answer the ordinary language questions of who, what, when, where, how, why.
The definitions offered by numerous scholars show that there are a number of typologies of theories. This is because of the complexity and diversity of definitions and criteria related to theory definition. When determining the types of theories, their uses, roles, boundaries, and objectives are usually considered. According to Tarraco (2002), at least five types of theories exist. The first one is hypothetical-deductive theory. Others include inductive grounded theory, meta-analytic theory, social constructivist theory, and case study theory. According to Gelso, theories are classified based on their functions, descriptive function, delimiting function, generative function, and integrative function. The descriptive role of any theory answers the question of why while the delimiting role answers the what. Others scholars note that theories are categorized into three major types, including empirical-analytical theories, interpretive theories, and critical theories. For others, theories are meant to cover laws, enlighten humanity, and describe what should be happening in a certain field.
In order to evaluate and distinguish the categories of theories, a clear meaning of interrelated concepts such as hypothesis, prototype, model, and conception ought to be given. Concepts are defined as terms of designating things. It is one way through which scientists construe ideas. In other words, a concept is a constructive idea or a mental image, which tends to give a synopsis of a set of observations. This implies that a concept can have more than one meaning, depending on the context and area of study. Propositions are characterized as the statements, which provide the relations between two interconnected theories. Gelso (2006) postulated that propositions produce a hypothesis in every study. This implies that a hypothesis is just a suggestion that is given in an empirically measured way. Every hypothesis ought to have a dependent and an independent variable. In scientific studies, a hypothesis is frequently given in a null form implying that every study tries to rebuff the null hypothesis. A hypothesis plays a critical role in establishing a relationship between theory and data. It usually explains how variables in scientific research are put into operation because it classifies clearly, what is to occur in the study. Sutton and Staw (1995) noted that models and diagrams exist to build a theory and envision the inter-relatedness of variables meaning that they show the causal trend and potency of relationships. However, a theory should always be used to explain the meaning of a paradigm and a model. This shows that models and paradigms are utilized in social research to show the relationships existing within a theory. A prototype is a comprehensive way of elucidating the extraordinary world whereas theories are systematic sets of reliable statements.
A study of the theory traditions reveals that there are at least three categories of theories. A comparison of the three typologies shows that a big difference exists among three types. The first category is hypothetical-deduction theory, which is also referred to as a nomothetic, positivist, post-positivist, empirical-analytical, and hierarchical theory. The second category is the inductive-synthesis theory, popularly referred to as idiographic, grounded, constructivism, and interpretive theory. The third category is referred to as critical theory, also referred to as the neo-Marxist or social justice theory. As the chart below implies, the assumptions and objectives of any theory influence the technique to be employed. A hypothesis is usually employed in scientific research just in case the study aims to discover the truth or laws, which are considered general. In case the major aim of research is to construe what could be happening in a particular setting, inductive grounded theory is usually employed. In other words, inductive way of thinking is in fact idiographic because it compares various situations. In social research, facts are first gathered before employing a theory meaning that facts cannot be dismissed because they go against the theory. In research, it is suicidal to theorize before gaining first-hand information. In other words, theories cannot be used to explain major problems without going to the field to collect data.
A comparative study of the typologies of theories shows that deductive reasoning is narrow in nature. This implies that it is simply concerned with testing and substantiating certain hypotheses. In other words, it is nomothetic in nature because it offers an depth explanation of a phenomenon. The hypothetical deduction is usually defined as Einstein’s approach to theory because the approach reveals a different relationship between collected data, the theory, and the analysis of data. Through the approach, the type of data to be collected is clearly defined. The main aim is to establish whether a hypothesis is supported empirically and whether the theory can be falsified. On the other hand, the aim of the critical theory is different. Its most important focus is to unearth facts pertaining to power relations, which are complex to comprehend or consciously obfuscated to societal members. In this case, the main aim is to alter political, social, and economic orders. From this hypothetical viewpoint, matters related to mistreatment, authority, and suppression are frequently investigated in order to make social players conscious of these inequities and facilitate liberation from them. Liberation from structures of control is referred to as decisive reflexivity:
|Metaphysics||Realism—observational data are considered the foundation of knowledge, objective reality can be understood & measured||Relativism—reality composed from objective and subjective meaning as determined by stakeholders in the setting||Reaction—reality shaped by values of those who control power & resources|
|Methods Focus||Hypotheses testing, falsification||Gather all facts (data) first, infer theory that matches precisely those facts; allow new theoretical understanding to emerge from the data||Understand historical forces, evolution of meanings, material practices, & inequalities|
|Goal||To explain & predict; discover generalized laws & universal ―truth‖||Accurately understand what is occurring in this particular situation; describe actors view-point & significance||Emancipation, uncover hidden interests & contradictions; critique, transformation|
|Tasks||Postulates-Deductions-Data-(repeat as needed) (i.e., theory to data)||Data-Deductions-Postulates-Data (continuous interplay) (i.e., data to theory)||Identify and reveal political, social, and economic inequities|
|Unit of Analysis||Operationalization of concepts & variables||Verbal and/or nonverbal action||Relationship contradictions|
|Research Method||Quantitative (QUANTITATIVE)||Qualitative (QUALITATIVE)||Both QUANTITATIVE & QUALITATIVE|
|Metaphor||Albert Einstein||Sherlock Holmes||Karl Marx|
|Source: This table is compiled from Torraco (2002).|
Relationship between Theory and Research
Scholarly writing on the correlation between theory and research is very diverse meaning that it is available in large numbers. The literature discusses the way research can contribute to theory, as well as how theory can contribute to research. However, scholars do not agree on the way in which research influences theory development. The role of the theory in social research is a matter of contention. Nevertheless, academicians concur with the fact that theory is the currency of academic research meaning that without theory, social research cannot be executed. According to Southern and Devlin (2010), the main cause of disagreement is that original research should always contribute to the existing body of knowledge, particularly in the applicable discipline or area of study. Ellis and Levy (2008) observed that the main problem is what constitutes contribution to a certain body of knowledge. Existing literature shows that quantitative and qualitative research should always contribute to theory. According to Corley and Gioia (2011), this contribution should take two dimensions, one of them being in terms of innovativeness (incremental and revelatory) while the other should be in terms of effectiveness (methodical and sensible).
According to Smith, Bekker, and Cheater (2011), this apprehension between hypothetical design (theory building) and practical design (functional practice) is omnipresent. In social research, quantitative design tends to be general because it seems rigorous in terms of hypothesis testing. Its contribution in terms of originality and utility is advanced as opposed to qualitative design’s contribution. However, the contribution of qualitative research to theory development is equally, even though it is narrower in scope. Qualitative research comes in handy when dealing with topics that are difficult to quantify. These include topics that deal with complex social situations. The kind of theory produced under qualitative research is idiographic in character. However, the ensuing theory is grounded. In spite of this contribution, Hay and Lee (2009) successfully noted that qualitative methods have the possibility of making basic contributions to the growth of indispensable science in behavioral and social spheres. According to the above scholars, this is possible because qualitative studies explicate changes to available constructs, the correlation among constructs, and the course of causation between predictors and results.
Through analysis, it is identified that research and theory are related in a number of ways. In fact, research could perhaps contribute to theory development in a number of ways. In this study, only three ways through which research contributes to theory are discussed. As early noted in the previous chapters, research contributes to theory development in two major ways that are, utility and originality. This shows that research can strengthen the power of the theory in terms of explaining a certain concept. In fact, knowledge generated through research can be revelatory to an extent of shifting the paradigm. In general, the contribution of research to theory development is more incremental meaning that it contributes to building up of facts. It can be observed under the first contribution that research strengthens the power of the theory through contribution of facts.
Under the second contribution, Corley and Gioia (2011) noted that contribution of research to theory is a long venerated and consistent application of themes. This explains why some theories are favored over others. This shows that theories are not simply used for the sake of truth. They are to be applied practically for them to be accepted within the academic circles. Whetten (1990) noted that any theory must have the potential of improving the current research practice. In other words, theories must improve the understanding of scholars as regards certain fields of study. Moreover, a theory should be applied in a certain field to explain certain contentious issues. Scholars observe that a good theory is always practical meaning that theories are often employed in explaining social behavior. This is the third contribution of research to theory development. Only good theories are employed in explaining social events. This shows that theorists are forced to design their theories in a way that would attract researchers. A theory that is not employed in social research would probably become extinct. When a theory is employed frequently in social research, it becomes practical and achieves the status of a good theory.
According to Zikmund, Babin, Carr, and Griffin (2008), a theory does not have any value in case it does not have any practical application. Practical application of a theory is only achieved through social research. A theory is of no value if does not answer some research questions. In social research, there exist some research gaps that scholars strive to fill through conducting studies. These research gaps are filled through application of theory as far as interpretation is concerned. Hypothesizing for the sake of participating in mental aerobics tends to be impenetrable, at best, and infertile.
Contributions of the Theory
The theorist noted that human beings and animals should express themselves emotionally in order to adapt to the new changes in the environment. In this regard, emotions develop over a year to serve a specific role in the life of human beings. Without emotions, Darwin noted that human beings could not survive. Emotions encourage individuals to take part in societal activities. In other words, emotions motivated individuals to engage in societal activities. Evolutionary psychologists, such as Matthews (2004), note that emotions have a specific role to play because it helps individuals in accomplishing certain tasks in life. Howard Gardner introduced the topic multiple intelligence in his “works frames of mind: the theory of multiple intelligence, which pertained to interpersonal intelligence. The theory was interpreted to mean the capability of an individual to comprehend the objectives, inspirations, and requirements of other individuals. Intrapersonal intelligence, which means the ability to define oneself clearly, was also related to the theory. Gardner (1983) observed that an individual has the role of ensuring that he understands his feelings, uncertainties, and inspirations clearly. Traditional theories of self-esteem, such as the IQ do not have the ability to help an individual explain his or her cognitive processes clearly. Scholars agree that emotional intelligence is a complex subject that cannot be explained using a single theory. In other words, emotional intelligence demands that a scholar employs a number of approaches to comprehend it fully. Simple definitions do not bring out the exact meaning of emotional intelligence.
Wayne Payne first defined emotional intelligence in his doctoral thesis titled “a study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence”, which was published in 1985. Barrett and Salovey note that scholars developed interest afterward and moved on to conduct studies regarding the topic in 1990s. Goleman, in his works “emotional intelligence: why it can matter more than IQ”, observed that emotional intelligence is the most significant predictor of achievement. Theories of emotional intelligence show that emotional intelligence factors influence the individual’s performance at workplace. In fact, factors of emotional intelligence influence an individual performance more as the economy shifts from manufacturing to service-based economy. Hein (2007) noted that emotional intelligence influences the behavior of an individual both in the place of work and at home. Based on this analysis, emotional intelligence theory has an important role in the field of psychology. However, it should be noted that not all scholars appreciate its role in the field of psychology. In this section, its strengths and weaknesses will be discussed.
Areas of Controversy
One of the strengths of the theory is that it commands an intuitive appeal meaning that each scholar concurs with the fact that individuals possess certain qualities that distinguish them from others. In the places of work, some employees are smarter than others meaning that their levels of understanding are different. This difference in intelligence is best explained using the theory of emotional intelligence. Moreover, emotional intelligence theory is supported because it predicts criteria that matter. This implies that if an individual is perceived to be more intelligent, there is a high likelihood that he or she will perform well at the place of work (Stéphane, & Christopher, 2006). A study conducted by Robbins and Judge (2009) established that emotional intelligence was correlated to the performance of an individual at the place of work and in daily life. Elfenbein and Ambady (2002) observed in their study that emotions could be spotted in an individual’s facial expression, which would definitely predict his or her peer rating. This would definitely influence the individual’s value towards the organization. Finally, the proponents of theory note that it is biologically based meaning that people with damaged brains would definitely perform poorly in their daily activities and even in education (Gardner, 1983). Moreover, people with damaged brains tend to have impaired decision-making processes. The following diagram shows the personal abilities, as defined by emotional intelligence theory.
A combination of the two models above gives a comprehensive theory of emotional intelligence, as described in the following diagram.
Opponents of the theory observe that the theory is vague because few people would believe that being self-aware or self-motivated entails intelligence. Moreover, scholars focus on different skills meaning that they believe a number of factors influence human behavior. In this regard, it is established that it is difficult to find a single definition of emotional intelligence. Locke (2005), observed in his study that “the concept of emotional intelligence has now become so broad and the components so variegated that…it is no longer even an intelligence concept. Others believe that emotional intelligence is a concept that cannot be subjected to scientific measures. In this case, the soundness of the theory is open to discussion. In many studies related to the theory, the measures are self-reported implying that the possibility of obtaining vague answers is high. In other words, there might be no wrong or right questions. Hein (2007) noted that the measures of the theory are very many meaning that scholars have not yet engaged them in rigorous review, as compared to the measures of personality and IQ. Regarding the validity of emotional intelligence, the findings are subject to discussion because the theory is believed to have originated from intelligence and personality theories. Locke (2005) noted that the theory does not have anything new to offer, as other theories would do. The aim of a theory is to explain a phenomenon in a different way. Emotional intelligence theory does not have anything new to offer to the field of psychology meaning that it replicates the postulations of other theories.
Responding to the criticisms, supporters of emotional intelligence theory, including Mayer, Caruso, and Salovey (2000) published an article titled “emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence”, to counter the criticisms. The following flowchart shows the procedure.
In the article, the supporters of the theory came up with the criteria for pronouncing something intelligent. The first principle is that something should be broken down into a set of psychological capacities for it to be acknowledged as intelligence. These abilities must be from a related set meaning that they must fall and rise as a group. Moreover, the abilities of any intelligence should be related to the traditional intelligence. To the above scholars, age plays an important role in identifying the abilities of intelligence. In this regard, the intelligence must develop with age and meaning that the age of an individual, as well as his experience in life determines his or her effectiveness in the place of work. Irrespective of the dispute, research reveals that sentiments are important as far as rational thinking is concerned. This is mainly because they offer critical information as regards the comprehension of the surrounding environment. In this article, the importance of emotional intelligence theory towards behavior comprehension is given. This is because the theory explains human motivation and creativity, job performance, decision-making, development of negotiation skills, acquisition of management skills, and individual development. An individual with developed emotional intelligence would probably fit well in a global environment. Moreover, he or she would manage diversity without struggling. In our daily life, emotions and moods affect the individual consciousness. People develop motivation when they are good about the world around them. Murray (2009) noted that motivation helps individuals to express their personalities better, which makes them more creative and optimistic.
Theory and Practice
The Relationship between Theory and Practice
In the field of psychology, leadership, nursing and other human services, subjects such as ‘applying theory to practice’ are common. These subjects are employed particularly when employees are to undergo some form of training in order to enhance staff development. However, their meanings are not well known, especially the process employed when relating the theory to practice. In the current field of professionalism, theory is usually employed to understand the expectations of employees in the organization. Theories are usually invoked in order to offer the best training to members of staff. Therefore, theory plays a critical role in the modern corporate world because it holds certain respect and status. In order to maximize the potential of human beings, the use of theory in service delivery is essential. In this sense, theory is the informed practice in the field of leadership in a number of ways. Since employees face numeral challenges as regards service delivery, theory plays a role in doing justice since it simplifies the complex world into something understandable. Moreover, theories are applied in organizations in order to keep off assumptions, prejudices, and stereotypes, which threaten the very survival of the organization. Without theories, the organization would not function normally because discrimination and oppression would be inevitable. Through theory, the organization could come up with a practical developmental approach, which would allow and facilitate persistent individual and professional growth. Application of theory in management ensures high level of enthusiasm, challenge, and dedication towards the organization.
Even though theories are applied to construe the meaning of the complex phenomenon, some scholars still believe that theories are misleading implying that they should not be applied in the management processes. In fact, many practitioners do not believe in theories but instead they prefer making pragmatic decisions based on their intuitions and values. Theoretical knowledge is considered scholarly. In this regard, many managers do not like employing it when making critical decisions. Research shows that decisions made without employing theories are always misleading, which might even bring about terrible problems to the organization. Many managers have been accused of being tyrannical because they do not employ leadership theories when making decisions in the organization. Studies show that good managers, practitioners, and educationists should always employ theories whenever they make critical decisions in the organization in case they wish to take the organization to the next stage.
It should be noted that the relationship between theory and practice is not related to thinking and doing. Relating theory to practice means employing a certain approved approach in making decisions. The knowledge of a certain field should always inform the actions of an individual. Whenever theory is related to practice, issues related to discrimination and inequality would be prevented. For there to be a relationship between theory and practice, power, ideology, and strong human values should be present. Theory is developed and maintained through constant research. Early scholars, such as David Kolb observed that theory has a role to play as far as the understanding of educational processes is concerned. To Kolb, learning cycle should be used to understand the relationship between theory and practice. It is established that learning is an active process meaning that learners should be engaged in theories to keep them acquainted with the principles of a certain field. Learning cycle entails four stages, the first one being the concrete experience stage. The stage pertains to the experiences that are meant to convene the requirements of a learner. These include reading and participating in training programs. Through participation in training and reading extensively, an individual would gain important skills that would help him or her to achieve his or her objectives. On many occasions, learning is based on life experiences as opposed to formal opportunities that an individual comes across in life. In order to come up with concrete decisions in an organization, learning alone is not enough. This leads to the next stage, which is reflective observation. This implies that the leader should evaluate each experience, as well as its effectiveness before deciding on whether to apply it. Studies show that it is rare for an individual to learn from an experience without first thinking seriously about the experience and making some sense out of it. The process of reflecting on an idea before judging whether to employ it leads the leader to the third stage, which is the abstract conceptualization stage.
Reflecting on an idea gives way for broader consideration of an issue of concern. Since experiences are linked, it is upon the leader to make a decision on which experience to choose. In life, people relate various ideas and beliefs implying that the process of reflection plays a role in making concrete decisions. Abstract conceptualization pertains to reflecting on the implications of the various experiences, as well as conducting an analysis on their significance and legitimacy. Through conceptualization, a leader would definitely come up with a working model or a hypothesis that explains the whole process. Therefore, hypothesis formation is the most important stage of decision making, which is related to theory formation. Once a theory has been formed through conceptualization, the leader could now enter the next stage, which is active experimentation stage. At this stage, the theory is put into practice. In other words, an abstract idea is translated into a tangible reality of applicability. From this analysis, it is noted that theory is closely related to practice in a number of ways. One of the ways is that learning can never take place automatically. This means that experience alone does not facilitate learning. Theory must be employed whenever a leader intends to achieve certain objectives through learning. Research shows that human experiences must be processed first before they can be utilized. This means that they must be reflected upon and be related to other experiences, before being applied to resolve an issue. The idea that human experiences must be processed means that theory is related to practice. Before utilizing experiences, a leader must integrate them with an existing framework meaning that the experiences must be converted into a theory. This means that practice is being applied to theory because new experiences are utilized to experiment and enlarge theoretical understanding of the world.
The fact that each individual is responsible for his own learning means that theory is related to practice. As earlier mentioned, learning is an active process that an individual must take part individually. This is mainly because learning is a self-directed process meaning that one person cannot learn on behalf of others. The role of other people is only to provide facilities and motivation, but they cannot help in the understanding of the subject matter. The decision to excel in academics is a personal decision, which cannot be influenced by other people. In the same way, relating theory to practice is an issue that each individual must take part in without involving others. Relating theory to practice in the field of management means translating knowledge into action. This would probably complete the learning cycle.
Transformational Leadership Theory
Leadership is one of the most important factors that always dictate success or failure of an organization in the world today. Leadership has been in existence for as long as the history of humankind can be traced. As Rousche, Geropge, and Baker (1989) put it, leadership goes beyond providing the direction for the followers. It entails going into details to discover the potential of the followers. It involves engaging the followers in a way that would make them discover themselves. It involves helping the followers develop the urge to achieve. It is the art of making people realize that they have a potential to achieve beyond their current capacity. Leadership requires the leader to challenge the followers positively in a way that would make them feel that they need to rediscover themselves.
The current corporate world has become very challenging. New firms are coming into existence with new strategies that never existed before. Technology is changing the face of the earth. This poses serious challenge to firms operating in the current market. Firms are currently facing challenges from various corners. The customer in the contemporary market has access to vast information, thanks to the advanced means of communication through the mass and social media. These consumers know that they have an array of options to choose from when they want to make any purchase. They are therefore very demanding. They are willing to pay less for a product whose quality has been improved. Bennis and Goldsmith (2003) say that customers are currently asking for more, but are willing to pay less. This reduces profitability of firms. On the other hand, suppliers are now demanding more for the supplies they make to such organizations. Such suppliers cite increased standards of living, inflation among other factors as a reason for increasing the prices of their suppliers. The cost of maintaining a business is very high. Various input factors have increased in price. The environmental conditions for conducting business have also been subjected to various other bottlenecks making the entire process very complicated.
Transformational leadership is defined by Burns (1978) as a type of leadership that uses motivation to enhance the performance of employees. Bustin (2004) defines leadership as a process where an individual (a leader) offers guidance to a group of individuals (followers) in an organizational structure. Leadership is one of the most important factors in any organization. Leadership and management share a number of attributes, but they differ on various fronts. Transformational leadership, as the name suggests, provides a completely new path to approaching various issues in an organization. It provides an insight into the employees. One of the main aims of a transformational leader is to create a completely new approach to managing various issues within the organization. This is what the current world demands from firms. Emerging technologies are changing various approaches to management. The emerging trends need new approaches that can be used to provide a way in which they can be managed differently.
Transformational leadership is defined by Burns (1978) as a type of leadership that uses motivation to enhance the performance of employees. Bustin (2004)) defines leadership as a process where an individual (a leader) offers guidance to a group of individuals (followers) in an organizational structure. Leadership is one of the most important factors in any organization. Leadership and management share a number of attributes, but they differ on various fronts. Transformational leadership, as the name suggests, provides a completely new path to approaching various issues in an organization. It provides an insight into the employees. One of the main aims of a transformational leader is to create a completely new approach to managing various issues within the organization. This is what the current world demands from firms. Emerging technologies are changing various approaches to management. The emerging trends need new approaches that can be used to provide a way in which they can be managed differently.
Transformational leadership attempts to make employees discover themselves. According to Hacker and Tammy (2004), a transformational leader will always make followers realize that they have untapped capacity which they can exploit to get better results in every activity they are doing. Unlike management, leadership takes the front line in bringing change that is needed. It involves making the followers realize that they are part of the change. It makes employees own the whole process. They feel that some changes that are proposed are part of them and are meant to make their work easier. This way, they develop the responsibility to ensure that these changes are accomplished successfully and within the specified time. Such leadership will evoke desires in the followers to see to it that specific desires are achieved within the specified time. It is an art of tying the objectives of a firm to that of employees.
Characteristics of Transformational Leadership
Transformational leadership has some characteristics that make it unique from other forms of leadership. Transformational leadership cherishes authenticity. It encourages followers to act as naturally as possible. People who act naturally always tend to give their best. Passion is another major characteristic of transformational leadership. A transformational leaders must be passionate about every action they take. This way, it becomes possible for the followers to take this characteristic from the leaders. Followers will develop passion when they realize that their leader has passion in his or her actions. Transformational leadership should also embrace creativity. Creativity is very crucial in the contemporary world (Panagariya, 2008). A leader must be able to solve problems in a creative manner. They have to encourage the culture of creativity in their employees. This way, such an organization will be able to be creative in the market. The following diagram shows how theory is related to practice.
Applicability of the Theory: Transformational Leadership
A leader should be able to stimulate creativity in employees. This trait makes transformational leaders be able to challenge the current capacity of the followers with a view of making them achieve the best from them. Care should be taken to avoid scenarios where the standards set on employees are beyond their capacity. As a result, employees tend to strain in order to achieve these objectives. In this case, the challenge will come in the form of soliciting new ideas from the followers. This way, the leader will be telling followers that they are also important in developing policies that can help transform the organization. It involves engaging employees in coming up with creative solutions to the challenges that they face in their daily routines (Rodney, 2004)
A leader handles various individuals from different backgrounds. Although these individuals may share a number of characteristics, some differences make an individual unique. Individual A will have different needs from individual B, however much they may share some characteristics. Individualized consideration is the level at which a leader attends to individual followers’ needs. A transformational leader must be able to give personalized attention to the employees. They should try to make followers feel that they have a personal relationship with the leader. Such a leader is a coach and a mentor of the followers. He or she should therefore be able to talk to these people in an individual capacity (Rousche, Geropge, & Baker, 1989).
Vision of an organization is always very important in achieving organizational goals. Vision helps members of an organization see where the organization is headed. It helps in marking followers to be sure of what the organization expects of them. A leader must be able to pass the organization’s vision in an inspiring and appealing manner (Shachaf, 2008). The vision must make sense to the followers and it should develop an urge to achieve specific results within a stipulated period. Followers should feel inspired. They should develop an urge to surge ahead and achieve some objectives within the confines of their ability. They should be motivated to go a step further in achieving specific goals within the organization. Followers should be made to be optimistic in their activities, and made to appreciate that they can achieve when they decide to delimit themselves.
A leader is always a role model. A leader always guides others towards achieving a common goal of the organization. A leader must therefore, be ethical in actions, and avoid cases that would lower his status among the followers. He or she should try to lead an ideal life, where preventable mistakes are avoided at all costs, especially in the face of the followers. Such a leader should instill pride in the followers. He or she should make followers be proud of him or her in their actions. Such a leader should gain respect of the followers. Above all, followers should develop strong trust in the leader. They should be convinced that the path taken by the firm is the right path that would lead everyone towards a common success.
Attitude is always very important in defining actions of employees. The difference between industries and creative employees and a lazy one who lacks focus is the attitude. Attitude always dictates the way an individual would approach certain issues within the firm. When dealing with employees, one of the most important factors that one has to consider is developing a positive attitude that would help every member of the organization have the urge to move forward. As stated above, attitude of employees is always determined by the actions of the management team. Instilling a positive attitude on employees towards what they do remains one of the key functions of leaders in the current society.
Trust in peers
Employees spend much of their time with fellow employees. They interact with their peers when doing different activities geared towards achieving specific goals for the firm. Employees should therefore develop positive attitude towards their peers in order to ensure that the internal working environment is peaceful. They should trust one another, and believe that their problems can be solved when they work as a team. They should share innovative ideas amongst themselves and develop a working environment where each team member is a protector of others.
Trust in peers refers to the extent to which workers in similar job positions would be willing to cooperate amongst themselves to accomplish certain tasks. In the organization, it is understood that peers interact with their age mates as far as accomplishment of tasks is concerned. An employee would be tempted to work hard after realizing that his colleague is committed to realizing certain goals. For instance, peers choose certain models of performance once they notice that they have similar objectives. Therefore, trust in peers refers to choosing appropriate models meant for realizing high results.
Participation at work
The workplace requires participation of all members of the organization. Employees should develop an attitude of collective participation at work. Leadership should ensure that all cases of individualism are eliminated, and its place should be a team spirit. All the members of the organization should be made to realize that they have a responsibility to participate in every activity that the organization undertakes. To achieve this, firms should ensure that there is a clear separation of duties among various groups within the organization. Divisional of labor is important because it creates a sense of responsibility. Employees will feel that they have a role specifically meant for them. They will realize that failure to achieve the goals set for them would lead to a loss to the entire firm. Employees would feel guilty of carrying the blame for the failure of the entire firm. They will make an effort to accomplish their tasks to avoid blames coming from their side.
Participation at work refers to the input that employees place while in their relevant stations in the organization. The level of participation differs from one employee to the other. Some employees are known to be active participators while others are dormant. This affects the productivity of the organization in a number of ways. Participation is also defined as the level at which the organization involves junior employees in making decisions. This has a direct outcome on the performance of the organization in the market. An organization that involves employees in making decisions would have high employee participation at work while an organization that does not consider the views of employees would definitely have minimal participation of employees at work (Mellina, 2002).
In an organization, there is always a pool of talents brought together to achieve a common goal. In this pool, skills vary from one individual to another depending on experience, level of educations, and individual capability. In many cases, firms fail to realize the existence of such variety of skills. It is therefore common to see a manager treating employees in a given department as individuals with similar experience. This makes it impossible for the employees themselves to realize that they have some special characteristics that can make them achieve specific objectives within the firm. By appreciating the existence of this variation, it becomes easy to enhance creativity and innovation, because each employee would realize the extraordinary skill that he or she possesses and can use to create a differential change in the firm. The skills should be improved to match the needs of the organization.
Skill variety refers to diversification of employees in terms of knowledge and understanding of responsibilities. In an organization, a number of skills are needed to assist in triangulation. This means that solutions to problems are easily crafted because employees are drawn from various professions. Skills play a critical role in the development of the organization because employees are the key asset of any firm. Having a variety of skills in an organization is important because employees are able to work in teams, with diversified dexterities.
Organizational readiness for change
An organization always faces various instances that require it to change its strategies in one way or the other in order to remain competitive. An organizational willingness to change always depends heavily on the management of the firm. Age plays an important role in determining the willingness to change. According to Pielstick (1998), the elderly do not resent change. They find it difficult to adapt to radical changes that have characterized the current business environment. They like gradual changes that they can comprehend and benefit from before a new one can be introduced. However, the current changes taking place in the business environment are very radical. They happen so suddenly, and it requires people, who are flexible enough to adapt to them. Readiness to change always depends on the perspective with which, leadership and the followers view change. Changes cannot be ignored and however, change can be destructive if not well taken care of by the concerned authorities. The management has the responsibility to create an environment that cherishes change. This way, organizational willingness for change will be enhanced.
For change to take place, an organization must have put in place mechanisms that would help in facilitating change. Organizational readiness for change refers to the level at which the organization is prepared to embrace change. Some organizations are never ready to accept change due to the presence of change resistors. Therefore, change cannot be proposed without putting in place measures that would facilitate the new ways of doing things.
The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Practices
Hui-Wen, V., Mu-Shang, Y., Darwin, B. (2010). The relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership practices: A cross-cultural study of academic leaders in Taiwan and the USA. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25 (8), 899 – 926
The Purpose: The above scholars sought to find out the existing relationship between emotional and the leadership practices applied in the US and Taiwan. The study employed a comparative study to establish whether the management style employed in the US is similar to those employed in Taiwan. The scholars interviewed scholars to ascertain the level at which they employ emotional intelligence in their academic institutions. The main purpose was to investigate whether cross-cultural differences existed as regards the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership practices. The scholars concurred with the fact that emotional intelligence influences the leadership practices applied by leaders in various regions across the world (Hui-Wen, Mu-Shang, Darwin, 2010).
Research problem: However, the extent to which emotional intelligence influences leaders in various parts of the world was unknown. In fact, this was the main research problem, which the scholars sought to find answers to.
Design: The scholars employed a causal-comparative approach. The sample used included fifty academicians from the United States and fifty scholars from Taiwan. The major instruments measured were emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness.
Validity: Differential selection was the major threat to internal validity because the groups compared were intact. The threat was taken care of by ensuring that the samples selected had almost similar characteristics.
Findings: The findings of the study established that Taiwanese academicians’ general emotional intelligence was found to be certainly interrelated in a statistically considerable manner with all five subjects of leadership practice. The US academicians were found to have statistically considerable positive correlation between general emotional intelligence and all subjects of leadership practice apart from taxing the process, and stirring a collective visualization. ANOVA outcomes disclosed that considerable disparities exist in discrete areas of emotional intelligence and separate areas of leadership practice as a role of cultural dissimilarity.
Limitations/implications – A significant drawback of the current study is the likelihood of response bias ensuing from self-reported statistics.
Schmitz, S. (2004). The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Practices in Non-Profit Human Service Organizations. Arizona: Arizona University
Purpose: The main objective of the study was to examine the existing correlation between emotional intelligence and leadership practices in the non-profit human service institutions. The scholar underscored the fact that indeed a relationship exists between leadership and emotional intelligence. The relationship influences the performance of leaders in the non-profit organizations, just as it influences the performance of other leaders in profit-making organizations (Schmitz, 2004).
Research Problem: Leaders tend to underdeliver in their various capacities because they lack motivation. Research shows that emotional intelligence has a way of influencing leaders to perform well in their daily activities. However, the performance of leaders in non-profit organizations is usually affected because the motivating factor (money) is not there. Research shows that leaders in no-profit organizations are very effective yet they are not motivated by money. The main research problem was to establish the motivating factor in non-profit organizations through the study of the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership.
Design: The study employed a quantitative design whereby leaders working in the non-profit organizations were taken through a rigorous interview to determine their views on leadership practices. The researcher contacted two-thousand organizations, with leaders working with children, youths, and families being targeted. Sixty-five CEOs were contacted, with some agreeing to participate directly while others agreed to complete questionnaires. The key instruments used were the leadership practice inventory and the emotional competence inventory.
Validity: The main threat to validity was research mortality mainly because many respondents were simply volunteers. A number of respondents threatened to drop out of the study because it was consuming too much of their study. However, the researcher dealt with the threat in time because he devised a system through which respondents could give their views without necessarily taking time to fill the questionnaires. Those who believed that the study was eating into their time were given an option of giving their views through the phone.
Findings: The findings of the study proved that the responses from the emotional competence inventory and the leadership practices inventory were correlated. The variables related to leadership practices were related to the emotional competence inventory scale, including self-awareness, social skills, social consciousness, and self-management. However, the study identified that no relationship exists between emotional competence and the performance of the organization. In other words, the study proved that emotional intelligence simply influences the performance of the leader, but not the organization.
Condren, T. (2002). The Relationship between Principals’ Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Effectiveness. Columbia: University of Missouri-Columbia
Purpose: The researcher set out to establish the relationship between the emotional intelligence of the school head and the perception of teachers towards the effectiveness of the leader. In other words, the research aimed at finding out the perception of teachers towards the performance of the school head. In this regard, emotional intelligence would be applied effectively to establish the perception of teachers towards the performance of the school head (Condren, 2002).
Research Problem: the main problem of the study was to establish the extent to which emotional intelligence would be used to identify the perception of junior staff towards the leader.
Design: The researcher employed the sampling technique whereby the respondents were put into different strata to increase the validity of the study. The sampling was random whereby an approximated 455 principles were sampled, with 32 strata. One hundred and sixty teachers were sampled with an intention of increasing the sample size. Apart from teachers and principals, faculty members were also interviewed. An equal number of females and males were included in the sample.
Validity: The major threat to validity was the reactive effect of testing because the study pertained to attitude interesting testing. These threats were addressed amicably through questionnaire loading. The researcher avoided questions that would bring about suspense among the respondents.
Findings: Unlike the findings of other scholars discussed in this section, the findings of this scholar never showed any significant relationship between emotional intelligence and the five leadership practices. In the same way, the emotional intelligence subscales of knowledge and behavior were not related to any of the five leadership practices.
Danehy, L. (2005). The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership in NCAA Division III College Coaches. New York: Wilmington College
Purpose: The researcher sought to establish a relationship between emotional intelligence and the supposed leadership among coaches of division III (Danehy, 2005).
Research problem: In every managerial role, it is expected that head should show some leadership, by offering directions for guidance. In the division III games, coaches are never believed to be good leaders. The study sought to know whether emotional intelligence influenced the coaching skills of coaches in the colleges.
Design: In the study, fifteen coaches were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Similarly, the directors and athletes were invited to take part in the exercise. In the study, age was a determining factor because a good number of coaches were below thirty-four years. The average age of coaches’ experience was 4.8. This means that experience was another variable considered. The gender of athletes was taken into consideration because different athletes from different genders gave different views.
Validity: The major threat to validity was related to instrumentation because there was no standardized instrument used to measure the variables. The threat is a result of unreliable measuring instruments. Moreover, the researcher used many observers meaning that the threat resulting from instrumentation would not be avoided. However, the researcher tried to keep off from the threat by repeating the study several times.
Findings: The results suggested that a strong relationship between leadership and emotional intelligence exists. Coaches were believed to inspire their athletes in a number of ways. However, inspiring was the least engaged practice in leadership.
Radhakrishnan, A. (2010). Emotional Intelligence and its Relationship with Leadership Practices. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(2), 47-89
Purpose: The main purpose of the article was to investigate the relationship of emotional intelligence in the leadership practices of executives (Radhakrishnan, 2010).
Research problem: In the last five years, the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership has become a topic that has elicited heated debate in the field of management and leadership practices. Emotional intelligence is a related to the process of reasoning and developing clear thought process towards handling issues. Emotional intelligence is known to regulate the emotions of a leader in a certain way. Therefore, the main concern is to apply emotional intelligence to understand the behavior of a leader in an organization. The main problem of the above article is to relate emotional intelligence to leadership practices.
Design: The scholar employed a survey, which was associational and descriptive in nature. The sampling method employed was stratified whereby executives from India were selected based on their age.
Validity: The major threat to validity was related to selection-maturation interaction because differential selection was based on maturation factors. The researcher addressed the issue by selecting executives of varied ages.
Findings: The findings revealed that emotional intelligence is positively correlated to education. Those holding degrees had low emotional intelligence as compared to those professionals holding high degrees. However, the study revealed that a relationship between the leadership skills of executives and emotional intelligence exists.
Limitations: The study could not be used to understand the role of emotional intelligence among leaders in the non-profit organization because it was conducted in a private organization.
Value: The study is of value because it helps organizations in preparing and reflecting on the future more effectively. For instance, it helps in preparing the requirements of future leaders.
Literature Review: Relationship between emotional intelligence and Leadership
The society today has gotten very sophisticated. New technological inventions have redefined the social structure of the world’s society. According to Walizer (1978), the world has seen radical changes in various fields that have had huge impact on various facets within the firm. As this scholar notes, the new developments have brought new approaches to managing people. It is now very important for a firm to design better ways that it can use to manage people. The strategy that was used to manage people in 1980s and 1990s may not be applicable in today’s organizations. A lot has changed, and with these changes come various challenges that a firm must be ready to face. A firm must be in a position to develop a creative way of managing the employees.
Given the trends in the market today, there is need to have leadership in the managers. The workforce in the current labor market does not need managers. They do not need an authority that symbolizes some form of oppression. They need leadership. They need leaders who will help in guiding them towards their desired direction. They need to have people in the managerial position that can help in guiding them towards the desired goal. It is important to note that management has been associated with a dictatorial kind of leadership. The original concept of management was operating as dictatorial leadership. However, the world today resents any form of dictatorial leadership. Democracy is the new language that is currently spoken by many employees in different within different markets.
Firms need to design leadership that will encourage democracy within the organization. Transformational leadership provides the best way through which a firm can manage its workforce.
Teamwork is very important in any organizational setting. Bringing together individuals with different character traits is one of the most difficult tasks in an organizational setup. Making such people think in one line may take a lot of time, as they have to get accustomed to one another. Geographical boundaries have been eliminated. Diversity is very common in the current organizations. Most organizations currently are characterized by people from different demographics. It is challenging to create an environment where such people would be integrated into a single unit. Despite this difference, a leader must ensure that this difference is played down. A leader must ensure that members of an organization work as a single unit irrespective of their diversified culture.
In order to achieve this, transformational leadership is very important. It would be necessary to develop trust among the peers in a way that they will always be comfortable for them to share information as would be appropriate. The first step towards achieving this is developing organizational culture. The organizational culture will supersede any other cultural beliefs that existed before. According to Drake, Wong, and Salter (2007), developing a strong organizational culture requires transformational leadership. A transformational leader will be able to instill a new culture in the employees in a way that would ensure peaceful coexistence of all the members of the organization. This would nurture trust among the peers. This move will create an environment of trust among people within the organization. They will believe that they have the responsibility to protect their peers, and so does their peers. There will be mutual agreement among employees on how to approach different issues affecting the organization in a very candid way. This way, an organization will be able to approach some issues affecting the organization as a team. They will be able to understand how best different tasks can be assigned to different individuals based on their level of knowledge.
Mellina (2002) noted that organizations must have strong leaders for them to perform well in the global environment. Such leaders must be in a position to motivate leaders in order to achieve organizational goals and objectives. In this regard, he noted that transformational leadership has the capacity to provide good leaders who attain high results for the organization. However, the leaders must come up with measures through which trust could be created between them and the employees. Transformational leadership has the capability of allowing behavioral integrity, which permits the development of trust among employees of the organization. Mellina (2002) noted that a strong relationship between transformational leadership and trust exists. He set two hypotheses that guided his study. One of the hypotheses was that behavioral integrity is positively related to transformational leadership. He employed a cross-sectional survey study in analyzing the major variables. One of the tenets of transformational leadership is that employees must be incorporated in the decision-making process. Through this, employees develop trust towards the management, which leads to improved performance among employees.
Transformational leadership is very relevant in maintaining a pool of highly skilled employees. Shachaf (2008) says that innovation is very important in the current market. Transformation leadership is marked by the nature or task of organizational systems. In other words, transformational leadership should aim at achieving positive results. Leaders should therefore commit themselves to change in order to achieve transformational leadership. For a leader to acquire skills, he or she must embrace the tenets of transformational leadership. Moreover, transformational leadership is only achieved through a variety of skills. The two variables are closely related implying that leaders should know how to acquire them.
Scholars define transformational leadership as the ability of the leader to bring about change in the organization. In other words, the leader must learn to do things differently for him or her to be declared a transformative leader. In particular, transformational leadership refers to the ability to influence the organizational standards, outlooks, ways of life, and behavior of employees. This entails closely with other leaders in the organization, as well as incorporating employees in the decision-making process. Improving the performance of the organization entails changing the habit and behavior of employees. This would include changing the behavior of individuals. In many organizations, people are known to resist change because it interferes with their ways of life. In this regard, leaders must allow their juniors to adjust slowly. Without skills, the leader must not be able to offer sustainable leadership. Skills play a critical role in ensuring that leaders succeed in their endeavors.
Quantitative Study: Transformational Leadership
The main research question would be, “does a relationship exist between emotional intelligence and the leadership practices applied by various leaders?
Type of Design
Quantitative research is a kind of study that utilizes figures to arrive at certain conclusions (Hakim, 2000). In this regard, the research will take the form of a survey, whereby the researcher identifies the sample and posts questionnaires to them. In this research, there was need to compare the relationship between variables in order to establish cause and effect. The researcher was interested in knowing how transformational leadership affected employees’ perception of organizational readiness for change at the firm under the study in its branch located in the Riyadh region (dependent variables). This demanded a method that would be objective and able statistically to generalize the findings. Quantitative method was found to be the most appropriate method to use in this research.
Strengths of Quantitative Design
Quantitative research involves systematic empirical study of a phenomenon by use of statistical tools. Its main objective is always to employ mathematical theories and models in developing its generalization (Anderson, 2004). Therefore, quantitative method would help in this research. It would enable the researcher to test the hypotheses put forth for validity and allow the use of a sample as a representation of the entire population. It would help the researcher to determine the impact of transformational leadership on employees’ perception of organizational readiness for change. It would unearth the role of transformational leadership in influencing the perception of employees in organization. It is a fact that organizational readiness for change is always dictated by employees’ readiness for change. Quantitative research will therefore help in determining the degree to which employees would be willing to change if they are exposed to transformational leadership.
Threats to Validity
Validity means appropriateness, applicability and truthfulness of a study. It is the ability of research instruments to produce results that are in agreement with theoretical and conceptual values. In this study, internal validity was ensured by checking the representativeness of the sample. The researcher ensured that the sample used captured all important characters at the firm under the study as the target institution, and the Saudi society, especially the society in and around Riyadh city, as the immediate environment of our study. During data collection process and in analysis, the researcher steered away from any form of bias. All the respondents were picked randomly, without any preference. Moreover, the response received from the employees of the firm under the study, and other stakeholders were assigned a similar weight, depending on their category. This ensured that data that was collected was not in any way, influenced by the opinion of the researcher.
External validity was ensured through triangulation that is, the researcher used more than one technique in collecting data. This was necessary to ensure that bias from one end is countered effectively by other techniques. As Delving (2006) says, respondents are human beings with weaknesses when it comes to giving views freely. They would always exaggerate or underrate things when they make statements. Working with this in mind, the researcher designed a formula to moderate data gathered from the field to balance off the two extremes. The researcher found literature review to be very important in this part because the opinions they have are already moderated. External validity was also guaranteed by asking respondents to give their views. This would give them freedom of some sort, to provide information based on their own experience and views.
Measure of Constructs
In this study, the researcher will measure transformational leadership exhibited by supervisors and operations using MLQ (Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire). This questionnaire, which was developed by Bass and Avolio (1994), has proven to be very effective when comparing two variables that are related, which are related to leadership. It eliminates ambiguity, and encourages validity and reliability. This questionnaire was developed to measure the behavior of leaders. It has been improved by various social scientists. The researcher used 20 transformational leadership items to measure the behavior of the selected individuals in power. For this to be possible, the researcher used a 5-point Likert Scale, which ranges from 1-5, where one means not at all, and five means frequently. This was important when determining how one variable was related to other variables.
This research would utilize qualitative research methods in conducting the study and collecting data to strengthen the findings of quantitative study. Qualitative research was used because it aims at summarizing data descriptively. Qualitative research is a systematic investigation of a social phenomenon through descriptive approach to data analysis. Qualitative research is a kind of study that utilizes descriptive facts to arrive at certain conclusions. In this regard, the research will take the form of a survey whereby the researcher identifies some individuals and posts questionnaires to them. The sampled population would be selected using stratified sampling to eliminate biases. The researcher would then make follow-ups by contacting respondents on phone.
Justification for Quantitative Design
There are some factors that should be put into consideration when choosing the right method of sampling in any given research project. In this research, precision was needed. The best method that would lead to the desired results was simple random sampling. As stated above, this method is simple to use and it is appropriate when one intends to use data quantitatively. The researcher settled on this method because the research population had a general similarity, and therefore, there was no need to classify them into subgroups. Every member of the sample was to be given an equal opportunity to participate in the research. Simple random sampling was appropriate because it eliminated all forms of bias in the sample selection process.
Data Analysis Method
Data analysis refers to the process of transforming raw data into refined useful information that can be of use to people. Glatthorn (2005) advises that before settling on a method of data analysis, it is important to the approach to be taken by the research. The research can take quantitative, qualitative, or categorical approach. This research took a quantitative approach. Depending on the type and accuracy needed, data analysis can take a simple descriptive form, or a more complex statistical inference. The technique used in the analysis can be univariate analysis, bivariate analysis or multivariate analysis. In selecting the appropriate method, a researcher should ensure that assumptions relating to the method are satisfied.
In analyzing the collected data, the researcher will use appropriate statistical data analysis tools such as descriptive and inferential statistics in analyzing quantitative data.
In relation to the quantitative analysis, Miller (1991) argued that the most commonly used sets of statistics include meaning, frequencies, standard deviation, median, and percentages. The researcher will code and enter the quantitative data into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20). Using SPSS, the researcher will use cross-tabulation to present the information. The tabulation would help give a clear picture of the impact of transformational leadership on the perception of employees towards organizational readiness to change. The researcher will also use descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, percentage, and frequencies to describe the properties of the target population. Further, the researcher will use tables, figures, and charts to present the findings of the study. Because the research entails determination of the impact of transformational leadership on the perception of employees towards change, there will be some form of comparison. The comparison will be done on how transformational leadership has changed the attitude of employees. Correlation analysis would be important to make this a success. Therefore, chi-square tests will be used to test the hypotheses. Inferential statistics like chi-square tests help to test whether the observed relationships between the variables are genuine or due to chance. The statistical significance level used in the research is 0.05 indicating whether the observed association occurred by chance in 5 out of 100 results. Chi-square is the most widely used measure of association in social science research, being suitable for use on nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio data.
Importance of Collected Data
From the literature review, the researcher gathered considerable amount of information about this field. Many of the reports that exist in this field are very resourceful as individuals of high integrity did them. The manner in which they were done also passes as good enough to be used in various aspects of research. However, this is a different research. It must be in a position to develop its own arguments based on data collected from primary sources. This does not rule out the importance of secondary sources of data. To ensure originality in any research, there is a need to use primary data. The purpose of collecting data was to help facilitate analysis that would lead to giving answers that are desired in this research. The objective of this research was to respond to some of the questions that other scholars had not responded to through the existing literature. To be in a position to respond to these questions, there will be need to collect data. After successful collection of data, analysis would be very important. When taken from the field, data is considered raw and therefore cannot be of much help to the target audience. For this reason, it is important to analyze data to produce the desired result that would be useful to various individuals.
In terms of the secondary data used in the study, the researcher will ensure that literary works making up the secondary materials are acknowledged. Academic requirements in relation to copyrighted materials will also be taken into consideration to avoid plagiarism. All these ethical considerations will be carried out to ensure that originality, validity, and reliability are achieved. The study will seek to verify the information presented from various sources, and take a methodical approach to its presentation. Lastly, the information used in the literature review and adopted during the discussion process would provide literal support and provide references to the information included in the dissertation paper.
Risk can be described as the measure of project uncertainty or the difference anticipated between expectation and reality. Generally, the researcher would regard risk as a negative factor because of its associated downside exposure to unrealized benefits, technical, performance shortfalls, time slippage, cost overruns, and withdrawal. The implication is that before conducting research, it is imperative to have a good strategy to manage the risks associated with the adoption of new studies. Risk assessment allows the researcher to evaluate the likely risks as well as the sources of those risks before research commences.
Risk identification is the most important process of risk management as there is no way to deal with risk without identifying it. Most of the time, using past experience of types of risks that have been recognized within the area or any other similar area is considered the general strategy for risk identification. Identifying new risks necessitates greater thought about things that have not been tried before, which is difficult, particularly in a new area such as leadership practices.
Underlying the estimation and evaluation of risk is an assumption that it is possible to draw logical conclusions regarding the chance of a risk occurring, as well as the possible effect of that risk. Risks could also be categorized as short-term or a long-term risks. Determination of short-term risks assists in mitigating long-term effects, which may result from neglected short-term risks. In most past studies, risks identified have been related to the technical aspects, forgetting cultural and human issues as possible risk factors, especially when studies take place in complex human-centered organizations such as Multinational Organizations, and often involve collaboration between several partners.
Before undertaking the research, the researcher will seek consent from the participants and the Ministry of Higher Education. The participants shall be given surety, that the information recorded during the data collection process is to be kept confidential and that it will not be made available to a third party. In addition, the researcher will give surety that privacy and anonymity are to be observed and maintained throughout the research study. Given that the information being collected from participants is original and the content not copied from any source, consent shall be sought from the participants.
An explanatory letter shall be sent to each of the 65 participants before the interviews and questionnaires. The university faculty will sign the letters. In addition to the explanatory letter, a cover letter outlining the purpose of the research, its aim and giving a surety that the research is for academic purposes will be sent. It should be noted that no participant would be coerced or made to act under duress during the sample selection and interviewing process, or during the completion of the questionnaires. The participants would voluntarily agree to be part of the research and would be part of the debriefing process. Before the interviews are audiotaped, the researcher will seek consent to record all responses. Furthermore, the participants will be assured of the possibility of having the results back to authenticate whether they conform to what was said during the interviewing process.
Privacy and confidentiality
The use of an online questionnaire would make it possible to capture issues that are unique to the relationship between leadership and emotional intelligence. The targeted staff would respond to the questionnaire online, which is still more private as compared to other means of administering a questionnaire. The availability of staff and their privacy influenced the choice of this method because organizations operate throughout and therefore it is not possible at any one time to find all of them in one place. An online questionnaire would reduce the costs of data collection, would assure confidentiality, and would be available throughout for the staff for a fixed period. After collection, the data would go through analysis, culminating the observations and conclusions discussed.
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