Linguistics & Literature

“The Effects of Foreign Language Anxiety on EFL Learners” by Rassaei

Research in language learning and acquisition is a significant part of applied linguistics. Foreign language anxiety is among the most popular subjects of study in this field since it affects language learners’ attitudes and progress. A study by Rassaei (2015) focused on the impact of oral corrective feedback on L2...

ELF in Saudi Higher Education: The Challenges of ELF Implementation

Introduction The normalization of English as the anticipated lingua franca in the context of the Saudi higher education is an essential topic that has warranted further discussion from an academic standpoint. Although the implementation of English as a lingua franca (ELF) in the Saudi academic environment might be met with...

Farsi Language Classrooms: Varieties of English

Introduction Farsi language which is also referred to as Persian language is defined as the type of language that is commonly used by many people from Middle Eastern countries such as Iran, Pakistan, Iraq and Afghanistan. Iranian students are taught through the use of Farsi or the Persian language in...

Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by Kuwaiti Students

Introduction Background of the study This study aims to provide substantial contribution to some applied and theoretical domains of the Second Language (L2) learning and teaching by investigating what the current Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLS) practiced by second language learners in Kuwait across genders and a range of educational levels...

The Difference in Communication Between Older People and Peers

Introduction The modern world, due to the advancements in technology, offers people an array of means to communicate with one another and convey ideas to the person to whom the message is addressed. Language is the most essential component of communication, and the quality of the language used is measured...

“The Deserted Village” Poem by Oliver Goldsmith

Summary This paper develops the argument that the poem The Deserted Village by 18th century British poet Oliver Goldsmith is neither a political tract nor a socio-political statement that seeks revolutionary changes but a work of art. As a pastoral poem, it is a valuable specimen of 18th century English...

Book Review: Energy and Global Climate Change

Tombstone I was interested in a book on an environmental issue concerning sustainability and energy. I found the book and purchased it online. The author of the book is a well-known environmentalist, Anilla Cherian. The most relevant data concerning the author can be formulated as follows: Cherian holds her master’s...

“The Twenty Years’ Crisis” by Edward Hallett Carr

Introduction The field of international relations has been evolving since the emergence of new philosophies and theories in the 20th century. The emergence of new philosophies and theories in political circles took a discourse process where realists and utopians differed in the manner in which they perceived international relations. Differences...

Perspectives and Attitudes of Multicultural English Language Teachers

At a time when globalization is becoming the centre stage in affecting people’s social and developmental purposes, teaching English language to multicultural student especially the disengaged remains a major problem that affects the attitudes of teachers. This paper offers a clear insight of the methodology that was applied by the...

Stevenson’s “Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde” Analysis

Introduction It is often the case that an interpretation of the story “the Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde” focuses on the nature of good and evil and the ability of a person to be just as evil as they are good; yet, such an examination merely scratches...

“Brother I’m Dying” by Edwidge Danticat

Book Summary Brother, I’m Dying is Edwidge Danticat’s memoir about her family’s history in Haiti and the United States. The story revolves around Danticat’s father, her brother and an uncle, Joseph. On one early morning on July 2004, Danticat finds out that she is pregnant, on that same day her...

Portuguese Concept of Saudade Prototype Approach

Introduction Felix Neto and Etienne Mullet researched the applicability of Roche’s Prototype Theory in the understanding of the Portuguese concept of Saudade. They divided the research into four stages, each with its activities. They used single students from Oporto University as the main participants. The participants gave their perspectives on...

“Ballad of Mulan” Song & “Lady General Hua Mu-lan” Film

Introduction One of the reasons why the Ballad of Mulan (often translated as the Poem of Mullah) is being commonly referred to, as such, that represents a high literary value, is that the themes and motifs, contained in it, are discursively universal. That is, they are capable of appealing to...

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Spread of English as a Global Language

Introduction There can be few doubts that, as of today, the process of English language being recognized by more and more people, as the only universal medium of international communication, has attained an unstoppable momentum. The reason for this is quite apparent – this process appears to be the one...

The Winner’s Curse Paradox

Introduction Contradictions and questionable paradoxes tend to occur in the decision-making of the organizations. In the context of the presented case, it is vital to portray the fact that logical and rational decisions have a tendency to have an adverse effect on the processes while having a destructive nature within...

The Effects of Code-Switching on the Acquisition of Second Language Vocabulary

Introduction and literature review Code-switching can be defined as the simultaneous use of several languages (Macaro, 2005, p 63). This phenomenon is frequently observed in multilingual communities. There is an ongoing debate among scholars and educators about its effects on the acquisition of a second language. Many scholars argue that...

Middlemarch by George Eliot

Introduction Nowadays, it became a commonplace practice among critics to refer to the 1872 novel Middlemarch by George Eliot as such that continues to represent much literary value even today. In its turn, this can be explained by the fact that despite having been written in the late 1800s, the...

Discourse Particles in Language Analysis

Summary of the Article The article of Rieschild (2011) is dedicated to the analysis of the connections between the notion of discourse particles and the socio-cultural context of language usage. The present article also refers to the difficulties in translating discourse markers in semantically different languages; in case of Rieschild...

Applied Linguistics: Term Definition

Article Summary The article of Schourup (2001) is dedicated to the analysis of the discourse marker ‘now’ in the modern discourse analysis. The author uses the traditional coherence-based model for the assessment of the semantic and discourse features that ‘now’ make acquire in the linguistic instances depending on the context...

Analysis of “Variables in Second Language Attrition”

Introduction David Stringer and Kathleen Bardovi-Harlig are part of the faculty in Indiana University. They have specialized in the Department of Second Language Studies and have written several articles together. According to Stringer, his primary area of focus is concerned with the question of how common elements of meaning shape...

Applied Psycholinguistics Review

Introduction The authors of this article discussed how English as a foreign language (EFL) has been longitudinally examined for three times. The study examined the effect of L1 literacy on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy and EFL spelling. L1 literacy skills were done on fourth grade students....

Multilingual Code-Switching

Introduction The purpose of this critical writing assignment will be to review Virginia Unamuno’s journal article on the multilingual switch in peer classroom interactions. Unamuno mainly focuses on the aspect of code-switching from conversation analysis and sociolinguistic perspectives during her examination of the various interactions that take place between 10...

Multilingualism, Sociolinguistics, and Theories of Linguistic Form

Introduction In this article, Rajeendra Singh looks at multilingualism and sociolinguistics keenly in an effort to prescribe a new theory of linguistic form. The author begins with a critique of various arguments for monolingualism and finds it a ‘fallacy’ of sorts. Instead he calls for the development of a theory...

Changes in Language Learning Beliefs as a Result of Study Abroad

Introduction Students travel abroad to further their studies and get further training. This is an opportunity for them to learn the second language and its culture. They acquire the second language through speaking and interacting with native speakers of the second language. The authors of the article Changes in Language...

Importance of Language in Society

Introduction Scholars and analysts in the linguistics field have for the longest time admitted that language is a social construct in society (Creese et al, 2011). However, it is not yet clear what constitutes any given language, given the fact that several variables overlap to this end. Communities use language...

Code-Switching by English as a Foreign Language Teachers

Introduction Taiwan is comprised of a vibrant and highly integrated English language program throughout its secondary and post-secondary education programs. Although there are a significant number of native English language speakers who teach within both systems, the vast majority of the nation’s English as a Foreign Language or EFL instructors...

Walter Benjamin & Ezra Pound: Translation Theories of the 20th Century

Introduction The power of communication is probably one of the most critical wealth among human beings since it has helped in passing traditions from one generation to the next and in the transfer of day to day information across the world. One may wonder how works of literature and scholarship...

Superiority of Native Language in the Classroom

Abstract This paper analyzes the performance of students who use English as a foreign language as well as Bangla as a native language in Bangladesh. According to a survey conducted among teachers and students, it was concluded that language can adversely affect the performance of learners in all levels of...

“Unlearning Church” by Michael Slaughter Critique

Introduction Churches have doctrines that define how activities are conducted. This has been carried on for years and is considered a predictable culture. Churches have therefore depended on tradition for constancy that guarantees continuity. Change that welcomes innovativeness and passion is not easily welcomed. Michael Slaughter wrote a book that...

Shakespeare: Fading Away

Abstract Shakespeare’s literal works are characterized by intricate or hidden meanings, complex vocabulary, and elaborative imagery. The type of writing employed by Shakespeare presents enormous challenges to present-day English readers; it is very difficult for modern readers to extract and understand his works. The inherent difficulties are the reason why...

The Era of Jazz in Fitzgerald’s Novels

Introduction ‘This side of paradise’ was written at a time when the jazz age was just beginning; it was thrilling and full of fun. However, the end of this era was characterized by failed expectations. Fitzgerald captured both these extremes impeccably in his two literary pieces by illustrating how those...

Gottman’s “Seven Principles of Making Marriage Work”

Introduction According to John Gottman, emotional intelligence is the key towards the realization of a successful marriage, with the basic argument being that a person who is more in touch with emotions is likely to get along well with other people. Gottman further asserts that emotional intelligence is not acquired...

Vocabulary Problem: Common Teaching Practices

Introduction Writing and speaking are the primary basis of the human language and as such are utilized daily to convey thoughts and ideas between two or more people. Yet what must be understood is that while students are capable of communicating ideas it cannot be stated that all of them...

The Second Language Acquisition

Introduction Second language acquisition occurs as children and adults acquire the second language after being fully acquainted with the first one. This may be slightly different from the acquisition of any two languages by a child at an early age since second language acquisition involves learning an additional language about...

Social Networks Trends for Reducing Language Barriers

Current trends toward globalization and integration have turned the modern world into a single interconnected organism. As borders become more open and nearly transparent, health care professionals face new challenges related to providing services to people who move from foreign countries in their efforts to seek medical care abroad. There...

The Trojan War’s Final Outcome

Background The Trojan War is contained in Greek mythology and is based on a tale that suggests that Paris, the then prince of Troy had traveled to Sparta on a mission to abduct his host’s wife. Unknowingly of Paris’ motives, Menelaus the host gave Paris a royal reception. However, when...

Novels Renaissance Analysis

The foremost reason why novels The Unfortunate Traveller by Thomas Nash, The Life of Gargantua and Pantagruel by Francois Rabelais, and The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia (Old Arcadia) by Philip Sidney are being commonly referred to as such that represent a high literary and philosophical value, is that the themes...

Teaching and Learning of English in Saudi Arabia

Introduction Learning language is a process that occurs when one interacts with other people (Vygotsky, 1978). According to Mattos (2000), second language acquisition is a process in which a learner interacts with people. Vygotsky (1978) reveals that language acquisition occurs through the construction of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)....

Politics and the English Language

Abstract The purpose of this research paper is to establish the extent to which English has diminished in expressing meaning, particularly as used by writers. Orwell maintains that English is on the downhill trend and unfortunately, nothing can be done to salvage the situation. This research will establish the veracity...

The Best Theory and Research-Aligned Article from the Pool of Literature Reviewed

This question attempts to find out the best theory and research-aligned article from the pool of literature reviewed. The articles reviewed in this section are that of Richard Gibb (2009), Gedaa and Kebret (2008), and Simon (2010) on regional integration in Africa. This essay traces the article that has the...

Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law’ by Adrienne Rich

The beginning of the third millennium can be characterized by strengthening of the position of women in the society. Nowadays females play important roles on every level of the contemporary life. However, no more than 50 years ago women only started acknowledging that they could be something more than housekeepers....

English Language and Chinese Students’ Competences

Abstract This study examines the impact of task-based English teaching on Chinese students’ competencies, such as reading comprehension and writing. The mixed-methods approach involving an experimental part and a qualitative part based on interviewing the participants is applied in this study. The procedure for the experimental part was developed giving...

Internet Effect on Essay Writing Differences Among L2 Learners

Introduction This research proposal attempts to explore ways in which the nature of the electronic medium, the internet is affecting second language (L2) essay writing among learners. It is clear that the effects of the internet on learning L2 writing will be momentous and widespread, just like the previous communication...

Translating Arabic Poems Effect to English and Vice Versa

Introduction Present day society continues to enjoy poems. During the historical past, the poems were confined to the local languages. However, the world’s populations combined to form one global community. With the advent of information technology, one can easily retreat a popular poem from the internet. There can be different...

Women in Chekhov’s “The Lady With the Dog”

Women living in the 21st century can enjoy the liberties which equality with men grants. However, even to date there are places where many women have to prove or struggle for their freedoms. Of course, the beginning of the twentieth century was characterized by the opposite situation when only small...

Processing Wh-Dependencies in a Second Language

The processing of wh-dependencies by non-native speakers has been defined and assessed by many scholars. The article Processing Wh-dependencies in a Second Language: a Cross-Modal Priming Study by Claudia Felser and Leah Roberts is aimed at investigating “the real-time processing of wh-dependencies by advanced Greek-speaking learners of English using a...

The Intellectual Life of Alvin Toffler

Introduction People have been dreaming of looking into the future since times immemorial. Alvin Toffler, an American writer and futurist, made an attempt to predict the future development of mankind after thorough analysis of the recent technological changes and their impact on human consciousness. Toffler would figure in history as...

Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers

Introduction Language does not exist in a vacuum. Language is used in human society, for purposes of communication, and hence has meaning. Our discussion in the previous two chapters has been based on form and concerned with the analysis and description of linguistic structure, and we have paid relatively little...

Themes and Symbolism of “Native Son” by Richard Wright

Introduction According to the list of All Time 100 Novels offered by Time critics Lev Grossman and Richard Lacayo, Native Son by Richard Wright should acquire a rightful position among the best novel written in English from 1923 to the present. The novel written by Wright in 1940 has aroused...

Women’s Role in Elizabethan and Jacobean Plays

Introduction The reign of James 1, was characterized by a growing ideological conflict regarding the personality and social role of women. For years, scholars were engaged in tense debates concerning the true nature of women. And the question that has constantly been asked was that, are women naturally good or...

Sociolinguistics. Online Activities and Thinking

Introduction In order to improve the skills in learning, majority of people have opted to use online learning. This is a journey to discover oneself and it assist to test the capacity of an individual to learn. It requires the individual to have inner motivation because one can become discouraged...

Kate Chopin: A Writer Ahead of Her Time

Introduction Kate Chopin was a female writer who stands out from the writers of her time for having addressed issues of women sexuality and conduct. Chopin lived in a period of time where women were expected to behave in a prescribed “proper” manner and their duties where generally limited to...

Frankenstein: The Story of a Monstrous Creation

The story of Frankenstein beholds elements such as secrecy, fears, ambitions, rejection, and thoughts of mere existence. The mixture of emotions and expressions which are quite close to human reality is a masterwork of Mary Shelley. The work had been written in the era of romanticism that made the acceptance...

Landscape in King Solomon’s Mines by Rider Haggard

Introduction Many fictions presented by British writers have used landscape as a theme that has a major role in the historical perspective of the people, especially Africans. In this dimension, it is critical to note that landscape represents more than a description of objective nature. It’s a way of viewing...

The Rosetta Stone Language Program Increase Second Language Acquisition

The process of acquisition English as the second language may be complicated by the ethnic diversity of the learners, depriving the educators of the opportunity to use the method of translation into the child’s mother tongue. Chomksy’s theory of Universal Grammar proved that disregarding the native language of the learner,...

Blended Language Learning

Background The topic of using the blended learning approach has become increasingly interesting for the scholars in the recent decades. The reasons for such conditions include the lack of research on this topic in previous time periods and the permanently growing role of this blended approach in the education of...

Language Choice of Intermarried Families in Japan

Language environment choice of bilingual families Although many children acquire one language at a time, children’s exposure to more than one language in their primary language acquisition has for centuries been the norm in many parts of the world. In particular, the Western worlds, greater mobility of people, and consequent...

“Fear and Loathing” in Las Vagas and “Fur and Loathing” in Los Vagas

Introduction This essay deals with the strange phenomenon being detected on the surface of a discursive layer presented in two quite contradictive “pieces of meaning” – the book “Fear and Loathing” by Thompson (Thompson, 1998) and ‘CSI: Crime and Investigation’ TV series “Fur and Loathing” (2000). I was stunned by...

Rwanda Genocide and Role of the United Nations

The autobiographical book “Shake Hands with the Devil. The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda”, written by Romeo Dellaire, describes the events, which took place in this country in 1994, commonly known as Rwanda Genocide. In particular, it explores the underlying causes of this catastrophe and the failure of the United...

“The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” by Thomas Samuel Kuhn

Thomas Samuel Kuhn, an American intellectual is known for his extensive research in the philosophy of science, and his special contribution in developing important notions revolutionized the understanding and study of science after he wrote his best-known book, “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” (SSR) in 1962. In this book, Kuhn...

“Looking Backward: 2000–1887” by Edward Bellamy

Throughout history, mankind has attempted to discover the perfect means of social organization. The problem rests primarily in the fact that fallible human beings must be placed in positions of authority over other persons in order for society to work. This may be considered in the form of governmental organization,...

Conrad’s “Heart of Darkness” and “Apocalypse Now” Film

In Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, the main character Marlow continuously calls into question the modern assumptions that are made by his listeners as well as his readers, blurring the lines between inward and outward, civilized and savage and, most especially, dark and light. The bulk of the book concentrates...

Genre Approach in Teaching of English Writing

Introduction Genre-based approach to teaching English writing is believed to be beneficial for those students who study English as a second foreign language. This paper will consider genre approach in more detail and concentrate on the positive impact of this approach on teaching English writing in Saudi Arabia; the application...

Criticism of the Poem by I. v. Goethe “Ganymede”

The world has remained engrossed over time by the myths and legends of ancient Greece. It would appear that every ancient civilization has its form of mythology, which loosely resembles one another. This fascination has infiltrated art, music, and literature over the centuries in all European civilizations. In Goethe’s case...

“Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” by Mark Twain

How does one define morality? Is it the standards set by society, or is it something that goes deeper than mere social customs to define one’s individual behavior? What happens to the individual who determines for himself whether to adhere to the social custom or the deeper internal sense when...

Locating Shakespeare’s Revisionist Perspective in Henriad

Deconstructing the Tutor Myth In Shakespeare’s time period, Tudor historians projected the authoritarian world they wished to build for themselves onto an imagined medieval past with only sketchy basis in reality when it suited their purposes. Shakespeare’s national story that has its start with Richard II and concludes with Henry...

John Donne’s Poems

Literature has long been acknowledged as not only an amusing past-time for the literate but also as a repository for the cultural, political and religious beliefs of the people who wrote and consumed it. Poetry is no exception to this rule. For example, the English Protestant Reformation that started under...

Comparison of Semantic Analysis Methods

Abstract In recent years, statistical methods have been widely used to analyze various aspects of language. More specifically, semantic analysis has been used to represent words, sentences, documents and other units in some form which conveys their meaning usefully. In this review, I propose to examine various unsupervised and data...

Contemporary British Poetry

Introduction Veronica Forrest-Thomson, Barry MacSweeney and Jeremy Halvard Prynne are an interesting representation of contemporary poets. ‘Contemporary’ is a term that has been used to define the age of modernism and postmodernism. A finer stratification of times will categorize poetic works of poets such as J. H. Prynne, Veronica Forrest...

“Oedipus the King” by Sophocles

The Greek artistic works in terms of cultural aspects are intrinsic and wonderful. The peculiarities of genre form and the performance, as it is, adored viewers much. The culture and the society at most points reflect each other. In other words, artists and creative people of the epoch describe the...

The Savage Detectives by Roberto Bolaño Review

Thesis The novel of one of the greatest Latin American writers “The Savage Detectives” displays a level of intertextual play, formal self-consciousness and standpoint diversity rivaling that of the most admired postmodern American writers, all while proficiently avoiding the stiff and ostentatious academicism to which John Barth and his gangs...

Primo Levi: Holocaust Writing

Introduction Most scholars define the Holocaust as the genocide of about 6 million Jews in various parts of Europe during World War II as key plank of the Nazi (Nationalist Socialist German Workers Party) under Hitler. Actually, the Nazis also persecuted and killed Soviet citizens, ethnic Poles, people with disabilities,...