The Role of Nutrition Science in Gastronomy

Quality of Service Provision in Gastronomy: Standards and Policies

The catering industry and the restaurant industry are on the verge of tremendous transformations, associated primarily with the advent of new food production technologies and innovative solutions in the design of technological equipment. Speaking about the quality of service provision today, first of all, one should keep in mind clear, understandable, transparent standards of service. Ideally, they should be created at the planning stage of the restaurant, be present in both network and independent establishments.

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The most frequently implemented in the restaurant business are the standards of the series ISO 9000, ISO 22000, ISO 14000, OHSAS. They are based on a process approach; therefore, the introduction of international standards and total quality management (TQM) in catering enterprises will improve both the quality of products and technological processes, as well as after-sales service. To achieve a genuine and long-term competitive advantage, TQM must be adopted as a fundamental principle.

Indirectly, TQM is focused on the knowledge and consideration of the needs of internal customers, personnel, on which the success of the organization depends to a greater extent. Only people can ensure quality, and their role is vital to improving quality.

Nutrition Science and Human Health

Nutrition is one of the main factors that determines the state of human health, and also prevents or, conversely, contributes to the development of diseases. Modern medicine is faced with diseases, the occurrence of which mainly depends on the way of life and especially the quality and nature of nutrition. Nutrition science is an established body of knowledge about food and its preparation at the junction of several sciences at once ‑ chemistry, physics, and biology.

Work with food in any case remains a specific area of activity, because gastronomy itself puts forward a lot of requirements, many of which are sanitary in nature. Food should be harmless and safe, as healthy as possible, and containing as many substances useful to the human body as possible. This is precisely what companies working in this field are aiming for.

Information on the composition and consumer properties of the products allows the process engineer to correctly solve the problem of rational use of raw materials and serve as important criteria for the justification and organization of technological processes. Knowledge of biochemistry is necessary to control biochemical processes in the manufacture of catering products, to control the quality of raw materials and culinary products.

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When organizing a balanced diet, one should be guided by the requirements of physiology; take into account the needs for essential nutritional components for various populations; apply differentiated approach to the use of food components.

Residents of modern cities prefer healthy life style. Concepts such as proper balanced nutrition and detox drinks have long gone beyond nutrition science and have become an integral part of our lives. This trend was picked up by catering establishments. At the same time, a healthy diet is not like a diet in its usual sense; the use of eco-, bio- or popular farm products also does not mean the right menu (Coles, 2013).

From a business perspective, the segment of healthy food restaurants is extremely complex and, unfortunately, there are examples of failed launch projects. At first, healthy nutrition was associated with dietary tables in sanatoriums, then with environmentally friendly products and gentle cooking technologies, and partly with vegetarianism and raw food diet. Today, trends in healthy eating are associated with the prospects for the concept of “green” restaurants.

The consumer requires a medical approach and good gastronomy. In the kitchen, it is important to evaluate the following components: the origin of the products, the method of their storage and preparation, the absence of flavour enhancers and other additives, food compatibility and calorie content. It is necessary to involve a professional nutritionist in the development of the menu in order to create dishes in tandem with the chefs, balanced by microelements, influencing the body at the cellular level and accelerating metabolic processes.

Healthy Nutrition and Innovative Cooking Technologies. Molecular Gastronomy

New establishments are opening up, attracting guests with unique services, an unusual atmosphere, improved service systems, and unusual cooking technologies. To retain customers and attract new guests, it is necessary to develop unique products. In this case, the owners of institutions turn to the system of innovation.

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Regarding innovative cooking technologies, they include molecular cuisine, the peculiarity of which is the combination of food products, the latest technology and molecular chemistry; foodpairing technique based on a combination of various products with a common taste component; fusion as a culinary system based on mixing styles of traditional culinary preferences (Mozaffarian, Rosenberg, and Uauy, 2018). Also, the latest technology is widespread in the products processing system. Sous Vide technology allows cooking food without air, i.e., under vacuum. This technology helps to obtain high quality products, reduce losses during heat treatment and increase the shelf life of products.

In addition, today molecular gastronomy is considered one of the scientific areas in the food sciences (along with food safety, food microbiology, food engineering, food chemistry, food technology, and others), the object of study of which is scientific research on food preparation processes, as well as social and artistic research in this area (Sivakumaran, 2018).

The term “molecular gastronomy” has also become the name of a scientific discipline, including studies of the processes and mechanisms that underlie traditional cooking methods. According to Sivakumaran (2018), the main goals of “molecular gastronomy” include the following:

  1. Relevant objectives imply defining mechanisms of transformations and processes in cookery in terms of physical and chemical points in three fields, such as social aspects of culinary activities, creative (“artistic”) component of culinary activities; technological aspects in cookery.
  2. The core goals of “molecular gastronomy” are described as the creative exploring of existing recipes, as well as introduction of new tools, components, technologies to the kitchen; invention of new dishes; molecular gastronomy application with the aim to inform the general public about benefits of the contribution of science to public life.

It is obvious that molecular gastronomy is a full-fledged practical application of knowledge of food chemistry, taking into account the psychological and physiological factors of individual consumers. The principles of cooking, from the point of view of molecular gastronomy, are as follows (This, 2013):

  1. When preparing culinary products, it is important to use the correct temperature, which can be measured using a special thermometer, especially not on the surface, but inside the culinary products (dishes);
  2. When preparing molecular cuisine dishes, it is important to consider the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of various materials: dishes, metal containers, foil used for baking, etc.;
  3. During culinary (heat) processing, the texture of the dish should be strictly controlled: heat the meat for a long time at a temperature of 70-800 C⁰; fish should be cooked with lemon juice, and the juiciness of meat, can be improved, for example, by adding pineapple juice;
  4. It should be remembered that the taste of dishes is 80% perceived by the nose and only 20% of the tongue. Salt should be added in a small amount, then it enhances the sweetness; the composition of salt and acid reinforce each other. Vanilla and cinnamon enhance sweetness, and the presence of the capsaicin enzyme in black pepper activates heat receptors and creates a hot feeling.
  5. The prolonged exposure to one taste and smell makes it inconspicuous; therefore, when preparing molecular cuisine dishes, several different tastes and smells should be used. For example, rare specks of lemon juice in mashed potatoes make the potato taste brighter.
  6. One should not absolutize fully culinary cuisines, as in different physical and geographical regions of the world, water has different characteristics, temperature, humidity and altitude differ, which cannot but affect the metamorphosis of products.
  7. In molecular gastronomy, much depends on conducting important experiments necessary to confirm or refute hypotheses, which should be statistically processed by recording the results of the experiments and physiological factors of individual consumers.

The catering system today is one of the main and significant services in the tourist service system. Nutrition is aimed not only at satisfying the primary physiological needs of a person, but also allows joining the national traditions and culture of peoples. Evidently, in such conditions, this industry is constantly evolving and improving.

Energy Management and Environmental Protection in Hospitality Industry

The International Standards for the Implementation of “Green” Technologies with regard to the Hospitality Industry

Caring for smart energy management and environmental protection is today an integral part of the tourism industry. When choosing a place of rest and food, modern consumers take into account the environmental component of the establishment of the hospitality industry and its achievements in the field of environmental protection.

Consumers say they are willing to pay more for a product or service that meets environmental norms and standards. Environmental initiatives attract new consumers and improve the image of the organization. In particular, according to Legrand, Sloan, and Chen (2016), the international standards for the implementation of “green” technologies contain the main sections related to improving the energy efficiency of buildings:

  1. Energy consumption reduction for the hotel or restaurant building. This requirement can be observed applying modern architectural, engineering, structural, and technological solutions contributing to the overall energy efficiency of a building.
  2. The use of renewable energy sources ‑ solutions based on using solar power, such as light collectors, solar batteries, integrated into the energy system of the hotel/restaurant building.
  3. Legrand, Sloan, and Chen (2016) state that the most important part of environmentally competent energy management is the optimal use of the energy received. For ensuring such optimization, more thorough calculations are carried out, including mathematical and computer modelling of processes inside the hotel building. A model of the building’s integrated unified energy system is being created.
  4. When choosing the orientation of the hotel building to the cardinal points, location in development, it is necessary to take into account the choice of the shape of the building, types of glazing, materials of external structures, climatic features of the region (Legrand, Sloan, and Chen, 2016).
  5. It is recommended to plant plants (low-growing shrubs and lawns) on the flat roofs of different-height buildings of a hotel or restaurant. This solution allows reducing the amount and volume of storm water treatment.

There are a lot of directions for the transition of hospitality enterprises to “green” standards. It is important to use water wisely, to regulate the heating and cooling processes in rooms, to reduce the consumption of plastic bags. The initiatives in the field of environmental awareness contribute to increasing profit due to improvement of the company’s image in the eyes of customers, investors, stakeholders, and society as a whole.

Hotels and restaurants, as a rule, make a page on their websites aimed at “environmentally demanding” guests, describing achievements in the field of environmental protection and care about human health. Today, people pay increasingly more attention to environmental issues, and, thus, the hotel business is forced to become more environmentally friendly both in an effort to reduce costs, ensure sustainable functioning, retaining competitive advantage, and to attract new guests.

Environmental Marketing

A properly designed and implemented concept of environmental marketing can not only overcome constraints, but also develop the sector of environmentally-oriented catering enterprises that achieve commercial goals by providing the necessary level of satisfaction with environmentally friendly means for consumers’ health and the environment, which are becoming more effective than competitors.

However, improving the consumer image is only one of the goals achieved by the introduction of an environmental management system. A restaurant or hotel that implements and applies this system can significantly reduce its waste disposal costs, as well as achieve significant savings in energy and material resources.

Addressing Food Waste Problem

Many hotels and restaurants are embarking on a greening path by optimizing supplies, projects related to waste sorting, generating their own energy, and so on. An important problem in the restaurant business is the problem of waste disposal. While there is a lot of talk about industrial waste, the issue of waste in restaurants is seen as a low priority issue. As a rule, restaurant managers do not even understand how much food is thrown away every day, most of which is still edible. As many as 33 million tons of food is thrown away each year in the United States of America alone (Jauhari, 2014).

The figures in Europe are slightly lower, around 27 million (Jauhari, 2014). Studies have shown that, on average, 21% of food waste is generated as a result of food spoilage during storage, 45% ‑ during cooking (trimming and cleaning), 34% is collected from visitors’ plates (Jauhari, 2014).

At the same time, food waste is potentially hazardous, one of the most hazardous waste of the twenty-first century. Food waste decomposes very quickly, and one of the decomposition products is methane greenhouse gas, which is twenty times more powerful than carbon dioxide. The problem of food waste remained in the shadow until recent years, although its influence on the general environmental situation in the world is obvious. However, there are many ways to reduce waste for the benefit of the restaurant business.

Food waste tracking equipment such as LeanPath and the first generation of Winnow have been around for over ten years. They very successfully helped users significantly reduce the amount of food consumed, but kitchen staff had to enter information every time something was thrown away.

Winnow Vision introduces a new, more automated era for analysing food that goes into waste ‑ it optimizes much of this process by automatically identifying waste. Using a camera, scales and artificial intelligence, a smart basket “learns” to recognize various products. Users can improve the system by setting certain menu items for it (Deloitte, 2019).

To reduce food waste, restaurant visitors are encouraged to change their behaviour ‑ not to place a large order at once, ask waiters to pack leftover food with them. The countries of Northern Europe, where the idea of responsible consumption is very popular, have launched a boom in the startup market, which aims to minimize food waste by giving unsold meals at a discount.

As it often happens, the same idea arose in the minds of entrepreneurs simultaneously: the Swedish company Karma appeared in 2015, at the same time ResQ Club was born in Finland, then the Danish startup Too Good To Go was launched. All these services are similar in essence. This is a mobile application through which a user finds in restaurants, cafes, and supermarkets nearby “excess” discounted food. Thus, people save their time and money, and restaurants solve the problem of food waste.

Overall Concept of Environmental Technologies

In general, among environmental technologies, the following are distinguished (Legrand, Sloan, and Chen, 2016):

  • Non-waste technologies ‑ closed technologies that do not produce waste which go beyond their scope;
  • Low-waste technologies ‑ technologies that can reduce to a technically feasible minimum at present the receipt of solid waste, liquid discharges, gaseous and thermal emissions when receiving any product;
  • Rational technologies ‑ technologies aimed at creating socially significant products with a set of optimized parameters, with given restrictions;
  • Resource-saving technologies ‑ technologies in which the consumption of all types of resources is reduced to a rational (minimum) level;
  • Re-utilization technologies ‑ chains of technological processes when the wastes of one production become raw materials for another;
  • Energy-saving technologies ‑ new or improved technological processes characterized by higher efficiency ratios of fuel and energy resources.

Here, environmental technologies and eco-management act as an adjacent and necessary synthesis. Environmental management is a kind of intermediary between eco-technologies and a hospitality company (accommodation and food). The basis for virtually all existing certification systems has become the ISO 14001 environmental management standard (EMS), adopted by the International Association for Standardization (ISO) in 1991.

In order to comply with it, the organization must confirm that it has a special environmental policy. The ISO 14001 standard became the minimum that every company must adhere to in order to nullify the damage to the environment, and in order to obtain the status of an eco-hotel, it is necessary to confirm compliance with this standard.

The presence of eco-certification or a sign of environmental responsibility, of course, positively affects the image of the hospitality business company, representing a powerful marketing “green” tool and serving to increase guest loyalty. Thanks to this, travel agencies and tour operators are more likely to choose such hotels for cooperation, which contributes to additional profit.

Cost Management and Cost Efficiency, Profitability and Business Policy Considerations in UK Catering Businesses

The Impact of Brexit on UK Catering Business

London has long been a leader in the list of gastronomic capitals of the world. Until recently, new restaurants and clubs opened daily that define future global trends. However, a recent study shows that a growing number of restaurants in the UK may decline after Brexit. According to KPMG, 14,800 restaurants (20% of the total) could close soon (KPMG, 2017); the study showed an alarming trend: as of March 2017, the number of restaurants that filed for bankruptcy increased by 13% compared to the same period previous year.

The main reason for the decline is the weakening of the pound sterling, which caused an increase in food prices along with a decrease in the purchasing power of the population. Also, the government’s decision to increase the national salary up to £ 7.50 for workers aged 25 and over hit the business activity of catering outlets (KPMG, 2017).

The growth rate of retail sales began to increase before the referendum, but voting with a small lag reversed this trend ‑ including because the pound fell sharply, and retail responded with higher prices. First of all, grocery stores were affected, since the UK imports half of all food, and the lion’s share (60% of all imports) is imported from the EU (Dhingra, Machin, and Overman, 2017). Accordingly, this negatively affected the catering market.

For example, the restaurant business of the famous restaurateur Jamie Oliver in the UK crashes: the famous chef announced the introduction of external management. A thousand people were threatened with dismissal. According to British media, over 2016, sales of Oliver establishments fell by 11%. Twelve restaurants were closed, and more than 600 people lost their jobs; above-mentioned Oliver has been trying to sell his network.

In 2016, the business was already on the verge of bankruptcy (Dhingra, Machin, and Overman, 2017). This is not the only restaurateur who has encountered serious problems in recent years. The uncertainty that reigns among consumers is fuelled by political uncertainty in the wake of Brexit. People no longer often go to restaurants, spend less money, and this is a serious problem for medium-sized businesses.

In this regard, the urgent task is the task of effective cost management, which is aimed at establishing and maintaining the optimal cost level for each type of activity, depending on the expected financial results. The most effective management in enterprises is possible only with the multilateral and full use of cost management.

Cost management concepts involve an expanded analysis of costs and their management, in which strategic moments become more tangible, clear and formalized. There is no doubt about the relevance of using cost management in areas such as stock valuation or making operational management decisions. There is a need to develop and implement such a cost management system that would simultaneously cover both strategy and tactics, as well as take into account international management experience.

Principles of Cost Management in Restaurant and Catering Business

Each catering company has a certain set of costs, which varies quite a lot depending on the conceptual solution ‑ format, menu, staff qualification requirements, type of cuisine, location, and others. Therefore, it is important to imagine what guidelines and methods of management exist for all costs ‑ that is, what one could rely on when planning and evaluating the overall performance of the restaurant.

Currently, the modern business model in the restaurant and catering business is undergoing significant changes in the forms of creating a business, ways to conduct it, creating business value, and operating environment. In these conditions, many experts note that the information contained in the financial statements does not reflect the organization’s ability to create and maintain value that ensures the functioning of the company in the market (Heiens et al., 2016).

Moreover, the most important external factors independent of organizations are the size and dynamics of solvent demand for the products of this business; the phase of the economic cycle in which the country and the organization are located; level of competition in the industry; state tax and monetary policy; the degree of development of the financial and insurance market in the country; foreign economic relations; inflation rate; political stability, etc.

The most important internal factors are the composition, structure and quality of products (services), production technology, pricing, equipment quality, availability of own funds, production costs, R&D costs, capital turnover, the availability of sustainable suppliers and consumers, the availability of qualified personnel, the level of organization management.

The Importance of Goodwill in Cost-effectiveness and Profitability in Catering

When evaluating cost-effectiveness and profitability, goodwill is of great importance today. For example, when selling a restaurant, thanks to goodwill, the real value of a business can be 50% higher than the cost of a restaurant, calculated as the sum of all the costs of its creation (Heiens et al., 2016). It should be noted that goodwill is distinguished, which is specific to the property, and personal goodwill, formed due to owners or managers.

Goodwill inherent in property is goodwill that does not change when the company’s managers and employees, administrative managers are changed. Personal goodwill is acquired by the company due to the reputation and professionalism of its managers, which includes, among other things, effective cost management and their efficiency, as well as a business model and business policy.

At the same time, accounting standards qualify such expenses as a contribution to an internally created business reputation, which nonetheless is not recognized as an asset. Also, the composition of asset cannot include the difference between the market value of the company and the sound value of its identifiable net assets, which exists at any moment.

However, accounting standards imply the possibility of arising of this difference as a result of factors affecting the company value. Thus, it is obvious that internally generated goodwill exists as an asset, but is not recognized as such in accounting. The specifics of this asset (poor controllability, the impossibility of valuing at cost) leads to special methods for calculating its value. The calculation of acquired goodwill in accordance with IFRS or the residual method is considered as the main method for calculating goodwill.

Nutrition, Health, Disease Prevention and Health Tourism: Interconnection and Interinfluence

Optimal Nutrition as a Modern Concepts of Healthy Nutrition

Today, violations of the principles of a balanced diet make up 30-50% of the causes of cardiovascular and oncological diseases, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, obesity, and other common “diseases of civilization” that cause serious damage to health, as well as socio-economic losses (World Tourism Organization, 2018).

The diet of modern human is characterized by the presence of so-called “empty calories” due to the consumption of canned food, the use of ‘hard’ technological and culinary methods for its production and storage, leading to the loss of vital nutrients, especially vitamins. Moreover, food safety issues arise due to anthropogenic contamination of raw materials and the uncontrolled use of food additives.

The basis of modern concepts of healthy nutrition is the concept of optimal nutrition, which provides for the need to fully provide the body not only with energy, essential macro- and micronutrients, but also with a number of vital minor components of food. In addition, on the whole, progress should be noted in the interpenetration of the two fundamental medical sciences of nutrition and pharmacology and the formation of a new scientific field ‑ pharmaconutriciology.

Health Tourism

Healthy eating is directly related to a healthy lifestyle and healing practices, which include the so-called health tourism. Such tourism fulfils the most crucial preventive function with regards to human health, being among constantly growing sources of country income, and significantly contributing to the sustainable development of society.

In this context, it should be noted that specialization represents one of the most important success factors in health tourism; usually, it depends on an ‘array’ of local natural factors of unique character. This specialization allows many resorts to be authentic and acquire a unique profile, the distinctive core of which is a set of unique natural factors.

Modern medical tourism is aimed at maintaining or improving the state of health and is focused on destinations and facilities specializing in the provision of medical and health services: sea climate resorts, balneological or balneological and climatic resorts, thermal resorts on warm lakes, motels and sanatoriums on mineral waters and mud, thermal springs, mountain climatic and ski resorts.

Health tourism occupies a relatively small share in the global tourist flow; at the same time, accurate statistics on its state and development is not provided in full scale. The reason for this is large number of subspecies and forms of health tourism in various countries and regions of the world; for many of them, statistics are not kept due to their nationally determined specifics, and special studies on nationally specific types of medical and health tourism and wellness services can be lacked.

On the one hand, these factors complicate the investigation and finding solution for the problems of resort destinations managing; on the other hand, they determine the urgency of research projects and work in the field of health tourism and resort activities.

Today, increasingly more research is being devoted to the sustainable development of resort destinations and health tourism. However, many experts claim about the rapid growth of medical tourism today – to such an extent that emerging publications on the problems of its development do not keep up with the pace of its diverse growth (Smith and Puczko, 2014).

Modern technologies and trends in the development of tourism, including diversification of demand and models of tourist consumption, have brought new destinations, options, and problems to the health tourism industry. A striking trend in the development of health tourism is the rapid growth of such a segment as spa tourism. Experts note that it not only serves to prevent diseases or treat chronic ailments, but also contributes to the harmony and stability of a person (Smith and Puczko, 2014).

Clinical nutrition is an essential element of complex therapy as part of health tourism. It is usually prescribed in combination with other types of therapy (pharmacological preparations, physiotherapeutic procedures, etc.). In some cases, with digestive diseases or metabolic diseases, therapeutic nutrition plays the role of one of the main therapeutic factors, while in others it creates a favourable background for more effective other therapeutic measures.

It should be quite dynamic, since any therapeutic diet is restrictive in some respects, i.e., inferior. Therefore, dietetic therapy must use the principles of sparing and training. The principles of sparing provide for the exclusion of nutritional factors that contribute to the pathological process in the body. The principle of training is to expand the initially strict diet by removing the restrictions associated with it and switching to a full-fledged diet.

This principle can be implemented stepwise or as “zigzag.” In the first case, there is a gradual expansion of a strict diet by dosed lifting restrictions. The second provides for a sharp short-term change in diet in the form of stressful (i.e., close to good nutrition) and fasting (severe dietary restrictions in accordance with the underlying disease) days.

Clinical nutrition can be in the form of an elemental or dietary system. The elemental system consists in developing an individual diet for each patient with a specific listing of the indicators of each element in the daily diet. The diet system involves prescription of the necessary diet from among the already tested diets (Coulston, Boushey and Ferruzzi, 2012).

Another new direction in catering in health tourism is the offer of various types of diets for the purpose of weight correction. They are not directly related to clinical nutrition, but they are quite in demand by vacationers, and, therefore, offers of diets based on the concepts of different schools of nutrition are also common.

Particular attention should be paid to the new paradigm of modern society’ development, aimed at active longevity. In the target settings of the healthcare systems of many countries today, there is an inversion from a purely medical concept aimed only at the “patient,” to the concept of maintaining “health of healthy ones,” which allows attracting significant high-tech medical resources for the diagnosis of “pre-illness” for additional innovative growth in this area, hereditary diseases, correction of a person’s functional state, achievement of biochemistry, immunology, anti-age therapy, genetic engineering, etc. (Coulston, Boushey and Ferruzzi, 2012).

Therefore, if initially its “hospital” function was widely demanded in the development of medical tourism in order to obtain surgical treatment for tourists, today, according to some experts, there is a synergy between medical tourism markets for “sick” and “healthy.”

In many countries of the world, medical tourism, and its main component ‑ health tourism ‑ plays a significant role in the formation of gross domestic product, job creation and employment, has a significant impact on key sectors of the economy, such as transport and communications, construction, rural economy, production of consumer goods, etc., and acts as a kind of stabilizer of socio-economic development.

In the UK, the health tourism market becomes targeted to tourists’ demands, and medical destinations strengthen their profiling, which becomes economically viable in the existing highly competitive environment, and serves as a source for further growth of innovations in the healthcare system in order to attract new consumers of health services. This differentiation is especially critical in conditions of extreme turbulence in the post-Brexit period.

Moreover, it should be borne in mind that the market of “healthy” medical tourists will prevail in the future, increasing attention to “health of healthy ones.” In the development of the international market of “health of healthy ones,” the global consumer’s demand “to improve the quality of health,” “to increase health reserves,” “to increase the number of years lived without illness” will prevail, which, in turn, removes all sorts of problems from health systems restrictions on the growth of expenses for medical research, on the use of expensive medical technologies and equipment.

Thus, the above-mentioned and analysed current trends and benchmarks should be evidently taken into account when implementing a process of drafting a development strategy both in the short and long term. In turn, not taking into account current trends in the development of national health care systems and international medical tourism can become for the UK a serious challenge to creating a competitive health tourism product and its participation in international tourism.

Reference List

Coles, L. (2013) Functional foods: the connection between nutrition, health, and food science. Palm Bay, FL: Apple Academic Press.

Coulston, A., Boushey, C. and Ferruzzi, M. (2012) Nutrition in the prevention and treatment of disease. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.

Deloitte (2019) Future of food: how technology and global trends are transforming the food industry. Web.

Dhingra, S., Machin, S. and Overman, H. (2017) ‘Local economic effects of Brexit,’ National Institute Economic Review, 242 (1) pp. R24-R36.

Heiens, R. et al. (2016) ‘The impact of advertising, goodwill, and other intangibles in the retail foodservice industry: Do intangible investments bite into investor returns?’ Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 20(2), pp. 1-15.

Jauhari, V. (2014) Managing sustainability in the hospitality and tourism Industry: paradigms and directions for the future. Palm Bay, FL: Apple Academic Press.

KPMG (2017) Brexit: The impact on sectors. Web.

Legrand, W., Sloan, P. and Chen, J. (2016) Sustainability in the hospitality industry: principles of sustainable operations. Routledge.

Mozaffarian, D., Rosenberg, I., and Uauy, R. (2018) ‘History of modern nutrition science ‑ implications for current research, dietary guidelines, and food policy,’ BMJ, 361. Web.

Sivakumaran, K. (2018) ‘An overview of the applications molecular gastronomy in food industry,’ International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 3(3), pp. 35-40.

Smith, M. and Puczko, L. (2014) Health, tourism and hospitality: spas, wellness and medical travel. London: Routledge.

This, H. (2013) ‘Molecular gastronomy is a scientific discipline, and note by note cuisine is the next culinary trend,’ Flavour, 2(1), pp. 1-8.

World Tourism Organization (2018) Exploring health tourism. World Tourism Organization.

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