For teachers in service, effective training is the ability to influence others to work together in the search of organizational success. Effective training and teaching are envisioning what the educational institution must do in order to prosper. Training programs are often used by companies to improve skills and knowledge of employees and improve their productivity. Personal develop plans and programs need effective teaching and support to lead and motivate employees. Teaching style enables a person to be accepted by others. To deal with this problem, many different approaches have been employed in the search for the ways that encompass effective teaching. Giving up on the trait method, critics turned their attention to observing what effective teachers do. Teachers pursue careers to achieve stability, security, relationship with others, personal growth, and ultimately status, prioritizing these goals according to their personal value system. Careers provided opportunities for individuals with potential and determination to aspire toward goals that enabled them to achieve comfortable economic status.
Literature on the topic of training for teachers in service can be divided into two parts, theoretical literature and case studies. In their studies, Anderson and Hoffmeister (2007) concentrate on teaching position in service that involves analysis of needs and expectations and current practices followed by the teacher in service. The situation under analysis suggests that the main problem is the authoritative teaching style followed by the teacher. Dominance and high ego, lack of strategic vision and inability to delegate authority lead performance deficiencies and poor performance of the class. The problem is that poor communication and lack of coordination prevents the class from effective performance and positive outcomes.
Hew and Cheung (2003) state that if the educational establishment is required to develop a project plan, update it as necessary, monitor the progress of the project, compare progress to initial projections taking necessary corrective action to stay on schedule, they can fail because they are not informed about changes and expectations of the classroom teacher. The teachers in service listened to the educational board expectations, made a project proposal to the educational board, discussed /evaluated project targets with the owner, and declared in writing the class commitment to the project. An examination of the task bank for the software development class shows you must operate at the high level.
Hougan (2008), Price (2004), Rutherford (2008) underline that teachers negotiating level in dealings and the other school members. A professional teacher in service will have to be tactful, tolerate others, listen to their concerns, share ideas with teachers in service. in an acceptable manner, and deal constructively with conflict. The main problems need to be addressed are communication and cooperation between the facilitator and teachers in service., delegation of authority and change in teaching style.
Mayo (2001) underlines that training is crucial for professional development and motivation of employees. The training should be based on teaching strategies and training tools which help to motivate, inspire and direct employees during training sessions. Today teachers in service realize that classroom formation is a very natural phenomenon, and that effective teaching techniques dictate that we actually encourage subordinates to work in schools.
Definitions of training
Hougan (2008), sees training as: “a strategic approach to training begins with the relationship between the organization’s mission, strategic agenda, and its HRD needs” (p. 54). The training initiatives often manifest themselves in very cohesive classroom affording greater productivity. The teacher is often referred to as the manager that holds the productive work classroom together. The tighter the classroom is held together, the more productive the classroom should be. Mayo (2001) defines training as: “a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of employees” (p. 43)..To improve the cohesiveness of the work class there are many things the effective teacher should do. Just like team formation, personal conflict between students, earlier on, was also believed to be of no benefit whatsoever to an organization and was to be prevented at any cost. However, we now realize that teachers in service conflict are also inevitable and on some occasions can actually be beneficial to the greater well-being of the organization. While it is still a good course of action to prevent misunderstanding, when it does arise the effective teacher needs to understand the nature and the causes of the conflict and then choose an appropriate action to deal with it. “What training must be in today’s and tomorrow’s organizations is a process that is more holistic, and consistent with an organization’s strategy, so that the strategy is executed better than it would be without the training “(Fulton and Maddock, 1998, p. 54). Effective motivation will help teachers and teachers to improve productivity and ensure effective training. Another facet of transmitting messages, which is as equally important to effective communication as is the selection of the medium, is the direction of the medium. An effective communicator will focus on the desired outcomes of the message and then envision possible consequences to the direction of the message. For example, to accomplish a particular goal, a trainee might be well-advised to communicate the message upwardly into the organization in order to enlist the support of top training. In other situations it may be more prudent to communicate the message downward to one’s employees in order to obtain the feasibility of accomplishing a particular task before approaching top trainings being unprepared for their questions. After the medium and direction of the message have been selected, the sender then transmits the message. Upon receipt of the transmission, the receiver will then begin the image reproduction process. The effective communicator will not allow the communication process to terminate here. He or she will elicit feedback in order to ascertain to what extent the original image transmitted is the image that the receiver reproduced. This processing and reprocessing of feedback is an activity that requires some very well tuned behavior, sensitive skills, and a little more processing time than some teachers are willing to give.
Definition of training for “teachers In service”
Eggen and Kauchak (2004) defines training for teachers in service as “a continuous process linked to all the ways that people are developed: by their job challenges; by their interactions with the people who are in coaching roles with them; by their peers; and by something we call training” (p. 54). To do this, a professional teacher must anticipate the future in order that his or her organization may play a role in that future, rather than being totally subject to it. When envisioning the future, one should attempt to see what new opportunities will be there that will allow their organization to prosper and to grow. Anderson and Hoffmeister (2007): “A common goal of both the district and the university was also to provide teachers with professional development that would improve their understanding of the content that they teach and support improvements in their teaching practice” (p. 193). Though, the extra time spent will pay benefits in time saved later on in not having to correct the problems that arise from ineffective communication. In this script, feedback has been asked for in an indirect way that did not belittle the receiver. In addition, the opportunity to make suggestions enhanced the receiver’s sense of self-worth and provided some valuable new ideas. It obviously took more time on the part of the manager to envision the communication process in his mind, but the probability of success for the project has been dramatically improved. This training program accomplishes at least two main functions. First, it makes teachers more aware of the communication process that, in and of itself, should have some impact on improving communication effectiveness. Second, it allows employees of differing functions and levels to appreciate the variation that occurs in the communication process as one moves across and up the organization.
Reasons of training teacher s in service
The reason for training teachers in service involve a need to deep their professional knowledge and improve their skills in different subjects. The problem is worth solving because it will help to improve communication and performance outcomes. Most of the likes and dislikes, preferences, and displeasures experienced in carrying out particular activities are registered on a subconscious level. Teachers tend to become aware of them only when questioning certain choices and decisions (Anderson and Hoffmeister 2007, 193). To some extent determinations about who we are and how we got that way may be a theory that we test from time to time by trying new things, undertaking new experiences, pushing ourselves to extremes, and in the process affirming or disconfirming theories about ourselves. In the course of growing up, teachers focus on particular interests and content areas. But perhaps more importantly, they develop behavioral styles, preferred ways of functioning, and preferred environments to be in.
The performance deficiencies are that nobody knows obstacles outside the teaches in service control. If problems occur, teachers in service are not ready to solve or prevent them. In some cases, negative consequences follow good performance. It de-motivates employees and brings anxiety and depression. Teachers learn to make numerous other adaptations to such matters as punctuality, dress, impulse control, cordiality, and the like (Banks 2003). Some of these adaptations come naturally, perhaps because of what teachers have grown accustomed to in their families or among their friends (they have passed through the appropriate development stage). Thus, if all their efforts result in negative outcomes, they become passive and inactive. The root causes of performance deficiencies are inadequate teaching style and lack of communication between the team facilitator and teachers in service. This lack of confidence increasingly begets action. Ineffective type of teaching can be explained as follows: aa teacher has unchecked power to hire, order about, punish, and fire the production teachers they supervised (Eggen and Kauchak 2004).
Actually, there were no individual jobs to be analyzed. Instead individuals involved in the development of an advanced software product destined for worldwide distribution were organized into a class, which included not only staff members from the computer educational institution but experts from the user and vendor groups that would eventually use or sell the product (Mayo 2001). This was a project-based class that would be disbanded after the software was developed and unveiled by the head office. Counselees need to be encouraged to recall and describe their previous work-related experiences and personal achievements including those in the current organization if they are employed. The counselor should then summarize and give back these thoughts in a way that helps individuals to gain insight into their behavior and suitability for various work situations. Using the FJA model as a guide, the counselor asks questions about what individuals have done in previous jobs as well as how and why they got to their present job. By encouraging individuals to describe those peak periods when they were stretching their potential beyond present circumstances, the counselor can also uncover intriguing and productive possibilities for future growth (i.e., teacher potential). The task banks in the hands of job-knowledgeable helpers serve as a rich source of information to ground the self-assessment coming out of the career development and coaching interview. Teachers will be better helped to see any gaps between their present skills–functional or adaptive–and those required in the contemplated employment situation. If they wish to grow beyond their present employment situation, task banks for more highly skilled jobs, roles, or class in the organization will be of great help in pointing the way to necessary additional training or experience (Anderson and Hoffmeister 2007, 193).
Knowledge and skills do not have a great impact on the problems and deficiencies because the facilitator is a real expert in his field. Thus, personal characteristics and inability to predict communication problems affect the outcomes and performance. What was once seen as a long, steady progression up an organization’s ladder or professional hierarchy to positions of higher pay and responsibility has become unrealistic for most teachers. Banks (2003) underlines that the career pattern of the future will more likely resemble a web, an interconnected series of lateral moves within and among employers by teachers taking responsibility for themselves as they move between employers. In such an environment, teachers require the personal flexibility and self-insight that can be honed by career development coaching. The reality is that fewer and fewer employers are likely to be of a mind to give it. Without categorically ruling out the helpfulness of psychological tests in the hands of qualified professionals, it is important to note that job analysis allows career counselors to devote more of their very limited time to direct contact with teachers and counselees.
The worth analysis suggest that the solution worth ousts and money because it will help to improve communication and performance outcomes. Also, it will help to reduce number of errors and mistakes made during the project phase. If the class of students will live with the problem, it will have no chance to develop and grow, improve its career progression and performance. According to Hougan (2008) terminate or outplace employees is impossible because this solution will worthier the problem. Training has come to recognize the benefits of sharing information with teachers. In recent years it has implemented this recognition with teachers through quality circles, self-managing classes, training teacher committees, and similar devices to boost productivity, often with salutary results. These efforts fit under the umbrella of kaizen. However, there are numerous reports of situations not measuring up to expectations. One possible explanation is that they were undertaken on a piecemeal basis without fully exploring the system-wide implications of their introduction (Pawan 2003, 119).
Teaching training is required because it will help to change teaching style and improve communication between the teacher and his followers. Price (2004) states that the result reflects the values added to fulfill the objectives, goals, and purpose of the organization. Insofar as the objectives, goals, and purposes of an organization are communicated to teachers, they have a better understanding of what the results of their work mean to the organization. Employee development-related practices can involve career progression and personal development employees. Non-training actions can involve better work design and coordination between the vacillator and class of students. Additionally, training should give teachers access to the vital resources, including money, required to effect the improvements; for example, an anticipated work redesign may require a training program to familiarize teachers with a new technology. (Rutherford 2008, 278)
If the proposed actions are introduced, it will help to improve communication and reduce number of errors and mistakes made during the project development. Sometimes losses can reveal significant training neglect and point to remedial measures. As part of each teacher’s training and induction into the organization, it is essential that he or she be alerted to the potential consequences of error inherent in failure to perform according to training and orientation. Teachers experience their jobs in depth and with an intimacy rarely appreciated by their teachers. After all, jobs are a significant part of teachers’ lives, providing not only a livelihood for them and their families but often also providing the basis for the expression of their potential. As a teacher makes sense of the work and grows in the work situation, he or she modifies the work in ways both large and small to suit personal style and growth needs and to make the work-doing system more productive–most often without the awareness of training. To expect teachers to do any less is to deny their need to express their sense of self and their competency. Unfortunately, teacher efforts to improve the workplace often go unrecognized and unappreciated by training. Even worse, training frequently censures teachers when they redesign their work in ways training has not foreseen. This is not to say that teachers should not be involved in job design (Hew and Cheung 247).
Training program for teachers in service will need effective teaching and training policies to ensure its success and positive outcomes. If too much stress is placed on getting the work done, human motivation will suffer. The main strategies applied to the program will be motivation and inspiring employees, cooperation and support initiatives. If all of the emphasis is placed on teachers satisfaction, then productivity will suffer. Further, a teacher can share this expertise with other teachers and employees, so that the total organization expands and articulates its images of the future in preparation for that future. The effective teacher will reduce the occurrence of these types of unpleasant situations by using strategies and teaching tools to open up the communication channels and airing these differences. During the training program itself, it will be crucial t sustain the interest and show expertise and professionalism of the teacher/manager. The main training strategies required for effective training program implementation are competency, willingness, collaboration, The teachers are aware that many technological advances have been made since the system is installed. Since the teachers realize that making the decision to update the system and actually doing it are two different things, he/she begins to predict how he might go about the process. In this situation, a teacher sees himself helping to prepare a memorandum detailing the decision and the need for it
Anderson, C. R., Hoffmeister, A. M. Knowing and Teaching Middle School
Mathematics: A Professional Development Course for In-Service Teachers. School Science and Mathematics. 107 (5), 2007, 193.
Banks, J. A. Teaching strategies for ethnic studies (3rd ed. ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2003.
Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. Educational psychology: Windows on classrooms. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill, 2004.
Fulton, R. L., Maddock, R. C. Motivation, Emotions, and Teaching : The Silent Side of Training. Quorum Books, 1009.
Hew, Khe Foon, Cheung Wing Sum. Evaluating the participation and quality of thinking of pre-service teachers in an asynchronous online discussion environment: Part I. International Journal of Instructional Media. 30 (3) 2003, 247.
Hougan, E. Road to Teaching: A Guide to Teacher Training, Student Teaching, and Finding a Job. BookSurge Publishing, 2008.
Mayo A. Creating a Training and Development Strategy. London: Institute of Personnel and Development, 2001.
Pawan, F. Online Learning: Patterns of Engagement and Interaction among In-Service Teachers. Language, Learning & Technology. 7 (3), 2003. 119.
Price, A. Human Resource Training in a Business Context, 2nd edition. Thomson Learning, 2004.
Rutherford, S. Earth Science Education Matters! a Master’s Degree Program for In-service Teachers. Journal of Geoscience Education. 56 (5), 2008, 378.