Use of Knowledge Management Based Systems in Project Delivery

Abstract

Background

Improving the quality of PD and ensuring that the objectives of a project are fully accomplished is critical to the functioning of an organization. For this purpose, a well-developed knowledge management system is required. With the adoption of the KMBSs, one will integrate the principles of quality and security into the project and ensure its completion.

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Objectives

The goals of this report are to investigate the effects that KMBSs have on the enhancement of PD as a part of the PM process. For instance, the chances that KMBSs provide for improving the quality of data transfer will be examined. Furthermore, the report will address the problems that KMBSs help to resolve, as well as the obstacles that one is likely to face when integrating KMBSs into the corporate setting. As a result, a framework for promoting the KMBSs-based model for data management within the M context to enhance PD can be developed.

Results

According to the review of the available literature, the use of KMBSs in the PD framework helps to improve the quality of data transfer, causing fewer instances of information loss. As a result, the risks of failing a project are reduced significantly.

Implications

The project outcomes indicate that there is a strong necessity for the introduction of KMBSS into the PM to enhance the PD effects. By using KMBSs in the organizational setting, one is likely to produce a shift in employees’ perception of information management, as well as their roles and responsibilities in the organization, in general. Consequently, KMBSs will allow creating the scenarios in which quality management becomes not only an important stage in PD but also its integral part, thus constituting an element of the corporate philosophy.

Introduction

Background

In project management, the choice of a framework for managing the available information defines the success of implementing the essential objectives and meeting the expected outcomes. The necessity to arrange the existing data to allocate critical resources and distribute them adequately becomes especially urgent in the sectors that are highly competitive, such as the oil and gas industry (Sumbal, Tsui, & See-to 2017). Herein lies the importance of utilizing a suitable information management tool. Knowledge Management Based Systems (KMBSs) as the most recent and innovative method of managing information needs to be recognized as a crucial tool for improving project delivery (PD).

Problem Description

The process of project management (PM) and especially the stage that involves implementing the set objectives require an elaborate use of the available resources. Therefore, obtaining crucial data and using it to execute the decisions made during the process of project planning should be deemed essential. The lack of a solid system for managing data does not allow for expeditious sharing of information and the analysis of the project data, which may ultimately lead to the failure thereof (Whyte, Stasis & Lindkvist 2016). Thus, to develop the system that will allow attaining project goals and deliver the expected outcomes, one should examine the effects of deploying KMBSs in the PM frameworks and determine their impact on PD.

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Purpose

The goal of the paper is to explore the notion of KMBSs and define the impact that they have on PD. Furthermore, strategies for incorporating KMBSs into the PM framework will be studied. Afterward, recommendations for integrating the defined approaches into the MP and especially PD. Thus, one will be able to integrate KMBSs into the PM process effectively and use the opportunities that they provide to the benefit of the project and its stakeholders.

Expected Outcomes

It is believed that the adoption of the KMBSs framework will open a plethora of new possibilities in terms of data management. However, it is also expected that the transfer to the sue of KMBSs in the context of the organizational environment will require launching additional training and a program that will help project participants to adjust to the use of KMBSs as a new tool for data management (Ahern, Leavy & Byrne 2014). Therefore, leadership approaches aimed at assisting participants in the adoption of innovative techniques will be needed.

Literature Review

Knowledge Management as a Concept

KM is an inseparable aspect of MP since the latter involves dealing with a variety of data types and a consistent information flow. By definition, KM is a “set of organizational design and operational principles, processes, organizational structures, applications, and technologies that helps knowledge workers dramatically leverage their creativity and ability to deliver business value” (Quaddus & Woodsie 2015, p. 15). It is also believed to be one of the primary challenges that an organization faces in the realm of the global market during the PM and especially its PD stage due to the necessity to control both internal and external factors. Therefore, KM needs to be seen as a crucial element of any process within an organization since it allows arranging the available data to help managers make company-related decisions with the maximum of factors taken into consideration.

Aligning PM and KM within the context of a particular organization is essential since it enables project managers to allocate corporate resources in a way that maximizes the profits and leads to the rest results possible. Specifically, the emphasis on the use of KM frameworks creates opportunities for addressing the issues such as the efficacy of sharing knowledge within an organization, increasing the problem-solving capabilities of the participants, and integrating innovative information management tools (Orenga-Roglá & Chalmeta 2017). Thus, understanding the underpinnings of KM is crucial for the proper management of the PD part of the PM. According to a recent study, in PM, there are several types of knowledge that can be obtained during the analysis. These include “1) Knowledge of the Technical Solution, 2) Knowledge of the Organizational Solution and 3) Knowledge of the Expected Business Value” (Reich, Gemino & Sauer 2014, p. 590). Each type of knowledge corresponds to a specific objective and a particular desired outcome, which makes KM define the efficacy of the PD process.

Types of Knowledge Management Based Systems (KMBSs)

The efficacy of any PD hinges significantly on the management of the available information, including its location, retrieval, analysis, transfer, and storage. With the rise in the speed of data management caused by the development of innovative and often disruptive technologies, PM processes and especially PD are often challenged due to the need to process an increased amount of incoming data (Ochieng et al. 2018). As a result, the significance of developing a suitable KM strategy that would allow an organization to manipulate its data as fast and effectively as possible has risen exponentially. As Venkatesh and Kalpavalli (2014) explain, “KM has been recognized as a good management tool providing a basis for sharing of information assets and achieving organizational goals” (p. 304). Therefore, the use of a model for prioritizing data storing it, conducting analysis thereof, and sharing it effectively is critical in the context of PM and particularly PD.

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Among common KMBSs that can be used within the context of a particular project, one should name the Mckinsey 7S Model. Providing ample opportunities for strategic management of the project objectives and the data collected by its participants, the Mckinsey 7S Model connects seven key aspects of PM and helps to draw links between the allocation of data within the project and the values by which decision-making within it is driven (Rosenbaum, More & Steane 2018). Thus, the proposed frameworks for handling information allow reducing the threat of information mismanagement and prevent errors that may hamper the progress of a project. The model is particularly important for the PD stage since it helps to prevent the instances of miscalculations and maintain the levels of quality at the required high level to complete the project.

Another KMBS that can be utilized during PM and is likely to lead to highly positive outcomes is the PKM Model. The framework suggests classifying the process of KM into several types depending on the stakeholders that take part in it. As a result, three kinds of KM are identified. These include the KM structures reflecting the relationships between extraneous and internal structures, within internal structures, between individuals and different structures, and among individuals, in general (Wong et al. 2015). The benefits of the described KMBS approach include opportunities for addressing PM and especially PD issues on multiple levels, including individual, organizational, and global ones (Ekambaram et al. 2018). Thus, possible hindrances that project managers may face at different levels of the PD process are located and addressed correspondingly.

Project Delivery: Key Steps and Aspects Thereof

In the scheme of the MP, the PD stage involves enhanced quality control, especially at the stage of implementing the key steps and ensuring the delivery of the expected outcomes. The PD process requires establishing and executing tight control over the performance of the participants to identify possible quality problems and handle them in a timely fashion (Kruckenberg 2015). Therefore, the application of the KMBSs that will help to transfer critical data about possible hindrances will determine the success of removing the identified obstacles and achieving the set goals.

The process of PD is complicated by the introduction of alien elements such as mediators and suppliers. As a result, miscommunications and the following misunderstandings become highly probable in the PD context. For instance, the mismanagement of information caused by the lack of knowledge sharing between participants may cause delays, defects in the end product, and the following rise in target audiences’ dissatisfaction (Marques et al. 2016). Furthermore, the entire project may collapse in case the PD stage is completed based on false or misinterpreted information. As a result, an organization may sustain significant losses unless a coherent tool for information management is integrated into its framework.

It should be noted that a well-thought-out KM system is needed at all levels of PM. However, it is the PD stage at which a project becomes especially vulnerable to extraneous factors (Braglia & Frosolini 2014). Delays in the delivery of the required materials, failure to communicate the project plan to staff members and participants, and the inability to inform involved stakeholders about the risks that they may face during the stage of PD will inevitably lead to a failure (Moreno-Díaz, ‎Pichler & Quesada-Arencibia 2015). The use of KMBSs, in turn, will help to disseminate the data in order to prevent the described scenarios and ensure that appropriate risk management techniques are deployed.

The key aspects of PD are characterized by rigid time constraints, a high volume of data that requires analysis, and the necessity to control quality consistently in order to locate hindrances and minimize the damage that they can cause. Thus, PD is in need of a KM system that will allow dispersing information within the shortest time period possible, store it, and, most importantly, make it available to all participants involved to ensure high awareness rates. Herein lies the importance of using KMBSs as the platform for improving the data analysis.

Use of KMBSs in Project Delivery

The importance of using KBMSs at the PD stage is especially high due to the risks associated with the possible mismanagement of data. With the recent increase in the amount of information that organizations have to process in order to meet project requirements in diverse settings, using an all-embracive framework for processing information is not only necessary but also inevitable. By introducing KBMSs into the PD stage of PM, one will both process the incoming information and generate new data that should be used to deliver a project and manage its completion.

The application of KMBSs in PD can be viewed as the method of arranging and dispersing the existing data to build a sustainable risk management framework. Thus, even in the instances that imply the threat of a failure, exit strategies can be employed to minimize losses and sustain the smallest amount of damage possible (Massingham 2014). Thus, KMBSs should be regarded as the framework for enhancing security during the PD stage and shielding all parties involved in it from possible negative outcomes.

Using KMBSs to Create the Culture of Knowledge Sharing

Among the effects that KM, in general, and KMBSs, in particular, produce on PD, the system of quality standards and corporate principles that define the management of the required data need to be placed at the top of the list. When viewed from the perspective of KM, the concept of exploring opportunities associated with data transfer and dispersion among project participants should be seen as a notion that is larger than an attempt at making data available, instead, it has to be interpreted as the creation of a culture of knowledge sharing (Santoro et al. 2018). As Braglia and Frosolini (2014) specify, KBMSs can be utilized to build the culture of information sharing that will encourage project participants to cultivate an environment in which information will become a valuable asset and a means to achieve sustainable corporate development.

KMBSs, in turn, will help staff members to recognize the value of knowledge sharing and the significance that it has in building a transparent corporate environment. Todorović et al. (2015) insist that “learning from projects represents a unique opportunity for gathering new knowledge and exchanging experiences between teams in an organization” (p. 773). Therefore, KMBSs give managers a unique chance to establish a set of values based on the idea of supporting each other through the consistent exchange of information.

By deploying a KMBS as the platform for managing workplace processes, one will inevitably build the value system based on viewing knowledge as a crucial asset and promoting its sharing across the company. Consequently, the process of managing a project, including its every stage from initiation to PD, will involve an accurate and elaborate collection, assessment, and transfer of data across departments (Wang, Noe & Wang 2014). Thus, the process of PD will be accomplished successfully, with deadlines being met and quality requirements being followed precisely.

Expected Challenges and Tools for Addressing Them

Assuming that KMBSs will salvage any project and make it worthwhile would be an overstatement. Instead, KMBSs should be seen as the framework for maximizing profits and minimizing possible damages in the course of PD. Furthermore, KMBSs also have certain disadvantages that may lead to problems when left unattended (Choy et al. 2018). For example, the need to ensure that all participants of the PD process possess the required technical skills and are capable of managing the knowledge systems integrated into the project is very high.

Results and Their Discussion

KMBSs as the Platform for Project Management

As the overview of the recent studies has demonstrated, KMBSs are likely to cause a rapid increase in the efficacy of PD. Since the specified stage of MP requires especially accurate time management and meticulous quality assurance, the application of KMBSs will help establish the culture of knowledge sharing that will lead to a faster transfer of data within the organizational environment (Donate & de Pablo 2015). The application of KMBSs is also expected to enhance cooperation between departments, affecting the quality of performance by leading to fewer errors during the PD process and increasing the levels of customer satisfaction.

Therefore, KMBSs should be seen as intrinsic elements of PM and especially PD. Allowing one to encompass every aspect of information management, KMBSs help to prevent the instances of delays, production errors, defects in production, and other issues that may affect the quality of the end result (Chumg et al. 2015). Therefore, the application of KMBSs to PD is crucial to the management of possible issues that may occur during the implementation phase (Tsang et al. 2018). Representing a system within which every element of the available information is placed immediately in the designated slot and utilized to maximize profits, KMBSs provide ample opportunities for building an enduring system of PD.

Moreover, KMBSs set the premise for the integration of data management tools into the PD framework by realigning corporate values and altering employees’ perception of knowledge as a notion. Particularly, due to the emphasis on knowledge sharing as the ultimate tool for sustaining the corporate philosophy, KMBSs encourage staff members to share data immediately and ensure that it is dispersed across an organization within the shortest deadline possible (Chumg et al. 2015). As a result, the probability of omitting or mismanaging an important portion of data becomes barely possible, which also increases the chances of successful PD.

Project Delivery and the Application of KMBSs

In regard to PD specifically, KMBSs have to be utilized to enhance the information flow and create a system of shared knowledge to prevent misunderstandings and problems in the implementation of the project. Specifically, the information obtained from third parties, including partners, suppliers, and other stakeholders, will have to be processed with meticulous attention to detail. Thus, the difficulties associated with delays and misconceptions will be avoided.

The adoption of KMBSs is likely to have a vastly positive outcome in terms of PD as a part of PM due to the use of eh shared knowledge principles. Particularly, it is expected that, with the integration of KMBSs into the PM framework, one will enhance the PD process significantly, with fewer defects and greater levels of customer satisfaction (Sumbal, Tsui, & See-to 2017). By incorporating KMBSs into the PD process, one will create the setting in which participants will be bound by the sense of responsibility and the corporate philosophy that will make them meet the quality standards and maintain the process of information management reliable and unceasing.

Since the PD process implies the introduction of monitoring and costs control-related tools, the use of KMBSs will be critical to the successful performance of the project since KMBSs provide opportunities for identifying the information that indicates the probability of expenses and, therefore, allows introducing a cost-efficient strategy into the PD process. By establishing the elements of the KMBSs in the PM setting, one will determine the threats to the effective use of the available resources and determine the possibility of an increase in waste levels. Specifically, by preventing errors that are typically made during PD and implying a rise in waste and defect rates, the KMBSs create additional opportunities for successful PD.

Reinforcing the Positive Implications of KMBSs

Although the very concept of KMBSs suggests that the idea of consistent improvement is incorporated into the values and corporate philosophy of an organization, there are ways of improving success rates for PM. For this purpose, deploying information technology (IT) into the PD process will be required. Moreover, the concept of KMBSS will have to be integrated into the project lifecycle instead of simply introducing KMBSs as the tool for data sharing. The suggested change will lead to a gradual shift in employees’ perception of data sharing and introduce them to the principles of corporate responsibility, loyalty, and integrity that will allow them to accomplish the PD stage with due diligence and quality.

After the essence of KMBSs is incorporated into the PD stage of PM, one will be capable of building the value system geared toward maintaining quality at the required level within the project. As a result, information sharing will be used to ensure that no defects made during the production stage are included in the end product. Moreover, with the use of KMBSs in the PD process, one will create the logistics framework that will help to reduce the number of delays to a minimum due to the accurate use of data and the prevention of misunderstandings.

Negative Effects of KMBSs and the Means of Controlling Them

Among the problems that KMBSs may imply, one should mention the problems associated with non-incremental innovations and the necessity to transform tacit knowledge into explicit and shared one. Indeed, with the introduction of innovative technology that can be described as disruptive, one is likely to disturb the process of project delivery, mainly due to the lack of flexibility in adapting to rapid changes in a particular business context.

Building the Platform for Further Improvements

The current situation concerning the application of KMBSs at the PD stage of PM requires radical changes to improve PD outcomes. The changes in question concern primarily the management of data, which is why it is critical to integrate KMBSs into the framework of PD. For this purpose, several stages of change implementation have to be accomplished.

Introducing change on the organizational level is the first ad the most necessary step to be taken. By setting quality standards and guidelines for staff members, as well as defining the role that KMBSs will play in the PD of PM in the organizational context, managers will establish the standards that employees and project participants will strive to meet. Furthermore, alterations will have to occur at the personal level, which will mean shifting from the traditional perception of information distribution among staff members to the promotion of the culture of knowledge sharing. The described framework will have to provide the platform for further change in the staff’s decision-making. Finally, alterations will be required at the organizational level to shape corporate values so that they reflect the philosophy of knowledge sharing as the cornerstone for the management of a project.

Last but definitely not least, the philosophy of unceasing innovations should be integrated into the corporate framework. By focusing on implementing innovative approaches at every stage of PM, one will be able to ensure that the PD stage will lead to high-quality results. Incorporating innovative solutions and pushing the envelope in technological progress, companies will be capable of enhancing progress and delivering high-quality results during project implementation. As a result, the levels of customer satisfaction will remain consistently high, and the opportunity for delivering expected project results will become increasingly high.

Thus, the adoption of KMBSs as the means of improving PD and enhancing PM efficacy, in general, should be deemed essential. By focusing on the aspects of PD such as information management and shared knowledge, one will be capable of deploying the KMBSs principles successfully and integrating the idea of knowledge sharing as the project philosophy seamlessly into the corporate culture. Thus, the obstacles to PD will be removed successfully from the PM track, with delays caused by data mismanagement being avoided, and defects as the outcome of information misuse being eradicated from the PM system. As a result, PD goals will be accomplished timely and with the required level of quality.

Conclusion

PD as part and parcel of PM requires coordination of actions between a wide range of participants, which, in turn, implies masterful management of all available data. Every participant of the PD process has to be aware of the changes that occur to the relevant processes, as well as have a perfect grasp of their role in the PD framework. Furthermore, the issues associated with logistics, infrastructure, and transportation have to be handled with the instances of delays and misconceptions minimized. Therefore, the adoption of the KMBSs framework is highly recommended as the device for improving the quality of PD and minimizing risks.

The application of KMBSs in the context of PM and especially PD as it’s an essential step in sharing tacit knowledge among staff members and transforming implicit knowledge into tacit one respectively. The identified step will entail a rise in the levels of responsibility and awareness among project participants, improving the project cycle and allowing PD to be accomplished successfully. The integration of innovative informational resources will offer new opportunities for monitoring and supervising PD, whereas project- and customer-oriented qualities in employees’ attitudes will help to make the process of PD consistent. Furthermore, the creation of a community of learning can be built among project participants to encourage the philosophy of unceasing quality improvement in the context of PD and, on a larger scale, PM in general. As a result, the PD stage will be completed with maximum efficiency.

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Appendix A: KMBSs in Project Management (Bell n.d.)

KMBSs in Project Management

Use of Knowledge Management Based Systems in Project Delivery
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