Introduction to the Topic
This dissertation is about the waste management which should be applied to the environment, organizations and all the countries present in the world in order to enhance the overall performance, environmental aspects and help them in boosting up in their growth and prosperity sectors. This chapter is the starting statement or point for this dissertation and would be covering the introductory portion. This chapter would help the reader very much to understand the basic concepts of the starting of the document. In this chapter, we would be explaining the background of the main theme of the dissertation, importance of study which would highlight why we have chosen this topic for the dissertation, the research questions which would be answered systematically below, the limitations of the study which are normally present in almost every dissertation with the external and internal factors affecting the dissertation to be limited, and last but not the least would be the organization of study. Organization of study would include the research objective of the dissertation in which we would be explaining that on which field or company or country we are focusing our dissertation.
The topic on which the dissertation would be carried out is very important for the present age. It’s about the waste management. For this topic, the main focus would be paid to every section. The main focus which is paid to the world right now is the environmental protective aspects through which the governing bodies could gather together and do something about to prevent the air of planet from the pollution and increasing amount of waste being produced everyday. Any substance which is produced during a cycle or procedure and is unwanted or undesirable is waste. It can also be known as garbage, trash, rubbish, or even junk. Waste has many forms and is present in the forms of domestic waste, industrial toxic waste, agricultural waste, municipal solid waste, commercially produced waste, clinical waste, and all sorts of wastes from which the industrial waste and municipal solid wastes are considered to be the most toxic and hazardous to the human health and also for the environment of the planet (Hawkins and Shaw; 2004, p10).
Statement of the Problem
This well evaluated dissertation is projected to intentionally explore the field of waste management while emphasizing on the different aspects and methods of waste management through which the health of individuals and environment around them could be protected against the increasing pollution and the waste being produced from certain industries. The current working methods of waste management would be investigated with their most beneficial advantages for the companies involved in the waste management.
This study will help in researching out why waste management is so crucial and important while analyzing the background of the previous era, studying the surroundings, evaluating the problems faced because of the waste produced by different companies, acknowledging the importance of waste management and its methods and the performance shown by waste management.
Background of Waste Management
(Hawkins and Shaw; 2004, p10) The whole attention of the main theme of this dissertation revolves around the topic of waste management. As stated above, the undesirable and unwanted substance which is produced in a resulted process or procedure is waste. Whereas, waste management is the procedure through which this produced waste could be handled treated, collected or disposed off by following certain steps. Handling waste management is very crucial to the entire human being and the planet because it required the control of the waste produced because of the consumption of several materials and daily products through daily and industrial or domestic routine of the human generation. This is why the background and history of waste management is as old and historic as the history of human life. The matter of waste management has gained interest and attention of the global thinking minds with the passage of time and has become one of the most crucial and important topics revolving around the countries and governments.
The increase in the advance technology and modern lifestyle has made human life easy and luxurious but it has also paved ways for many issues like waste management which is needed to be taken care of rapidly. However, the issue of waste management has been increasingly and distinctly synchronized in harmony by several groups who are finding their activities to be affected by the environmental and waste management aspects. The history of waste management has also been given the names of dumping or tipping in the past which could be the far much better explanatory description of the activities which are undertaken in the name of waste management. The procedure of waste management was undertaken because of the safeguard of the human health and safety of the environmental aspects around us. The increasing use of natural resources and production of organic or toxic wastes proved the necessity to introduce waste management to the society. Several countries have joined some leagues or community through which they coordinate with each other to promote and implement better ways for safe and sound waste management which could be harmless for the human lifestyle, environment and the natural resources (Hawkins, Shaw; 2004, pg10).
The need of waste management arises because there are a lot of potential present where huge quantities of waste are produced in the environment and society due to the unproductive and useless production procedures in the industrial and general sector. All these wastes reflect that the natural resources and sources of energy are used unethically and inefficiently which results in the production of dangerous and perilous particles known as waste or garbage. Waste management helps in minimizing the ratio of waste production and also in reducing the means through which waste is generated or produced because of several reasons. The most challenging part in the waste management s to face the wastes produced from the industrial and municipal solid wastes which are highly toxic in nature and consequently, dangerous yet harmful for the healthy lifestyle of the human beings. Waste management helps not only in reducing the state of the ways in which waste is generating, but also helps in restoring the natural resources which are being used by general people and later littered down as wastes (Cheremisinoff, 2002, p1-15).
Importance of Study
(CoUS, 1989, p52) Producing and manufacturing products and goods is the need of daily human routine. Different sort of products are required by people belonging to different fields, departments, organizations, governments, countries and lifestyles. Thus, that is why industries manufacture products and goods so that people and organizations could make good use of it. But, consequently it results in producing hazardous waste at the end of the day. This waste is highly not required and unwelcome from everywhere because it has no further use and no recycling process through which it could be made useful in any respect. This is the reason why waste management is used so that proper procedure could be followed through which the produced trash could be collected, treated, handled and disposed off in the right manner.
Waste management is very crucial and important to the environment of the planet and health of people because it could cause harm to the people and could give birth to many new germ and bacteria which could result in a very hazardous manner to the ecosystem. Waste management takes care of all these problems and handle the waste and dispose it properly so that there is no chance left which could cause harm neither to the environment nor to the health and lifestyle of the population. Waste management is beneficial in so many ways for so many people. It is beneficial for the environment because it helps in recovering and saving the air, water and natural resources; then it is beneficial for the lifestyle an health of mankind; far from that it is also beneficial for those countries, governments, organizations and people who are involved in the waste management industry since it is a vast industry which returns the investment and energy of people in shape of good income and capital for the companies.
Waste management is of extreme importance for every field and everywhere. Many countries have set certain rules and regulations according to which the people, management, municipality and other responsible departments act according to the set pair of procedures to follow waste management. However, companies who are responsible to produce toxic, hazardous or any kind f waste is responsible for their own waste and they are required to carry out the required steps in order to control the production of waste and do the needful or roper waste management.
(Lewis and Beautement, 2001, sciencedirect.com) Several companies also offer their services to the organizations that produce wastes in order to treat their wastes. These companies play the role of waste managers or organizers, who handle, collect, treat and dispose the waste according to the proper cycle of waste management or according to the certain methods of waste management. These companies work on basis of preset fees or payment which they get from the waste producing companies. These companies are also responsible for the disposal of waste as they have certified certification from the government in order to carry out this waste management properly. However, the management of residential or institutional waste produced in the metropolitan areas is completely the responsibility of the local government.
Objective of Study
(Flüeler, 2006, p69) Every business or work has a particular purpose which helps in developing the state of work of that project. Waste management is separate industry which has its own particular and specific aims and objectives. The purpose why waste management is being practiced around the world is to ensure the safe air, water and environment. Waste management helps in many things. It helps in developing the modern industry and technology, takes care of the all sort of wastes being produced by these companies and businesses, handles the present load of waste, treats it through many methods and then disposes off or recycles it again for better use. Another aim to which waste management works is to ensure a better roadmap for the industries and companies and to create the know-how of keeping the surrounding safe and sound with good environment around us.
This study will help in getting the know how of waste management so that we could see the background of the previous era, analyze the surroundings, see the problems faced because of the waste produced by different companies, acknowledge the importance of waste management and its methods and the performance shown by waste management. This dissertation would also help in knowing the future recommendations and future aspects of waste management and the position of world in the future with this much of waste in hand. This study tells us to know how much waste is being produced by us and the methods through which we could prevent and protect the environment by utilizing or disposing the produced waste properly. Moreover, it helps at the national level in the most of environment safer and effective ways with soothing sound economy efficiency.
Another objective of this dissertation would be represented in the research section of the document where a case study would be discussed briefly. This research literature is carried out on the waste management and the case study which would be used is Pelicans Manufacturing Ltd.
This dissertation will also cover the qualitative research based on several unstructured interviews of different individuals hailing from different parts of the world. These participants belong to different homelands which would be discussed and defined in the research methodology section.
There are some research objectives which should be known to every reader before proceeding ahead. These research objectives are of great importance and are listed as under:
- To know the main concept and theory of waste management and how waste management is fit into the environment
- To know the importance of waste management
- To identify the methods of waste management
- To identify the cycle of waste management
- To know the benefits and advantages brought forward to the environment by the waste management
- To evaluate the major impacts involved in the field of waste management
- To evaluate how different countries, governments, companies and individuals are contributing to safeguard the environment around with the help of waste management
- To identify the limitations faced by waste management
- To identify the gaps in waste management
- Position of Pelicans Ltd (UK) in the field of waste management
- Evaluate the measures take by Pelicans Ltd (UK) with respect in waste management
With the help of this dissertation and the research carried out, the following questions should be answered accordingly in several sections.
- What is the main concept and theory of waste management
- How waste management is fit into the environment
- What is the importance of waste management
- What are the methods of waste management
- How the cycle of waste management works
- What are the benefits and advantages brought forward to the environment by the waste management
- What major impacts are involved in the field of waste management
- How different countries, governments, companies and individuals are contributing to safeguard the environment around with the help of waste management
- What are the limitations faced by waste management
- What is the position of Pelicans Ltd (UK) in the field of waste management
- What are the measures take by Pelicans Ltd (UK) with respect in waste management
Overview of Chapters
The whole dissertation has been divided into several partitions and these parts are described as under:
As said from its topic, the first chapter reveals the introductory part of the dissertation which includes the main theme, theory, aims and objectives, limitations of the study, importance of the dissertation, research objectives and research questions which are set ahead to help out with the remaining dissertation
Chapter#2: Literature Review
This section of the dissertation provides the reader with the detailed information and insight of the main concept of the dissertation. It would provide the reader with the definition, concepts, hierarchy, branches, methods, life-cycle of waste management
Chapter#3: Research Methodology
This chapter reveals the research involved in the dissertation. This section not only gives the main case study’s insight to the reader, but also evaluates the quality of the dissertation by analyzing its research methods used, qualitative or quantitative method, and the validity and reliability of the dissertation.
This chapter highlights the main key points and results of the descriptive statistics found till yet in front of the reader with regards to the main concept and research of the dissertation.
Chapter#5: Discussions and Conclusion
This chapter describes, discusses and concludes the dissertation topic in detail. Apart from that, the limitations faced by the researcher are also explained with conceptual methodologies.
Limitations of Study
There are several limitations which are faced by the waste management. These limitations are many to list down but some of the major limitations can be viewed as under:
- Scarcity of the right management strategic plans in the company for waste management
- Different organizational structures and organizational behaviors
- Reluctance of the management of companies, governments or residential areas in adopting the measures which should be followed by everyone for better waste management and better utilization of natural resources
- Wrong interpretation of the commonly used processes and procedures of waste management
- Methods adapted by the management does not meet to the standards which should be practiced for better waste management in general
- Technology innovations may occur as a limitation to the old system of the waste management
- Political and economic conditions or new policies introduced by the government may affect the waste management policies and its financial conditions and could react as a limitation for the growth of the waste management
As discussed above, this section explains the basic understanding and main points of the whole dissertation. It includes the topics and points which would be answered in the further sections. It also explains the main research which would be carried out and the literature review. The objective, research questions and the significance of the study have already been mentioned which would be discussed with full details in the coming sections.
This is a very important section for the whole dissertation. The topic of the dissertation says “Waste Management”. So, in this section, the whole review of waste management would be covered which would include the basic meanings of waste management, its theory and impact on the environment, the hazards caused by the waste produced by companies and how waste management help in leading the country to success with respects of environment and beneficial economy, and what factors of waste management helps the organizations in reaching to that success point. That is why this section is known as the literature review because it helps the reader in understanding what literature is being used in the whole study and what is the importance of this literature for the case study.
Framework for Review
In this section of literature review, we would discuss the main literature on the basis of which this dissertation would be carried out. The main topics which would be included in this section are:
- Understanding waste management
- Legislation affecting waste management.
- Objectives of waste management
- Methods of waste management
- Life-cycle of waste management
- Hierarchy of waste management
- Benefits of waste management
- Limitations/gaps/barriers faced by waste management
Understanding Waste Management:
Waste is something which we referred to as an undesirable, unwelcome or unwanted material which has been generated and gathered from a particular source. Waste can also be associated with the names of trash, rubbish, garbage or even junk. Waste can be defined as “any substance or object which the holder discards or intends to discard” (Waste Framework Directive 75/442/EEC, 1975, Article 1 (a)). The ‘holder’ can either be the producer of waste or be in possession of waste (Williams, 2005). Waste, however, is very subjective; one person may deem an item to be waste whilst another might see it as a resource (Williams, 2005).(quoted from 2) Waste is hazardous, filthy and unwanted; thus it needs to be eliminated or re-used in a productive form. Waste cannot be used again until some procedure or process has been carried out through which it could be made useful to some extends is possible (Hawkins and Shaw; 2004, p10).
Types of waste
Waste is directly related to the human age. The production of waste is not new, but the production of new types of wastes with many variations is new because of the new innovations of technologies and social circle of human life. The composition of it has changed according to the advancements and development of time frame and technologies. With the passage of time, the quality of waste has become more toxic, hazardous and dangerous for the human health and environment because of the increase in the population and industries around the globe.
The increasing ratio of waste production is represented here in pictorial form for the years of 1996 and 1999 as under:
In general and for simple understanding waste can be classified as:
- Household waste
- Industrial waste
- Commercial / business waste
- Agricultural waste
- Others (construction / mining / nuclear / warships /etc)
(Referred from derfa report on types of waste in waste strategy 2007).
Waste generated can be classified as complicated as needed and can be as simple as mentioned above. For this report Industrial waste will only be considered and later discussion will be more specific to waste generated from industries.
Since the industrial revolution, industrial and mining operations have been accompanied by a problem: industrial waste (Texas Environmental Almanac, Chapter 9, Industrial Waste, Page 1)
Industrial waste is the waste generated by industrial actions, which again can be declared as “by humans for human” mean that the actions are carried out by human through use of machines or instruments for the use of mankind (human). The industrial waste generated mainly consists of non metallic waste, mineral waste and mixed waste, most of which can be recycled, reused or reduced by the active involvement of the management.
The waste being emitted by certain industries is considered to be highly threatening for the human health and environment because it has numerous toxic chemicals and other compositions which make it hazardous and unsafe for use of human population. This waste (nuclear waste for example) is needed to be treated properly before it is disposed for safety of mankind.
Researchers, scientists and management bodies have come across with a better solution to minimize the effects of pollution brought forward by the waste, and this solution is known as “waste management”. Proper management of waste is the basic requirement and entity which should be recovered in the ecological sustainable development for any country. The proper treatment / method or other related measures through which the waste could be reduced, recycled or disposed off is a part of waste management which helps in reducing adverse environmental effects.
Waste management is defined here which involves the products, systems and services which act upon the set of processes and procedures through which waste could be monitored, collected, reduced, separated, stored, transported, transferred, processed, treated, recycled and disposed off. (city of cape town Integrated waste management policy).Waste management is a proper cycle of different set of processes through which the waste could be gathered and then disposed or recycled by following particular set of rules and regulations. It is a very systematic, incorporated and determined control of handling waste in a consistent way. The generic form of waste could be in solid, liquid or gaseous form, which be treated by using chemical, physical, biological, thermal or other types of treatment of waste management (CoUS, 1989, p52).
The practices of waste management are different for different areas. Different procedures of waste management are applicable for different industries which mean the procedures used in developing, under-developed and developed countries are different from one another depending upon the legislatives of the country, the waste management would be different for rural and urban areas, and even different type of waste management is carried out in industries sector and residential areas. (Observation in UK and India, Pelicans).
Sound waste management cycle helps in reducing the adverse impacts on the human health and environment, while enhancing the lifestyle and developing the economic state of the country.
Legislatives of Waste Management
The legislations and policies set for the integrated waste management has a certain line of set rules and regulations according to which it makes sure to:
- To ensure the implementation of the Integrated Waste Management (IWM) policies and objectives, which support environment and human safety and security with the help of national policies
- To make sure the adequate ad reasonable flow of waste management services which helps in the economic growth and development, along with the development of the urban infrastructure
- To help the committee and community in implementing and controlling all waste management activities, along with the waste minimization which could consequently support the good governance and regulatory reform objectives
The sole objective and purpose of the legislation is to control the production and management of waste within the areas; and to make sure of giving a safe, secure and healthy environment to the citizens with socio-economic development and sustainability aspects. The legislative policy also wishes and aims to reduce the amount of waste being produced from various certain resources and to minimize the hazardous effects of waste on the human health, air and water quality of the surroundings. The surroundings cover everyone in the city such as, offices, residents, government departments, businesses, organizations, visitors, tourists, and even workers.
It is the main objective of the legislation to carry out all the waste management related practices such as, monitoring, collecting, transferring, treating, cleaning, separating, storing, processing, recycling, reusing and disposing the waste. Moreover, the waste management activities of the legislation also includes the unauthorized dumping, littering and provision of other certain waste management facilities to the individuals, companies, and departments related to the waste management.
One of the sole objectives of the legislation is to prevent the production of waste as much as possible, and even if the waste is generated where it cannot be avoided, then the other duty of the legislation includes minimizing the waste as much as possible. Disposal of waste comes as the last procedure or solution left after utilizing and considering all the waste management procedures.
Policies of Waste Management
The policy design set for the waste management should cover the following points (Gunning, Holm; 2007, p281):
- To make sure of the self capability and adequacy of waste disposal
- To make sure that the waste has been disposed off or treated properly without causing harm to the environment or the human health
- To establish a perfect set of incorporated and sufficient network of waste disposal installations
- To support and promote avoiding and prevention of waste production
- To support and persuade the recuperation of waste by using the means of re-use, recycling or reclamation
Relativity of Waste
In the historic days, the trash bin consisted of ash, dirt and simple materials of waste which was not needed to be treated through many stages of waste management. The most simple way of treating this waste was to dump or land fill which was practiced mainly previously. But overtime, the quantity and type of waste has been changed. Advanced technology has brought feasibility along with chemical proportions and toxicity in certain products which are very harmful for the human health. Even the normal dustbin we have has different kind of litter. This illustration can be explained with the help of a graph as under:
Significant and momentous change has been noted with respect to waste production over the last 100 years because the technology has got modernized and advanced very quickly in overtime.
In Accordance with this relativity waste Strategies are also amended with time, the Government published its recent Waste Strategy 2007 in May.
Key points of the strategy include
- More effective incentives for individuals and businesses to recycle waste, leading to at least 40 per cent of household waste recycled or composted by 2010, rising to 50 per cent by 2020. This is a significant increase on the targets in the previous waste strategy, published in 2000.
- A greater responsibility on businesses for the environmental impact of their products and operations through, for example, a drive to minimize packaging and higher targets for recycling packaging.
- A strong emphasis on waste prevention with householders reducing their waste (for example, through home composting and reducing food waste) and business helping consumers, for example, with less packaging. There will also be a new national target to help measure this – to reduce the amount of household waste not re-used, recycled or composted from 22.2 million tonnes in 2000 to 12.2 million tonnes by 2020 – a reduction of 45 per cent.
- A challenge to see recycling extended from the home and office and taken into public areas like shopping malls, train stations and cinema multiplexes, so that it becomes a natural part of everyday life. Defra recently launched its Recycle on the Go initiative alongside the Royal Parks.
- An increase in the landfill tax escalator by £8 per year from 2008 until at least 2010/11 – announced by the then-Chancellor Gordon Brown in March 2007. Partly as a result of this, business waste landfilled is expected to fall by 20 per cent by 2010 compared with 2004. (From Defra 2007)
Objectives of Waste Management
The main objectives which lie behind the concept of waste management are listed as below: (Cheremisinoff, 2002, p14):
- To control the arising pollution of air, water, and land
- To save and make maximum use of the natural resources
- To save and preserve the resources of air, water, energy and raw materials
- To ensure health and safety of the human life
- To introduce and maintain the sense of social responsibility among people and nations
- To enhance the business performance of organizations
- To improve the economical state of countries with the help of beneficial waste management
Methods of Waste Management
There are several methods available for the purpose of waste management, but some of the main methods are listed and explained in point form for understanding the basic plan of the process:
Source Reduction & Reuse Method
(Garvin, 1995, p78-85) The source reduction and reuse is the method in which the quality, quantity, design, style, manufacturing texture, packaging, purchase or use of the material or product is changed in order to reduce the toxic nature of the waste being produced by the company.
- Benefits involved
- Minimization of waste
- Preservation of natural resources
- Increase in production of greenhouse gases
- Reduction in air pollution
- Cost effective
Food Recovery & Gleaning
The collection of wholesome food or food related stuff, inclusive of food chains, distributors, glossary stores, and food service operations; and then distributing them to poor in order to eradicate poverty in a particular sector. This is also food recovery (Cheremisinoff, 2002, p14).
- Distribution of food supplies to the needy
- Helps in gaining local waste reduction objectives
- Ensures enhanced public image for the businesses involved
A food-to-energy or food-to-livestock method in which food residues are collected and used from food processors, grocery stores or food service centers.
- Reuses the food being left from several locations or sector
- Ensures the achievement of local waste reduction aims
The procedure of recycling in waste management has different definitions, but the main and most common definition can be explained as the procedure in which waste is separated, collected and transformed or remanufactured into something useful product which could be reused by people (Garvin, 1995, p78-85).
The recycling materials which are normally recycled by following certain set of rule and procedures are listed as under: cans , glass, paper, etc.
- Makes use of the raw material of original products
- Beneficial yet important for the retail market
- Identifies the diversion of materials and products involved
- Preserved natural resources along with raw material
- Reduces the production of greenhouse gases emission
Composting is the biological and natural method which converts the organic material into humus type product which is known as compost.
Materials which are normally used in the composting are: dairy products, milk, fruits, vegetables, bread, grains, meats, newspaper, paper napkins and coffee filters.
Materials which cannot be compost are: metals, glass, plastic, chemicals, foils, grease and polystyrene.
The technologies involved with composting are:
- Windrow composting
- In-vessel composting systems
- Anaerobic processing
- Aerated static pile composting
- Preserves natural resources
- Increases the productivity
- Minimizes the need for more landfill space
It is the process in which organic materials are oxidized into the shape of several types of productive end products. It is also known as microbial fermentation procedure.
Intermediate Solid Waste Processing
- Garbage Disposals – Garbage disposal process demolishes the waste produced in the food area which includes restaurants, dishwashing areas, sinks, and others
- Pulper – Pulper is the process through which solid particles or materials are removed from the waste before disposing it through a specific routine or procedure
Landfill is also referred to as dumping and was used most commonly and abundantly. It is the process in which waste materials are buried in order to be treated. However, this method is being replaced by the waste management method of recycling and composting; but the importance and place of landfill waste management would remain as it is now (Garvin, 1995, p78-85).
Incineration is the process in which burnable material and waste is burned or disposed off with the help of machines at extreme highly temperature where it is being combusted. (Plastic waste generally)
- Minimization of weight and volume
- Proper disposal of several hazardous and dangerous chemicals
- Recovery of energy source
Life-Cycle of Waste Management
The life cycle of waste management can be understood by viewing the following diagram:
The life-cycle of waste management starts with the energy level put forward for the rationale of numerous waste management purposes which could be raw material acquisitions, manufacturing, use, re-use or recycling, composting, combustion and land filling. These waste management methods make use of emitting gases like carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and other type of gases which helps in reduced volume of carbon sequestration in forests. The cycle of waste management ends up successfully giving carbon storage in the soil, avoided fossil fuels, carbon in long-term storage in the landfill and increased volume of forest carbon sequestration eventually.
Hierarchy of Waste Management
The hierarchy of waste management helps in the best way of controlling pollution and preventing pollution as much as possible. It has sequential six steps which are recommended to follow eventually. The first step of the waste management hierarchy is to avoid and prevent the sources of producing waste. This is the first and finest step which is advised to follow all the times, but the production of waste cannot be stopped totally forever because of the production of several products from the industrial and household sector. The second step of the hierarchy is minimization of producing waste. The production of waste cannot be stopped but it could be minimized to some extends with proper precautions and proper use of natural resources and products.
The third level of the waste management hierarchy is the re-use factor in which it is advisable to prevent the growing ratio of the waste by re-using the products and using them appropriately. The fourth and well practiced level of the waste management hierarchy is recycling, which involved the re-production and remanufacturing of the used products and making them able to use again from scratch. The fifth stage is energy recovery which involves the thermal treatments of waste to gasification and energy source and several other techniques such as anaerobic digestion. The sixth step of the hierarchy is disposal, according to which the energy sources provided should be used appropriately and after using the products, doing efforts to dispose the produced amount of waste effectively through which the environment could be made safe and healthy for the human health and surroundings.
Thus by looking at the figure it is very clear that prevention is the most favoured option but still we see that recycling and reuse are still more prevalent with common man and industries.
Role of Legislation
Policies and legislations are responsible for driving the changes within the practice of waste management. The role of legislations for waste management is very crucial because it involves the strategies which are set for the betterment of the environment and set policies for the prevention and minimization of waste production. The role of legislation can be understood by having a look at the following diagram illustrating waste management:
This illustration follows the legislation which involves development with sustainability, waste management and procurement division of national authority services. With the help of this model of waste management, the waste production would be minimized and reduced to noteworthy ratio and the disposing procedure would be lessen down to high extends.
Role of ISO 9001, ISO 14000 and TS/ISO 16949 standards for Waste Management
ISO 9001 is a standard which refers to the quality management system standard and helps organizations in improving their work with quality and sustainability factors. It enables the company in understanding the flow of work and processes better for delivering the perfect products and services to the customers (bsiamerica.com).
ISO 14000 is an internationally accepted standard which helps in setting up efficient Environmental Management System (EMS). It also helps the organization in retaining the environmental policy, implementing and operating the management review and setting up specific effective operations (bsiamerica.com).
TS/ISO 16949 is another globally renowned standard which helps the organization in dealing with the product quality, installing, productivity, improving and competitiveness of the automotive industry. This internationally recognized standard ensures the effective working of the automotive industry with full productivity and development (bsiamerica.com).
The ISO 9001, ISO 14000 and TS/ISO 16949 standards helps the organization, especially an automotive company like the company we have as case study of this dissertation (that is, Pelicans Automobiles UK) to work with full stream and capability and to prove its sovereign identity over other competitors in the marketplace. These standards help the company in maintaining a high class standard through which it could provide unique and distinct products and services to its customers while taking care of the environment on the other side and generating as low waste as possible. Even if the production of waste cannot be avoided, then the company follows the minimization of waste process so that the environment remain safe and secure or the betterment of the human health and clean environment.
Integrated Waste Management Plan
The features or points which are needed to be included in an integrated waste management plan are (new book):
- Analysis of the volume of the waste being produced and its type
- Detailed explanation and narration of the procedures through which the waste would be collected, treated, stored, transport and disposed
- Illustration of the waste which would be separated at the site for recycling and non-recycling material
- The affect on the environment because of the waste being produced
- Evaluation of the pollution prevention and waste minimization plans
- Analysis of the natural resources which are used while production of certain materials/products, resulting in generating waste
Benefits of Waste Management
There are numerous and several benefits of waste management which are brought forward in a beneficial way. Some of these the advantages of waste management are listed as under (Nemerow and Agardy, 1997, p77-80):
- Safeguard the environment, human health, and lifestyle; reduces the pollution level
- Reduces amount of weight and volume; increases the use and reuse of raw materials produced by the companies
- Maintains the safety of air , water and environment (Green House effect ); minimizes waste and waste products
- Improves the morale of the whole community and area with better quality of products and services
- Ensures the development potential for the residential, rural, urban, industrial, and other areas
- Very important, crucial, cost effective and beneficial for economic and industrial stability of the retail market, industries and countries.
Limitations/Gaps/Barriers Faced for Waste Management
There are several limitations, gaps and barriers which are faced for waste management as listed below (Forester and Skinner, 1992, p204):
- Several methods (2.7) of waste management mentioned above are highly expensive to be adopted by companies, lack of infrastructure, modern technology.
- The applicability and implementation of certain waste management methods are difficult because of the environmental laws
- The factor of feasibility and possibility of waste management is strictly constrained because of the distance to minor populations and marketplaces
- Big risk of creating and generating more waste if the incorrect procedure or dimension is used
- The gaps of quality in the product and services provided by companies and countries
- Increased bureaucratic prices and costs involved along with the stranded investments because of the unanticipated political changes
- Corruption, fraud, ignorance, lack of tolerance involved in the waste management implementations
For Example the data available for household waste clearly indicates that there is very less implementation of waste management (Recycling).
The figure shows the amount of household waste production and the amount of waste being recycled till the year 2007 since the year 1996 in the United Kingdom are represented simply in the following graph:
The limitations which were faced while collecting the above information are explained below:
- The information provided by different sources and websites collide at times, also the data available was not recent and updated due to lack of knowledge and awareness. which took extra time to combine all and get the final desired authentic information from the reliable sources.
- Many referred books in this section were hard to find and consumed a lot of hard work to find and combine the information from all of them
As explained above, waste management not only helps in retaining the environmental conditions, but also plays vital role in protecting the human health and lifestyle. It results in minimizing the waste being produced, saves the environment, and reduces the pollution ratio, increases productivity. Waste management is also said to be economically beneficial for the financial state of any country.
In the last two Chapters, waste management and other information related to it were conferred. As explained in the introductory part, the case study would be used for the main topic, that is, Pelicans Mfg. Co. UK. This Chapter describes, the research methodology used. The research methodology used in this dissertation is the case study according to which waste management activities and efforts put forward by the Pelicans Automobiles UK and other research methodology related material would be discussed and analyzed. It is the unique and different aspect of research element of this dissertation which would revolve around the waste management being carried out by Pelicans Automobiles UK and around the world by other countries along with some other general topics.
Research is the background work that is to be done before commencing any work on the project. This is known as the background research that supports the work and acknowledges the efforts put in the project. According to Anderson (2004), ‘finding out things in a systematic way in order to increase knowledge about people and processes involved in the management of work organisations’ is research.
Research can be also defined as ‘a process of enquiry and investigation, it is systematic, methodical and it increases knowledge’ (Collis and Hussey, 2003).
There are two types of background research
Primary Research – According to Dawson (2002, p41-2), this type of research involves the in-depth investigation and observation of the project you have been assigned. It is a straight forward and easy to use method. The sources through which primary research would be carried out are listed below:
- Personal meetings with officials
- Meeting with customers and people involved in the research
- Doing market research
- Study of records
Secondary Research – This type of research includes usage of the sources and methods available to the researcher. The information which is collected in this type of research could be gathered from (Schneider, Elliott Whitehead, LoBiondo-Wood, Haber; 2007, p35):
- the Internet
- Business Journals
- General Publications, and
- Any medium available easily to the researcher
For the above mentioned background Research there are different approaches that can be used to collect data they are as follows:
Experimental research is used to collect primary data by selecting similar groups of subjects (to be studied), testing them under different treatments, controlling related factors and then measuring the differences in group responses (Malhotra and Birks, 2005). It is also used to measure the effects of changes on a variable by keeping other variables in the system as constant.
Experimental research is a type of research, which is used to explain the cause and effect relationship.
Observing the surroundings, nature of the process and also the people for their behavior is termed as observational research. Observational research is an organised process of recording patterns of occurrences or behaviours with normally communicating with the people; those are involved (Gates and McDaniela, 2004). The major advantage of this method is we can have more information which is difficult to gather otherwise. But there are also a limitations which lies with the observer
- Pre-conceived ideas
- Poor observation or lack of absorption.
Direct and indirect are two types of survey research; these are helpful to gather information which can be applied in later stage to have a detailed analysis. Survey research is a quick and flexible way of gathering required and relevant information to the problem but in some cases respondents might not be willing to disclose their information. (Research Notes, Dissertation workshop, 2007). The most common way is in form of questionnaire.
Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methodology
Qualitative research methods are used in the cases where quality and nonnumeric values are concerned. This research method involves the real life experience gathered from a field or a group of people, society, organization, community or even individuals. Qualitative research method is usually used to seek the originality and real expressions and behaviors of people (Punch, 2005, p37).
Quantitative research method is quite different from that of qualitative. It usually makes its combination with surveys and real experiments; which consequently helps in gathering the differentiating values, separate characteristics which also helps in gathering data for the researcher or conductor (Brannen, 1992, p51).
The Case Study and Research Used
For this dissertation, Evaluation of waste management practices, relative mostly to Technical Department in Pelicans Mfg.Co.UK has been considered. It was chosen basically due to three main points:
- First Hand Availability of data.
- Mostly reliable and authentic.
- Changes made or suggestion implemented can be monitored.
The research method used in this study is a mixture of both the primary and secondary research, since we have used the information available on:
- The internet
- The library books
- Business and economic journals
- Setting personal meetings with people
The research method used in this dissertation is quantitative. The main reasons why we chose quantitative research method as our sole choice can be explained in the following points (Brannen, 1992, p51):
- Presents the interviewees’ expressions very nicely and clearly
- Helps in gathering and making the data statistics
- Provides the chance of filling questionnaire or giving interviews with their full freewill
- Can accommodate large size of research and present concise results by using only their data
Reliability and Validity of the Methodology
According to Carmines, Zeller (1979, p89); reliability and validity is the quality measure of the study you are doing. Both are necessary to judge the height and standard of the work you are doing. Reliability reflects to the consistency of the data searched out; while validity proofs the accuracy of the study work and affects the influence of quality put in the project (Sprenkle, Piercy; 2005, p27). Together, both of them help the research results to correspond with reality with affirmation and verification.
Reliability of the Research Conducted
- Information Level : Normal Reliable
- Highly Reliable
- Questionnaires: Normal Reliable
Validity of Research Conducted
- Information Level : Normal Validated
- Normal Validated
- Questionnaires: Less Validated
- Highly Validated
The whole research carried out in this dissertation is said to Normal Reliable, and Normal Validated.
Pelicans Manufacturing Corporation Ltd. UK: (pelicans.co.uk)
Pelicans Manufacturing Co. Ltd was formed in the year 1983 and since then it has made remarkable progress in many fields such as manufacturing merchandising of leather and hand-made or man-made substances and materials. With its developing strategic line of work, Pelicans has becomes one of the largest manufacturing merchandising companies operating in the United Kingdom. Pelicans Manufacturing Ltd. has its largest active working factory in the region of the great London city with the area compromising of about 40,000 square foot which is equivalent to 3,700 square metres of area; where more than 60 full time active workers and professionals contribute to the progress of the company with the level of their skills, intelligence, energy and spirit of teamwork.
The whole cycle of work being carried out in the Pelicans Manufacturing Ltd is basically in-house which makes it feasible for the company to manufacture different items within no annoying downtime; and makes changes within no time. Pelicans Manufacturing Ltd has the space to store and produce 8000 units per day and has the facility to dispatch and deliver the units directly to the customers or clients. It is also has the certification clearance level of ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14000.
Pelicans Manufacturing Ltd has its working branch as Pelicans Automobiles in India which deals in the automotive industry with large extends of interest and progress in the marketplace. The automobiles sector of Pelicans Manufacturing is specialized in supplying and dealing of:
- Main focused point of sale materials and items
- Specialized in making customized designs of automobiles
- Specialized in manufacturing car document wallets
- Specialized in manufacturing unique design, translations and printing
- Contains separate warehouse for the purpose of collecting finished goods and items
- Collate, fulfills and dispatches the finished goods and units directly to the destinations
Collation with Automobile Companies
The several multinationals which trust the Pelicans Automobiles UK with respect to automotive publications and get the services of risk-free solutions, cost-effective, time-saving and cutting edge solutions and services are (pelicans.co.uk):
- Aston Martin
- Chrysler Jeep
- Honda Europe
- Land Rover
- Lexus Europe
- Nissan Europe
- Toyota Europe
- Volvo Truck
Mercedes Benz (Recent development)
Waste Management at pelicans
In context to the dissertation waste generated in production has been looked upon more closely. Also some other important areas where slight changes could result in some substantial saving are considered.
Pelicans is not only a giant in manufacturing and retailing, but also gives extraordinary efforts and stresses on following the proper procedure and patterns of waste management through which it could not only prevent the environment and human healthy lifestyle, but also prevent the resources available to the company.
As mentioned earlier that something which is not needed or is no more useful to the owner is termed as waste and as per human physiology we don’t care for the things we don’t need. Hence waste is always seen to be thrown without a second thought of its impact on the environment. Knowingly or unknowingly we have been managed from the day we were born, either by elders or by laws. Hence government in every country has laws and legislation for management of waste with respect to the economy of the country. European union (EU) have passed legislation and they have been implemented in UK to tackle the problem of arising waste. Examples include, the Waste Landfill Directive 99/31/EC, the Waste Incineration Directive 2000/76/EC, the Packaging Waste Directive 94/62/EC, and the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment 2002/96/EC. In the U.K., the Government has also developed its own perspective on sustainable waste management in the National Waste Strategies. (Example NWS 2007)
The different legislatives applicable to pelicans can be explained as below.
Waste Landfill Directive 99/31/EC
The predominant piece of legislation, dealing with sustainable waste management, is the European Directive on Landfill (Waste Landfill Directive 99/31/EC, 1999). The objective of the Directive is to prevent, or reduce as far as possible, any negative impacts on the environment or human health due to landfill waste disposal (Burnley, 2001). The Directive aims, in particular, to reduce the pollution of surface and ground waters, soil and air (Burnley, 2001). This is to be achieved by excluding certain materials from landfill (for example tyres), by introducing a ban on co-disposal of hazardous waste with municipal solid waste (Burnley, 2001), and by limiting the mass of biodegradable material which can be disposed to landfill (Cheeseman and Phillips, 2001). Targets for decreasing the amount of biodegradable material that ends up in landfill have been set.
The Member States must reduce the amount to 75% of 1995 levels by 2006, 50% of 1995 levels by 2009, and 35% of 1995 by 2016 (Williams, 2005). In addition, the Directive states that waste should be treated before being taken to landfill, by physical, thermal, chemical or biological processes and that diversion away from landfill is the preferred option (Williams, 2005). If these conditions are not met by the deadlines, the European Union will not only take legal action but also impose large fines on individual Member States (Price, 2001). The Directive has, therefore, put increasing pressure on Member States to implement more sustainable waste management practices, and is set to change the face of the waste sector in the U.K. over a short period of time (Price, 2001). Increasing pressure will, therefore, be placed upon local authorities to reduce the amount of trade waste going to landfill disposal, and consequently on trade waste producers to concentrate on minimizing, reducing and recycling trade waste.
Incineration and the Waste Incineration Directive 2000/76/EC
Incineration is the burning of waste, with or without energy recovery (Waste Online, 2004a). The process of incineration involves the oxidation of the combustible material in the waste to produce heat, vapors, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen (Williams, 2005). Other emissions may also be produced depending on the composition of the waste being burned (Williams, 2005). The end products of the incineration process can be utilized to produce heat or energy (usually from high-temperature steam turbines) (Williams, 2005). This is called energy recovery. Mass burn incineration plants and using waste as a fuel substitute are two ways in which energy can be recovered from waste (Waste Online, 2004b). Other thermal methods include gasification and pyrolysis (Eduljee and Arthur, 2001). These, however, are not classed as incineration.
The role of waste incineration in waste management strategies has been the source of debate for many years, and is controversial worldwide (Lima, 2004). The advantages and disadvantages of incineration over landfill have been identified, and are the basis of the debate. The advantages of incineration over landfill include the fact that incineration can usually be carried out close to where the waste is produced, ensuring regional self-sufficiency, and that the waste is reduced to a sterile ash product (Williams, 2005). In addition, the process, unlike landfill, produces no methane, is a low cost source of energy and heating, and is often the best disposal route for hazardous wastes (Williams, 2005).
The disadvantages of incineration as a strategy are significantly influenced by include public concerns over the potential health impacts of incineration (Lima, 2004; Petts, 2004; Petts, 1992; Renn, 1998; Waste Online, 2004a) Also, although a sterile ash product is produced it still requires disposal (Williams, 2005). In addition, once incineration is in operation, in a specific area, there is a lack of flexibility in the future choice of waste management options. This is due to the high capital cost of the incinerator, which necessitates a long term waste contract to ensure economic viability (Williams, 2005). The fact that incinerators are designed on the basis of a certain calorific value of waste (Williams, 2005) means that the removal of materials such as paper and plastic for recycling (another recovery option), could cause the overall calorific value of the waste to fall (Eduljee and Arthur, 2001). This may consequently affect incinerator efficiency (Williams, 2005), and hinder recycling efforts (Environment Agency, 2003).
Thus, it can be seen that when considering incineration as part of a waste strategy it is important to consider both the advantages and the disadvantages. One clear advantage of incineration is the diversion of significant volumes of waste from landfill disposal – an increasingly important benefit, as landfill disposal sites are diminishing (Cheeseman and Phillips, 2001), and legislation is becoming stricter. Incineration may be an affordable option to tackle the targets imposed on the U.K., by legislation such as the European Landfill Directive (Environment Agency, 2003). Care must be taken to ensure, however, that incineration does not undermine waste prevention, minimisation, re-use and recycling (Environment Agency, 2003). It is important that incineration represents the Best Practicable Environmental Option (see Section 1.3.5) for the waste stream in question, and that it forms part of an integrated regional or local waste strategy (Environment Agency, 2003). In addition, where possible, the recovery of energy from waste should occur as part of the incineration process (Environment Agency, 2003).
The Waste Incineration Directive 2000/76/EC (Waste Incineration Directive 20/76/EC, 2000) should be seen in the context of these possibilities and constraints. The Directive sets stringent operational conditions, technical requirements and emission-limit values for incinerators, to achieve its overall aim of a high level of environmental and human health protection (Williams, 2005). If an incinerator does not attain the required standard, it will be shutdown until it does (Bell and McGillivray, 2000). The Directive itself aims only to ensure that incinerators are of a high standard, and is not concerned with the overall place of incineration in sustainable waste management (Waste Online, 2004c). In addition, it aims to allay some of the public concerns over the incineration of waste (Williams, 2005). Indeed, the regulator in the U.K., the Environment Agency, now sees incineration with recovery as having a role in sustainable waste management (Environment Agency, 2003). Incineration with energy recovery could, therefore, be used as part of sustainable trade waste management, helping to reduce the amount of trade waste going to landfill disposal.
Packaging Waste Directive 94/62/EC
The EU Packaging Directive aims to prevent the production of packaging waste and encourages its recycling, reuse and recovery (Bell and McGillivray, 2000). Packaging waste includes materials such as paper, cardboard and plastic wrapping, cartons, aluminium and steel food and drink cans, and plastic and glass bottles (Williams, 2005). It includes all products used for the containment, handling, presentation or the delivery of goods (NetRegs, 2004). In addition, it aims to increase the use of recycled packaging materials, and to increase the use of innovative design, allowing products to be designed and packaged in such a manner that permits packaging re-use and recovery (Waste Online, 2004c). Through the Directive targets for each Member State have been set by the EU (Williams, 2005). The targets of 60% recovery, and between 55% and 80% recycling (55% in the U.K. (DEFRA, 2005a)), are to be met by 31st December 2008 (Waste Online, 2004c). In addition to these targets, material specific recycling targets have been set, for example, 60% for glass, 60% for paper, 50% for metals, 22.5% for plastic, and 15% for wood (Waste Online, 2004c; DEFRA, 2005a).
In the U.K., the Packaging Waste Directive is implemented by two sets of regulations; The Producer Responsibility Obligations (Packaging Waste) Regulations 1997 (as amended), and The Packaging (Essential Requirements) Regulations 2003 (as amended) (Waste Online, 2004c)).
Businesses that handle more than 50 tonnes of packaging, and have an annual turnover of over £2 million, are obligated to comply with the Producer Responsibility Obligations (Packaging Waste) Regulations 1997 (as amended) (Waste Online, 2004c). The Regulations state that businesses meeting these thresholds must register with the Environment Agency or a compliance scheme, and, if they are retailers, they must inform their customers of how they are increasing the recycling and recovery of packaging waste (Waste Online, 2004c). If a business decides to register with one of the 21 registered compliance schemes, then these schemes assume the legal obligations for the business (DEFRA, 2005a). In addition, the business must recover a certain amount of packaging waste each year (DEFRA, 2005a). The amount is set according to how much packaging the business handles, the activity the business carried out on the packaging, and the business recycling and recovery targets for the year (DEFRA, 2005a). They must also certify that these targets have been met (Waste Online, 2004c).
The Packaging (Essential Requirements) Regulations 2003 (as amended) place requirements on all packaging placed on the market (DEFRA, 2005a). These requirements include the reduction of packaging volume and weight to the smallest levels possible, without compromising safety, hygiene and acceptance by the consumer (Waste Online, 2004c). The regulations also place limits on the concentration of lead, mercury, cadmium and hexavalent chromium used in packaging, and encourage the design and use of packaging that allows its re-use and recovery (Waste Online, 2004c)
The Packaging Waste Directive and the sets of U.K. Regulations all aim to encourage the commercial and industrial sector to minimize, reduce and recycle packaging. The effect of these regulations should be to reduce the amount of trade waste being sent to landfill disposal, and to increase the number of products that can be recycled after use.
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) 2002/96/EC
WEEE aims to promote the reuse, recycling and recovery of electrical and electronic waste and, in doing so, to reduce the amount of waste produced (Williams, 2005). In addition, the Directive also aims to improve the environmental performance of operators involved in the lifecycle of electrical and electronic goods (Waste Online, 2004c). Electrical and electronic equipment includes household appliances, information technology and telecommunications equipment, consumer equipment, lighting equipment, electrical tools, toys, medical equipment systems, monitoring and control instruments, and automatic dispensers (Williams, 2005). The Directive proposes to achieve this by setting up a free collection service, where the consumer can return the old equipment (Williams, 2005). There is no mandatory requirement for household collections of waste electrical and electronic equipment; it must, however, be seen that householders are being encouraged to separate such goods and to take them to the relevant place to be recycled (Waste Online, 2004c). By 31st December 2006, an average collection rate of 4kg per inhabitant per year must be achieved (Waste Online, 2004c).
The U.K. Regulations, when implemented, are expected to have significant implications for the retailers, producers and importers of WEEE in the U.K. (Waste Online, 2004c), as the supply chain will become responsible for the waste management of their products. In addition, WEEE used in the commercial and industrial sector will have to be recycled where possible. This should result in decreased trade waste to landfill disposal, increased cost of disposal for producers of WEEE, and thus an increase in waste minimization and reduction.
Also the waste strategies mentioned earlier () are applicable.
Having collected all the relative data I chose to have a closer look into the working of the organization. Hence I decided to circulate a questionnaire to know the awareness, approach of the staff for waste management.
Findings of Questionnaire
The finding of the questionnaire which was distributed among the staff strength of 71 in total are as below:
The chart shows that there are more females as compared to males. As the company requires more skills for packaging where heavy work is not required but more skill full and flexibility of hand is required.
As per the need of work it can be seen that most of the staff is middle aged.
Length of service
As seen most of the staff at pelicans is retained this indicates that they all have mastered their job skills. Also through my observation I have came across that most of the task performed require a lot of m/c handling, concentration fulfilling of products and packaging skills, which is a form of tactic knowledge which comes with experience.
Having conducted the initial research and getting the results as shown above. The next step was to measure the understanding of workers for waste management and also their awareness and approach for the process. The summary of the results is presented in the table below:
|1||I agree that waste should be separated at its source||5||13||38||13||2|
|2||I rarely think about looking for a new ways for waste management||4||30||7||28||2|
|3||It is my duty to help organisation in managing waste||11||31||26||1||2|
|4||My contribution is necessary to reduce waste in the organisation||0||19||43||9||0|
|5||Suggestion for changes are considered in our organisation||7||59||2||3||0|
|6||I am aware of all rules and regulation of waste management applicable to the organisation||1||4||60||6||0|
|7||I know what is waste management hierarchy||2||27||12||27||3|
|8||ISO and TS standards are very helpful to organisation with regards to reducing waste||19||5||38||8||1|
|9||Online google docs are very helpful||43||6||20||2||0|
|10||If opportunity provided I am ready to learn more about ways to minimise and reuse waste.||7||38||23||2||1|
My inferences, after plotting a bar graph of the results obtained for the given questionnaire are:
- People working in pelicans have a very positive approach towards learning new things.
- They have the knowledge but are not confident enough to express it.
- And they know their responsibility very well.
All they need is a proper guideline which will boost their confidence and also improve the condition on the shop floor.
Findings and discussions
Finding of records for waste generated during production:
Below are the records for the year 2005-2007.
These bar graphs were generated using the data available from Pelicans Mfg.Co.Ltd after consulting the designated person.
Started on 9th May 2008 as a Labourer in Pelicans. Being a Labourer I got a chance to observe the methods followed for waste management and the way they were approached. Being my job responsibility I used to collect the waste generated in production section
After a lot of observation and doing informal chats with the co-workers I got acquainted with the whole system. As being a SME waste management was not considered as a high priority which thus gave me a chance to implement some aspects of waste management.
I suggested to the management that the waste generated in different areas should be separated at the source of generation to facilitate the fast movement of waste to bailing area.
Rolls and other cardboard waste is directly collected through use of available infrastructure.
These were implemented and also were praised by everyone as it was supportive system for all. Following to which I was upgraded, to assist the factory manager. During that period I was responsible to monitor the cutting of artificial leatherettes. The technology used was very simple but still there was a large amount of waste do to improper instruction from specification or technical files. Being a chemical engineer I had technical knowhow so I started amending technical files for cutting of artificial leatherette. At a later stage I presented my work to the top management which resulted in cost saving for the company and also less burden as reduction of waste at source was effective. The file having confidential data cannot be attached. But the main aim or the purpose was to follow the waste Hierarchy which is to prevent generation of waste. There were few training section conducted by me for the awareness on waste management and the importance of work force in implementing it.
Than it was followed by a brain storming section which the supervisors of the shop floor which resulted in many suggestions:
- The bins allotted should be labelled.
- The bins allotted should have different colour coding rather than labels.
- Two persons should be recruited for continuous monitoring.
- Plastics milk-cans can be replaced by glass bottles in the canteen.
- Cardboard should be reused in packaging.
- Stretch rolls on pallets should be minimised and replaced by strip packing..
- 15 minutes should be allocated before the end of shift for cleaning the area.
- Leather waste should be send for recycling.
Top Management was so impressed with my work that they took an official interview on basis of my merits and designated me as Assistant Technical Director (On probation).
After amending the production process w.r.t cutting and fulfilling the progress were observed and also the waste generated was noted. Also some of the changes which could be made with much investment were being implemented, which helped in motivating the staff. Thus the results were plotted in comparison with respect to last three years and also predictions were made on generation of production waste considering production orders till December 2008.
This section represented the main research methodologies and the research method used in the dissertation. This session was meant to discuss how the researcher has gone to what extends and what findings the researcher has succeeded to find out finally. The significant industries for the case study used in this research methodology were waste management and its development; while the case study which was used with respects to the main topic was Pelicans Automobiles UK.
This chapter explains the final discussion and conclusion that needs to be carried out while coming to a point and making it very clear to the reader. This chapter also analysis the details that have been presented in the previous chapter and would give a final conclusion for the convenience of the reader.
While compiling this report, several limitations have been faced which are related either to the corporate reasons or the academic reasons of the researcher. These limitations are listed as under:
- The research of the researcher could be biased because of the qualitative data representative on the web as well as the information gathered by the interviewees
- The information present on the countries, industries profile and web are several, hence the information displayed is limited because there are numerous and uncountable sources present, but all of them cannot be presented in this detailed dissertation
- The information presented by the interviewees may vary because they are conducted from different countries and people have different views and opinions; and their opinions may vary from one another
- The research carried out is not extensively complete
- The research is carried out by a student, hence, the information may face conflicts by its lecturer or this assignment could be different from the point of view of the lecturer
Discussion/Conclusion – Waste Management & Case Study on Pelicans Manufacturing Co. Ltd
(Forester and Skinner, 1992, p204) The world has gone through a lot of improvements and advancements as the time proceeds and people get along with the modern advent of technology era which took the entire mankind to face and introduce many new modernizations. But all these advancements and technologies enhancements have opened ways for several problems. One of the growing problems faced by the generation today is to handle the amount of waste being produced and generated, and to reduce the ratio of pollution from the face of the globe. The developments made by the human being are appreciable, but the side affects brought forward are also noteworthy and considerable.
The increase in the advance technology and modern lifestyle has made human life easy and luxurious but it has also paved ways for many issues like waste management which is needed to be taken care of rapidly. However, the issue of waste management has been increasingly and distinctly synchronized in harmony by several groups who are finding their activities to be affected by the environmental and waste management aspects. The increasing amount of pollution has disturbed the situation of environment and condition of the quality of air, water, soil and other natural resources to high extends. Now waste includes all that materials and stuff which is generated in a process and is totally undesirable, useless and unwanted. To minimize the hazardous affects of pollution and waste being produced, there is a method which helps in not only reducing the waste, but also helps in safeguarding the atmosphere around us. This method is known as waste management. Handling waste management is very crucial to the entire human being and the planet because it required the control of the waste produced because of the consumption of several materials and daily products through daily and industrial or domestic routine of the human generation.
Waste management is basically the process and set of procedures through which we could ensure the safety of the environment, human health, human lifestyle, air, water, soil and natural resources. Waste management is the process in which the produced amount of waste is monitored, collected, gathered, stored, treated, handled, and then either recycled or disposed off properly. Hazardous wastes could be toxic, flammable, explosive, radioactive, corrosive, or infectious in nature that’s why it needs to be collected, stored, treated and disposed or recycled on time with properly required guidelines of waste management. Waste is also considered to be hazardous if some degree of physical, chemical or biological exposure or risk is involved with it which could cause harm to the human health or environment. It is a very systematic, incorporated and determined control of handling waste in a consistent way. There are several other methods of waste management which have been discussed along with their provided advantages and benefits involved.
Many developed countries have already set up projects through which they treat the waste, carry out waste-to-energy procedure, incineration, composting, landfills, recycling, reuse and many other waste management methods and are totally indulged in disposing or recycling out the wastes they produced within their homelands. Apart from these, many other under-developed and developing countries also go through many short and cost effective waste management projects and processes through which they try their best to save the natural resources and utilize the sources available to them properly and to full extends.
Effective and sound working waste management cycle helps in reducing the adverse impacts on the human health and environment, while enhancing the lifestyle and developing the economic state of the country. Waste management not only paves way for safeguarding the environment conditions, but also invites local and foreign investors to come and invest in this industry which repays back them with huge amount of income and profit margins.
Pelicans Manufacturing Corporation Ltd is another company which has been discussed as the case study in this study. This company came into being in the year 1983 and since then it has flourished in the European market and the United Kingdom with flying colours and has maintained its place above all the competitors around. Pelicans Manufacturing Ltd. has its largest active working factory in the region of the great London city with the area compromising of about 40,000 square foot which is equivalent to 3,700 square metres of area; where more than 100 full time active workers and professionals contribute to the progress of the company with the level of their skills, intelligence, energy and spirit of teamwork.
With the certification clearance level of ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 1400; Pelicans has successful operating unit of Pelicans Automobiles UK which deals in the automotive industry with large extends of interest and progress in the marketplace. Pelicans Automobiles provides the customers with specialized and customized automobile designs, prints, wallets of documents, with focused point of sale materials and items.
Pelicans Automobiles UK is ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 1400 which helps it in reducing the waste produced by the company and assists in minimizing the pollution affects while restoring and practicing the recycling and waste management activities within the organization.
Future Aspects & Recommendations
The state on which we are standing right now is revolutionary. Everyday, changes occurs in almost every field. It also goes for the procedure of waste management. Waste management is perfect for the healthy environment and human lifestyle structure but has certain recommendations which are needed to be followed for a better prosperous future. These recommendations are listed in the following:
- More and more people should be informed and educated about the hazardous affects of pollution and waste generation
- The governments, companies and groups must give prioritize focus on the safeguarding aspects of the waste management
- The governments of different countries should help the companies and people who try to reduce the increasing pollution ratio and set up new projects for proper waste management plants
- Recycling industries and enterprises should be promoted with enthusiasm
- Use of plastic based products and plastic packaging should be reduced in order to promote recycling
The information provided in this chapter concludes the entire dissertation that waste management plays vital role in managing the health of people and environment around. The tremendous increase in the technology field surely enhanced the lifestyle of the human being, but on the other side it has created some major problems for the mankind to handle and one of the most important issues to be covered and controlled is waste management. Waste management not only treats the produced waste and disposes it, but it also helps in producing recycled products so that the amount of produced waste cold be controlled to some extends. Waste management is very important for present age because the present rate of pollution and waste being produced has spontaneously affected the environment and condition of quality of air, water and soil, along with several other natural resources.
The esteem company used for the main case study in this dissertation is Pelicans Manufacturing Corporation Ltd which also helps in proper waste management and assists in minimizing the hazardous affects of pollution and waste production while restoring and practicing the methods of recycling and other waste management activities within the organizational structure.
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